Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 517

Search results for: Gaussian Filtering

517 Parallel Priority Region Approach to Detect Background

Authors: Sallama Athab, Hala Bahjat, Zhang Yinghui

Abstract:

Background detection is essential in video analyses; optimization is often needed in order to achieve real time calculation. Information gathered by dual cameras placed in the front and rear part of an Autonomous Vehicle (AV) is integrated for background detection. In this paper, real time calculation is achieved on the proposed technique by using Priority Regions (PR) and Parallel Processing together where each frame is divided into regions then and each region process is processed in parallel. PR division depends upon driver view limitations. A background detection system is built on the Temporal Difference (TD) and Gaussian Filtering (GF). Temporal Difference and Gaussian Filtering with multi threshold and sigma (weight) value are be based on PR characteristics. The experiment result is prepared on real scene. Comparison of the speed and accuracy with traditional background detection techniques, the effectiveness of PR and parallel processing are also discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Autonomous Vehicle, Background Detection, Dual Camera, Gaussian Filtering, Parallel Processing.

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516 The Evaluation of the Performance of Different Filtering Approaches in Tracking Problem and the Effect of Noise Variance

Authors: Mohammad Javad Mollakazemi, Farhad Asadi, Aref Ghafouri

Abstract:

Performance of different filtering approaches depends on modeling of dynamical system and algorithm structure. For modeling and smoothing the data the evaluation of posterior distribution in different filtering approach should be chosen carefully. In this paper different filtering approaches like filter KALMAN, EKF, UKF, EKS and smoother RTS is simulated in some trajectory tracking of path and accuracy and limitation of these approaches are explained. Then probability of model with different filters is compered and finally the effect of the noise variance to estimation is described with simulations results.

Keywords: Gaussian approximation, KALMAN smoother, Parameter estimation.

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515 Volterra Filtering Techniques for Removal of Gaussian and Mixed Gaussian-Impulse Noise

Authors: M. B. Meenavathi, K. Rajesh

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new class of Volterra series based filters for image enhancement and restoration. Generally the linear filters reduce the noise and cause blurring at the edges. Some nonlinear filters based on median operator or rank operator deal with only impulse noise and fail to cancel the most common Gaussian distributed noise. A class of second order Volterra filters is proposed to optimize the trade-off between noise removal and edge preservation. In this paper, we consider both the Gaussian and mixed Gaussian-impulse noise to test the robustness of the filter. Image enhancement and restoration results using the proposed Volterra filter are found to be superior to those obtained with standard linear and nonlinear filters.

Keywords: Gaussian noise, Image enhancement, Imagerestoration, Linear filters, Nonlinear filters, Volterra series.

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514 Robust Parameter and Scale Factor Estimation in Nonstationary and Impulsive Noise Environment

Authors: Zoran D. Banjac, Branko D. Kovacevic

Abstract:

The problem of FIR system parameter estimation has been considered in the paper. A new robust recursive algorithm for simultaneously estimation of parameters and scale factor of prediction residuals in non-stationary environment corrupted by impulsive noise has been proposed. The performance of derived algorithm has been tested by simulations.

Keywords: Adaptive filtering, Non-Gaussian filtering, Robustestimation, Scale factor estimation.

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513 A Background Subtraction Based Moving Object Detection around the Host Vehicle

Authors: Hyojin Lim, Cuong Nguyen Khac, Ho-Youl Jung

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose moving object detection method which is helpful for driver to safely take his/her car out of parking lot. When moving objects such as motorbikes, pedestrians, the other cars and some obstacles are detected at the rear-side of host vehicle, the proposed algorithm can provide to driver warning. We assume that the host vehicle is just before departure. Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) based background subtraction is basically applied. Pre-processing such as smoothing and post-processing as morphological filtering are added. We examine “which color space has better performance for detection of moving objects?” Three color spaces including RGB, YCbCr, and Y are applied and compared, in terms of detection rate. Through simulation, we prove that RGB space is more suitable for moving object detection based on background subtraction.

