Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Gantry crane

19 Sway Reduction on Gantry Crane System using Delayed Feedback Signal and PD-type Fuzzy Logic Controller: A Comparative Assessment

Authors: M.A. Ahmad

Abstract:

This paper presents the use of anti-sway angle control approaches for a two-dimensional gantry crane with disturbances effect in the dynamic system. Delayed feedback signal (DFS) and proportional-derivative (PD)-type fuzzy logic controller are the techniques used in this investigation to actively control the sway angle of the rope of gantry crane system. A nonlinear overhead gantry crane system is considered and the dynamic model of the system is derived using the Euler-Lagrange formulation. A complete analysis of simulation results for each technique is presented in time domain and frequency domain respectively. Performances of both controllers are examined in terms of sway angle suppression and disturbances cancellation. Finally, a comparative assessment of the impact of each controller on the system performance is presented and discussed.

Keywords: Gantry crane, anti-sway control, DFS controller, PD-type Fuzzy Logic Controller.

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18 Model Predictive Control of Gantry Crane with Input Nonlinearity Compensation

Authors: Steven W. Su , Hung Nguyen, Rob Jarman, Joe Zhu, David Lowe, Peter McLean, Shoudong Huang, Nghia T. Nguyen, Russell Nicholson, Kaili Weng

Abstract:

This paper proposed a nonlinear model predictive control (MPC) method for the control of gantry crane. One of the main motivations to apply MPC to control gantry crane is based on its ability to handle control constraints for multivariable systems. A pre-compensator is constructed to compensate the input nonlinearity (nonsymmetric dead zone with saturation) by using its inverse function. By well tuning the weighting function matrices, the control system can properly compromise the control between crane position and swing angle. The proposed control algorithm was implemented for the control of gantry crane system in System Control Lab of University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), and achieved desired experimental results.

Keywords: Model Predictive Control, Control constraints, Input nonlinearity compensation, Overhead gantry crane.

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17 Improvement on a CNC Gantry Machine Structure Design for Higher Machining Speed Capability

Authors: Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, S. R. Besharaty, Javad Akbaria, M. Hamdi

Abstract:

The capability of CNC gantry milling machines in manufacturing long components has caused the expanded use of such machines. On the other hand, the machines’ gantry rigidity can reduce under severe loads or vibration during operation. Indeed, the quality of machining is dependent on the machine’s dynamic behavior throughout the operating process. For this reason, these types of machines have always been used widely and are not efficient. Therefore, they can usually be employed for rough machining and may not produce adequate surface finishing. In this paper, a CNC gantry milling machine with the potential to produce good surface finish has been designed and analyzed. The lowest natural frequency of this machine is 202 Hz corresponding to 12000 rpm at all motion amplitudes with a full range of suitable frequency responses. Meanwhile, the maximum deformation under dead loads for the gantry machine is 0.565*m, indicating that this machine tool is capable of producing higher product quality.

Keywords: Finite element, frequency response, gantry design, gantry machine, static and dynamic analysis.

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16 Simulation Modeling for Analysis and Evaluation of the Internal Handling Fleet System at Shahid Rajaee Container Port

Authors: Parham Azimi, Mohammad Reza Ghanbari

Abstract:

The dramatic increasing of sea-freight container transportations and the developing trends for using containers in the multimodal handling systems through the sea, rail, road and land in nowadays market cause general managers of container terminals to face challenges such as increasing demand, competitive situation, new investments and expansion of new activities and need to use new methods to fulfil effective operations both along quayside and within the yard. Among these issues, minimizing the turnaround time of vessels is considered to be the first aim of every container port system. Regarding the complex structure of container ports, this paper presents a simulation model that calculates the number of trucks needed in the Iranian Shahid Rajaee Container Port for handling containers between the berth and the yard. In this research, some important criteria such as vessel turnaround time, gantry crane utilization and truck utilization have been considered. By analyzing the results of the model, it has been shown that increasing the number of trucks to 66 units has a significant effect on the performance indices of the port and can increase the capacity of loading and unloading up to 10.8%.