Keywords: Gaussian mixture model, background subtraction, Moving object detection, color space, morphological filtering.

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512 A Web Pages Automatic Filtering System

Authors: O. Nouali, A. Saidi, H. Chahrat, A. Krinah, B. Toursel

Abstract:

This article describes a Web pages automatic filtering system. It is an open and dynamic system based on multi agents architecture. This system is built up by a set of agents having each a quite precise filtering task of to carry out (filtering process broken up into several elementary treatments working each one a partial solution). New criteria can be added to the system without stopping its execution or modifying its environment. We want to show applicability and adaptability of the multi-agents approach to the networks information automatic filtering. In practice, most of existing filtering systems are based on modular conception approaches which are limited to centralized applications which role is to resolve static data flow problems. Web pages filtering systems are characterized by a data flow which varies dynamically.

Keywords: Agent, Distributed Artificial Intelligence, Multiagents System, Web pages filtering.

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511 Edge Detection in Low Contrast Images

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh K. Pandey

Abstract:

The edges of low contrast images are not clearly distinguishable to human eye. It is difficult to find the edges and boundaries in it. The present work encompasses a new approach for low contrast images. The Chebyshev polynomial based fractional order filter has been used for filtering operation on an image. The preprocessing has been performed by this filter on the input image. Laplacian of Gaussian method has been applied on preprocessed image for edge detection. The algorithm has been tested on two test images.

Keywords: Chebyshev polynomials, Fractional order differentiator, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) method, Low contrast image.

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510 Multigrid Bilateral Filter

Authors: Zongqing Lu

Abstract:

It has proved that nonlinear diffusion and bilateral filtering (BF) have a closed connection. Early effort and contribution are to find a generalized representation to link them by using adaptive filtering. In this paper a new further relationship between nonlinear diffusion and bilateral filtering is explored which pays more attention to numerical calculus. We give a fresh idea that bilateral filtering can be accelerated by multigrid (MG) scheme which likes the nonlinear diffusion, and show that a bilateral filtering process with large kernel size can be approximated by a nonlinear diffusion process based on full multigrid (FMG) scheme.

Keywords: Bilateral filter, multigrid

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509 An Alternative Method for Generating Almost Infinite Sequence of Gaussian Variables

Authors: Nyah C. Temaneh, F. A. Phiri, E. Ruhunga

Abstract:

Most of the well known methods for generating Gaussian variables require at least one standard uniform distributed value, for each Gaussian variable generated. The length of the random number generator therefore, limits the number of independent Gaussian distributed variables that can be generated meanwhile the statistical solution of complex systems requires a large number of random numbers for their statistical analysis. We propose an alternative simple method of generating almost infinite number of Gaussian distributed variables using a limited number of standard uniform distributed random numbers.

Keywords: Gaussian variable, statistical analysis, simulation ofCommunication Network, Random numbers.

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508 Propagation of Cos-Gaussian Beam in Photorefractive Crystal

Authors: A. Keshavarz

Abstract:

A physical model for guiding the wave in photorefractive media is studied. Propagation of cos-Gaussian beam as the special cases of sinusoidal-Gaussian beams in photorefractive crystal is simulated numerically by the Crank-Nicolson method in one dimension. Results show that the beam profile deforms as the energy transfers from the center to the tails under propagation. This simulation approach is of significant interest for application in optical telecommunication. The results are presented graphically and discussed.

Keywords: Beam propagation, cos-Gaussian beam, Numerical simulation, Photorefractive crystal.

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507 Short-Term Electric Load Forecasting Using Multiple Gaussian Process Models

Authors: Tomohiro Hachino, Hitoshi Takata, Seiji Fukushima, Yasutaka Igarashi

Abstract:

This paper presents a Gaussian process model-based short-term electric load forecasting. The Gaussian process model is a nonparametric model and the output of the model has Gaussian distribution with mean and variance. The multiple Gaussian process models as every hour ahead predictors are used to forecast future electric load demands up to 24 hours ahead in accordance with the direct forecasting approach. The separable least-squares approach that combines the linear least-squares method and genetic algorithm is applied to train these Gaussian process models. Simulation results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed electric load forecasting.

Keywords: Direct method, electric load forecasting, Gaussian process model, genetic algorithm, separable least-squares method.

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506 Puff Noise Detection and Cancellation for Robust Speech Recognition

Authors: Sangjun Park, Jungpyo Hong, Byung-Ok Kang, Yun-keun Lee, Minsoo Hahn

Abstract:

In this paper, an algorithm for detecting and attenuating puff noises frequently generated under the mobile environment is proposed. As a baseline system, puff detection system is designed based on Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), and 39th Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) is extracted as feature parameters. To improve the detection performance, effective acoustic features for puff detection are proposed. In addition, detected puff intervals are attenuated by high-pass filtering. The speech recognition rate was measured for evaluation and confusion matrix and ROC curve are used to confirm the validity of the proposed system.

Keywords: Gaussian mixture model, puff detection and cancellation, speech enhancement.

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505 Frequency Offset Estimation Schemes Based On ML for OFDM Systems in Non-Gaussian Noise Environments

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

In this paper, frequency offset (FO) estimation schemes robust to the non-Gaussian noise environments are proposed for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. First, a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments is proposed, and then, the complexity of the ML estimation scheme is reduced by employing a reduced set of candidate values. In numerical results, it is demonstrated that the proposed schemes provide a significant performance improvement over the conventional estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments while maintaining the performance similar to the estimation performance in Gaussian noise environments.

Keywords: Frequency offset estimation, maximum-likelihood, non-Gaussian noise environment, OFDM, training symbol.

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504 Real-time Tracking in Image Sequences based-on Parameters Updating with Temporal and Spatial Neighborhoods Mixture Gaussian Model

Authors: Hu Haibo, Zhao Hong

Abstract:

Gaussian mixture background model is widely used in moving target detection of the image sequences. However, traditional Gaussian mixture background model usually considers the time continuity of the pixels, and establishes background through statistical distribution of pixels without taking into account the pixels- spatial similarity, which will cause noise, imperfection and other problems. This paper proposes a new Gaussian mixture modeling approach, which combines the color and gradient of the spatial information, and integrates the spatial information of the pixel sequences to establish Gaussian mixture background. The experimental results show that the movement background can be extracted accurately and efficiently, and the algorithm is more robust, and can work in real time in tracking applications.

Keywords: Gaussian mixture model, real-time tracking, sequence image, gradient.

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503 Simulation of Propagation of Cos-Gaussian Beam in Strongly Nonlocal Nonlinear Media Using Paraxial Group Transformation

Authors: A. Keshavarz, Z. Roosta

Abstract:

In this paper, propagation of cos-Gaussian beam in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media has been stimulated by using paraxial group transformation. At first, cos-Gaussian beam, nonlocal nonlinear media, critical power, transfer matrix, and paraxial group transformation are introduced. Then, the propagation of the cos-Gaussian beam in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media is simulated. Results show that beam propagation has periodic structure during self-focusing effect in this case. However, this simple method can be used for investigation of propagation of kinds of beams in ABCD optical media.

Keywords: Paraxial group transformation, nonlocal nonlinear media, Cos-Gaussian beam, ABCD law.