Keywords: Container Terminal, Gantry Crane Utilization, Simulation, Vessel Turnaround Time

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15 A 15 Minute-Based Approach for Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Assignment

Authors: Hoi-Lam Ma, Sai-Ho Chung

Abstract:

In traditional integrated berth allocation with quay crane assignment models, time dimension is usually assumed in hourly based. However, nowadays, transshipment becomes the main business to many container terminals, especially in Southeast Asia (e.g. Hong Kong and Singapore). In these terminals, vessel arrivals are usually very frequent with small handling volume and very short staying time. Therefore, the traditional hourly-based modeling approach may cause significant berth and quay crane idling, and consequently cannot meet their practical needs. In this connection, a 15-minute-based modeling approach is requested by industrial practitioners. Accordingly, a Three-level Genetic Algorithm (3LGA) with Quay Crane (QC) shifting heuristics is designed to fulfill the research gap. The objective function here is to minimize the total service time. Preliminary numerical results show that the proposed 15-minute-based approach can reduce the berth and QC idling significantly.

Keywords: Transshipment, integrated berth allocation, variable-in-time quay crane assignment, quay crane assignment.

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14 Response of a Bridge Crane during an Earthquake

Authors: F. Fekak, A. Gravouil, M. Brun, B. Depale

Abstract:

During an earthquake, a bridge crane may be subjected to multiple impacts between crane wheels and rail. In order to model such phenomena, a time-history dynamic analysis with a multi-scale approach is performed. The high frequency aspect of the impacts between wheels and rails is taken into account by a Lagrange explicit event-capturing algorithm based on a velocity-impulse formulation to resolve contacts and impacts. An implicit temporal scheme is used for the rest of the structure. The numerical coupling between the implicit and the explicit schemes is achieved with a heterogeneous asynchronous time-integrator.

Keywords: Earthquake, bridge crane, heterogeneous asynchronous time-integrator, impacts.

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13 Enumerative Search for Crane Schedule in Anodizing Operations

Authors: Kanate Pantusavase, Jaramporn Hassamontr

Abstract:

This research aims to develop an algorithm to generate a schedule of multiple cranes that will maximize load throughputs in anodizing operation. The algorithm proposed utilizes an enumerative strategy to search for constant time between successive loads and crane covering range over baths. The computer program developed is able to generate a near-optimal crane schedule within reasonable times, i.e. within 10 minutes. Its results are compared with existing solutions from an aluminum extrusion industry. The program can be used to generate crane schedules for mixed products, thus allowing mixed-model line balancing to improve overall cycle times.

Keywords: Crane scheduling, anodizing operations, cycle time minimization.

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12 Selection of a Tower Crane Using Augmented Reality in Smart Devices

Authors: Myunghoun Jang, Yongkyu Yi

Abstract:

Appropriate selection of lifting equipments for a high-rise building construction project is one of the important factors to the project’s success. Proper position of a tower crane on a construction site is so important to be determined by an expert or an experienced construction manager who draws working range of a tower crane and moves it over a 2D (dimensional) site layout plan. But it is not usual to use 3D CAD, BIM or virtual reality for temporary facility planning or selection of a tower crane. This study proposes a method to use augmented reality to select proper position of tower cranes. An augmented reality prototype is implemented on a smart device to verify the practicability of the proposed method.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, Construction Planning, Site Layout, Temporary Facility Management, Tower Crane

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11 Seismic Behavior of a Jumbo Container Crane in the Low Seismicity Zone Using Time-History Analyses

Authors: Huy Q. Tran, Bac V. Nguyen, Choonghyun Kang, Jungwon Huh

Abstract:

Jumbo container crane is an important part of port structures that needs to be designed properly, even when the port locates in low seismicity zone such as in Korea. In this paper, 30 artificial ground motions derived from the elastic response spectra of Korean Building Code (2005) are used for time history analysis. It is found that the uplift might not occur in this analysis when the crane locates in the low seismic zone. Therefore, a selection of a pinned or a gap element for base supporting has not much effect on the determination of the total base shear. The relationships between the total base shear and peak ground acceleration (PGA) and the relationships between the portal drift and the PGA are proposed in this study.