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502 Use of Gaussian-Euclidean Hybrid Function Based Artificial Immune System for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

Authors: Cuneyt Yucelbas, Seral Ozsen, Sule Yucelbas, Gulay Tezel

Abstract:

Due to the fact that there exist only a small number of complex systems in artificial immune system (AIS) that work out nonlinear problems, nonlinear AIS approaches, among the well-known solution techniques, need to be developed. Gaussian function is usually used as similarity estimation in classification problems and pattern recognition. In this study, diagnosis of breast cancer, the second type of the most widespread cancer in women, was performed with different distance calculation functions that euclidean, gaussian and gaussian-euclidean hybrid function in the clonal selection model of classical AIS on Wisconsin Breast Cancer Dataset (WBCD), which was taken from the University of California, Irvine Machine-Learning Repository. We used 3-fold cross validation method to train and test the dataset. According to the results, the maximum test classification accuracy was reported as 97.35% by using of gaussian-euclidean hybrid function for fold-3. Also, mean of test classification accuracies for all of functions were obtained as 94.78%, 94.45% and 95.31% with use of euclidean, gaussian and gaussian-euclidean, respectively. With these results, gaussian-euclidean hybrid function seems to be a potential distance calculation method, and it may be considered as an alternative distance calculation method for hard nonlinear classification problems.

Keywords: Artificial Immune System, Breast Cancer Diagnosis, Euclidean Function, Gaussian Function.

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501 More on Gaussian Quadratures for Fuzzy Functions

Authors: Shu-Xin Miao

Abstract:

In this paper, the Gaussian type quadrature rules for fuzzy functions are discussed. The errors representation and convergence theorems are given. Moreover, four kinds of Gaussian type quadrature rules with error terms for approximate of fuzzy integrals are presented. The present paper complements the theoretical results of the paper by T. Allahviranloo and M. Otadi [T. Allahviranloo, M. Otadi, Gaussian quadratures for approximate of fuzzy integrals, Applied Mathematics and Computation 170 (2005) 874-885]. The obtained results are illustrated by solving some numerical examples.

Keywords: Guassian quadrature rules, fuzzy number, fuzzy integral, fuzzy solution.

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500 A Keyword-Based Filtering Technique of Document-Centric XML using NFA Representation

Authors: Changwoo Byun, Kyounghan Lee, Seog Park

Abstract:

XML is becoming a de facto standard for online data exchange. Existing XML filtering techniques based on a publish/subscribe model are focused on the highly structured data marked up with XML tags. These techniques are efficient in filtering the documents of data-centric XML but are not effective in filtering the element contents of the document-centric XML. In this paper, we propose an extended XPath specification which includes a special matching character '%' used in the LIKE operation of SQL in order to solve the difficulty of writing some queries to adequately filter element contents using the previous XPath specification. We also present a novel technique for filtering a collection of document-centric XMLs, called Pfilter, which is able to exploit the extended XPath specification. We show several performance studies, efficiency and scalability using the multi-query processing time (MQPT).

Keywords: XML Data Stream, Document-centric XML, Filtering Technique, Value-based Predicates.

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499 An Extension of the Kratzel Function and Associated Inverse Gaussian Probability Distribution Occurring in Reliability Theory

Authors: R. K. Saxena, Ravi Saxena

Abstract:

In view of their importance and usefulness in reliability theory and probability distributions, several generalizations of the inverse Gaussian distribution and the Krtzel function are investigated in recent years. This has motivated the authors to introduce and study a new generalization of the inverse Gaussian distribution and the Krtzel function associated with a product of a Bessel function of the third kind )(zKQ and a Z - Fox-Wright generalized hyper geometric function introduced in this paper. The introduced function turns out to be a unified gamma-type function. Its incomplete forms are also discussed. Several properties of this gamma-type function are obtained. By means of this generalized function, we introduce a generalization of inverse Gaussian distribution, which is useful in reliability analysis, diffusion processes, and radio techniques etc. The inverse Gaussian distribution thus introduced also provides a generalization of the Krtzel function. Some basic statistical functions associated with this probability density function, such as moments, the Mellin transform, the moment generating function, the hazard rate function, and the mean residue life function are also obtained.KeywordsFox-Wright function, Inverse Gaussian distribution, Krtzel function & Bessel function of the third kind.

Keywords: Fox-Wright function, Inverse Gaussian distribution, Krtzel function & Bessel function of the third kind.

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498 Image Enhancement Algorithm of Photoacoustic Tomography Using Active Contour Filtering

Authors: Prasannakumar Palaniappan, Dong Ho Shin, Chul Gyu Song

Abstract:

The photoacoustic images are obtained from a custom developed linear array photoacoustic tomography system. The biological specimens are imitated by conducting phantom tests in order to retrieve a fully functional photoacoustic image. The acquired image undergoes the active region based contour filtering to remove the noise and accurately segment the object area for further processing. The universal back projection method is used as the image reconstruction algorithm. The active contour filtering is analyzed by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and comparing it with the other filtering methods.

Keywords: Contour filtering, linear array, photoacoustic tomography, universal back projection.

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497 EMD-Based Signal Noise Reduction

Authors: A.O. Boudraa, J.C. Cexus, Z. Saidi

Abstract:

This paper introduces a new signal denoising based on the Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) framework. The method is a fully data driven approach. Noisy signal is decomposed adaptively into oscillatory components called Intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by means of a process called sifting. The EMD denoising involves filtering or thresholding each IMF and reconstructs the estimated signal using the processed IMFs. The EMD can be combined with a filtering approach or with nonlinear transformation. In this work the Savitzky-Golay filter and shoftthresholding are investigated. For thresholding, IMF samples are shrinked or scaled below a threshold value. The standard deviation of the noise is estimated for every IMF. The threshold is derived for the Gaussian white noise. The method is tested on simulated and real data and compared with averaging, median and wavelet approaches.

Keywords: Empirical mode decomposition, Signal denoisingnonstationary process.

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496 Real-Time Visualization Using GPU-Accelerated Filtering of LiDAR Data

Authors: Sašo Pečnik, Borut Žalik

Abstract:

This paper presents a real-time visualization technique and filtering of classified LiDAR point clouds. The visualization is capable of displaying filtered information organized in layers by the classification attribute saved within LiDAR datasets. We explain the used data structure and data management, which enables real-time presentation of layered LiDAR data. Real-time visualization is achieved with LOD optimization based on the distance from the observer without loss of quality. The filtering process is done in two steps and is entirely executed on the GPU and implemented using programmable shaders.

Keywords: Filtering, graphics, level-of-details, LiDAR, realtime visualization.

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495 Simulation of Sample Paths of Non Gaussian Stationary Random Fields

Authors: Fabrice Poirion, Benedicte Puig

Abstract:

Mathematical justifications are given for a simulation technique of multivariate nonGaussian random processes and fields based on Rosenblatt-s transformation of Gaussian processes. Different types of convergences are given for the approaching sequence. Moreover an original numerical method is proposed in order to solve the functional equation yielding the underlying Gaussian process autocorrelation function.

Keywords: Simulation, nonGaussian, random field, multivariate, stochastic process.

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494 Using Gaussian Process in Wind Power Forecasting

Authors: Hacene Benkhoula, Mohamed Badreddine Benabdella, Hamid Bouzeboudja, Abderrahmane Asraoui

Abstract:

The wind is a random variable difficult to master, for this, we developed a mathematical and statistical methods enable to modeling and forecast wind power. Gaussian Processes (GP) is one of the most widely used families of stochastic processes for modeling dependent data observed over time, or space or time and space. GP is an underlying process formed by unrecognized operator’s uses to solve a problem. The purpose of this paper is to present how to forecast wind power by using the GP. The Gaussian process method for forecasting are presented. To validate the presented approach, a simulation under the MATLAB environment has been given.

Keywords: Forecasting, Gaussian process, modeling, wind power.

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493 Unsupervised Texture Classification and Segmentation

Authors: V.P.Subramanyam Rallabandi, S.K.Sett

Abstract:

An unsupervised classification algorithm is derived by modeling observed data as a mixture of several mutually exclusive classes that are each described by linear combinations of independent non-Gaussian densities. The algorithm estimates the data density in each class by using parametric nonlinear functions that fit to the non-Gaussian structure of the data. This improves classification accuracy compared with standard Gaussian mixture models. When applied to textures, the algorithm can learn basis functions for images that capture the statistically significant structure intrinsic in the images. We apply this technique to the problem of unsupervised texture classification and segmentation.