Keywords: Jumbo container crane, portal drift, time history analysis, total base shear.

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10 A New Approach for Controlling Overhead Traveling Crane Using Rough Controller

Authors: Mazin Z. Othman

Abstract:

This paper presents the idea of a rough controller with application to control the overhead traveling crane system. The structure of such a controller is based on a suggested concept of a fuzzy logic controller. A measure of fuzziness in rough sets is introduced. A comparison between fuzzy logic controller and rough controller has been demonstrated. The results of a simulation comparing the performance of both controllers are shown. From these results we infer that the performance of the proposed rough controller is satisfactory.

Keywords: Accuracy measure, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC), Overhead Traveling Crane (OTC), Rough Set Theory (RST), Roughness measure

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9 Automatic Design Algorithm for the Tower Crane Foundations

Authors: Sungho Lee, Goonjae Lee, Chaeyeon Lim, Sunkuk Kim

Abstract:

Foundation of tower crane serves to ensure stability against vertical and horizontal forces. If foundation stress is not sufficient, tower crane may be subject to overturning, shearing or foundation settlement. Therefore, engineering review of stable support is a highly critical part of foundation design. However, there are not many professionals who can conduct engineering review of tower crane foundation and, if any, they have information only on a small number of cranes in which they have hands-on experience. It is also customary to rely on empirical knowledge and tower crane renter-s recommendations rather than designing foundation on the basis of engineering knowledge. Therefore, a foundation design automation system considering not only lifting conditions but also overturning risk, shearing and vertical force may facilitate production of foolproof foundation design for experts and enable even non-experts to utilize professional knowledge that only experts can access now. This study proposes Automatic Design Algorithm for the Tower Crane Foundations considering load and horizontal force.

Keywords: Tower Crane, Automatic Design, Foundations, Optimization Algorithm, Stability

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8 Pre- and Post-Analyses of Disruptive Quay Crane Scheduling Problem

Authors: K. -H. Yang

Abstract:

In the past, the quay crane operations have been well studied. There were a certain number of scheduling algorithms for quay crane operations, but without considering some nuisance factors that might disrupt the quay crane operations. For example, bad grapples make a crane unable to load or unload containers or a sudden strong breeze stops operations temporarily. Although these disruptive conditions randomly occur, they influence the efficiency of quay crane operations. The disruption is not considered in the operational procedures nor is evaluated in advance for its impacts. This study applies simulation and optimization approaches to develop structures of pre-analysis and post-analysis for the Quay Crane Scheduling Problem to deal with disruptive scenarios for quay crane operation. Numerical experiments are used for demonstrations for the validity of the developed approaches.

Keywords: Disruptive Quay Crane Scheduling, pre-analysis, post-analysis, disruption.

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7 Periodic Topology and Size Optimization Design of Tower Crane Boom

Authors: Wu Qinglong, Zhou Qicai, Xiong Xiaolei, Zhang Richeng

Abstract:

In order to achieve the layout and size optimization of the web members of tower crane boom, a truss topology and cross section size optimization method based on continuum is proposed considering three typical working conditions. Firstly, the optimization model is established by replacing web members with web plates. And the web plates are divided into several sub-domains so that periodic soft kill option (SKO) method can be carried out for topology optimization of the slender boom. After getting the optimized topology of web plates, the optimized layout of web members is formed through extracting the principal stress distribution. Finally, using the web member radius as design variable, the boom compliance as objective and the material volume of the boom as constraint, the cross section size optimization mathematical model is established. The size optimization criterion is deduced from the mathematical model by Lagrange multiplier method and Kuhn-Tucker condition. By comparing the original boom with the optimal boom, it is identified that this optimization method can effectively lighten the boom and improve its performance.

Keywords: Tower crane boom, topology optimization, size optimization, periodic, soft kill option, optimization criterion.