Keywords: Gaussian Mixture Model, Independent Component Analysis, Segmentation, Unsupervised Classification.

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492 Culturally Enhanced Collaborative Filtering

Authors: Mahboobe Zardosht, Nasser Ghasem-Aghaee

Abstract:

We propose an enhanced collaborative filtering method using Hofstede-s cultural dimensions, calculated for 111 countries. We employ 4 of these dimensions, which are correlated to the costumers- buying behavior, in order to detect users- preferences for items. In addition, several advantages of this method demonstrated for data sparseness and cold-start users, which are important challenges in collaborative filtering. We present experiments using a real dataset, Book Crossing Dataset. Experimental results shows that the proposed algorithm provide significant advantages in terms of improving recommendation quality.

Keywords: Collaborative filtering, Cross-cultural, E-commerce, Recommender systems

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491 Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recover Control Flight Control on a Nonlinear Model

Authors: T. Sanches, K. Bousson

Abstract:

As part of the development of a 4D autopilot system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), i.e. a time-dependent robust trajectory generation and control algorithm, this work addresses the problem of optimal path control based on the flight sensors data output that may be unreliable due to noise on data acquisition and/or transmission under certain circumstances. Although several filtering methods, such as the Kalman-Bucy filter or the Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recover Control (LQG/LTR), are available, the utter complexity of the control system, together with the robustness and reliability required of such a system on a UAV for airworthiness certifiable autonomous flight, required the development of a proper robust filter for a nonlinear system, as a way of further mitigate errors propagation to the control system and improve its ,performance. As such, a nonlinear algorithm based upon the LQG/LTR, is validated through computational simulation testing, is proposed on this paper.

Keywords: Autonomous flight, LQG/LTR, nonlinear state estimator, robust flight control and stability.

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490 A Novel Impulse Detector for Filtering of Highly Corrupted Images

Authors: Umesh Ghanekar

Abstract:

As the performance of the filtering system depends upon the accuracy of the noise detection scheme, in this paper, we present a new scheme for impulse noise detection based on two levels of decision. In this scheme in the first stage we coarsely identify the corrupted pixels and in the second stage we finally decide whether the pixel under consideration is really corrupt or not. The efficacy of the proposed filter has been confirmed by extensive simulations.

Keywords: Impulse detection, noise removal, image filtering.

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489 Tests for Gaussianity of a Stationary Time Series

Authors: Adnan Al-Smadi

Abstract:

One of the primary uses of higher order statistics in signal processing has been for detecting and estimation of non- Gaussian signals in Gaussian noise of unknown covariance. This is motivated by the ability of higher order statistics to suppress additive Gaussian noise. In this paper, several methods to test for non- Gaussianity of a given process are presented. These methods include histogram plot, kurtosis test, and hypothesis testing using cumulants and bispectrum of the available sequence. The hypothesis testing is performed by constructing a statistic to test whether the bispectrum of the given signal is non-zero. A zero bispectrum is not a proof of Gaussianity. Hence, other tests such as the kurtosis test should be employed. Examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the presented methods.

Keywords: Non-Gaussian, bispectrum, kurtosis, hypothesistesting, histogram.

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488 ML-Based Blind Frequency Offset Estimation Schemes for OFDM Systems in Non-Gaussian Noise Environments

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

This paper proposes frequency offset (FO) estimation schemes robust to the non-Gaussian noise for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. A maximum-likelihood (ML) scheme and a low-complexity estimation scheme are proposed by applying the probability density function of the cyclic prefix of OFDM symbols to the ML criterion. From simulation results, it is confirmed that the proposed schemes offer a significant FO estimation performance improvement over the conventional estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments.

Keywords: Frequency offset, cyclic prefix, maximum-likelihood, non-Gaussian noise, OFDM.

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