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6 HIV Modelling - Parallel Implementation Strategies

Authors: Dimitri Perrin, Heather J. Ruskin, Martin Crane

Abstract:

We report on the development of a model to understand why the range of experience with respect to HIV infection is so diverse, especially with respect to the latency period. To investigate this, an agent-based approach is used to extract highlevel behaviour which cannot be described analytically from the set of interaction rules at the cellular level. A network of independent matrices mimics the chain of lymph nodes. Dealing with massively multi-agent systems requires major computational effort. However, parallelisation methods are a natural consequence and advantage of the multi-agent approach and, using the MPI library, are here implemented, tested and optimized. Our current focus is on the various implementations of the data transfer across the network. Three communications strategies are proposed and tested, showing that the most efficient approach is communication based on the natural lymph-network connectivity.

Keywords: HIV, Immune modelling, MPI, Parallelisation.

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5 Comparison of Design Procedures for Pre Engineering Buildings (PEB): A Case Study

Authors: G. Sai Kiran , A. Kailasa Rao, R . Pradeep Kumar

Abstract:

In recent years, the introduction of Pre Engineered Building (PEB) concept in the design of structures has helped in optimizing design. The adoptability of PEB in the place of Conventional Steel Building (CSB) design concept resulted in many advantages, including economy and easier fabrication. In this study, an industrial structure (Ware House) is analyzed and designed according to the Indian standards, IS 800-1984, IS 800-2007 and also by referring MBMA-96 and AISC-89. In this study, a structure with length 187m,width 40m,with clear height 8m and having R-Slope 1:10,isconsidered to carry out analysis& design for 2D frames (End frame, frame without crane and frame with 3 module cranes). The economy of the structure is discussed in terms of its weight comparison, between Indian codes (IS800-1984, IS800-2007) & American code (MBMA-96), & between Indian codes (IS800-1984, IS800-2007).

Keywords: AISC, Crane Beam, MBMA, Pre-Engineered-Buildings, Staad Pro, Utilization Ratio.

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4 Lumped Parameter Models for Numerical Simulation of the Dynamic Response of Hoisting Appliances

Authors: Giovanni Incerti, Luigi Solazzi, Candida Petrogalli

Abstract:

This paper describes three lumped parameters models for the study of the dynamic behavior of a boom crane. The models here proposed allows to evaluate the fluctuations of the load arising from the rope and structure elasticity and from the type of the motion command imposed by the winch. A calculation software was developed in order to determine the actual acceleration of the lifted mass and the dynamic overload during the lifting phase. Some application examples are presented, with the aim of showing the correlation between the magnitude of the stress and the type of the employed motion command.

Keywords: Crane, dynamic model, overloading condition, vibration.

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3 Non-Chronological Approach in Crane Girder and Composite Steel Beam Installation: Case Study

Authors: Govindaraj Ramanathan

Abstract:

The time delay and the structural stability are major issues in big size projects due to several factors. Improper planning and poor coordination lead to delay in construction, which sometimes result in reworking or rebuilding. This definitely increases the cost and time of project. This situation stresses the structural engineers to plan out of the limits of contemporary technology utilizing non-chronological approach with creative ideas. One of the strategies to solve this issue is through structural integrity solutions in a cost-effective way. We have faced several problems in a project worth 470 million USD, and one such issue is crane girder installation with composite steel beams. We have applied structural integrity approach with the proper and revised planning schedule to solve the problem efficiently with minimal expenses.

Keywords: Construction management, delay, non-chronological approach, composite beam, structural integrity.

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2 Travel Time Model for Cylinder Type Parking System

Authors: Jing Zhang, Jie Chen

Abstract:

In this paper, we mainly analyze an automated parking system where the storage and retrieval requests are performed by a tower crane. In this parking system, the S/R crane which is located at the middle of the bottom of the cylinder parking area can rotate in both clockwise and counterclockwise and three kinds of movements can be done simultaneously. We develop some mathematical travel time models for the single command cycle under the random storage assignment using the characteristics of this system. Finally, we compare these travel models with discrete case and it is shown that these travel models display a good satisfactory performance.

Keywords: Parking system, travel time model, tower crane.

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1 An Agent-Based Approach to Immune Modelling: Priming Individual Response

Authors: Dimitri Perrin, Heather J. Ruskin, Martin Crane

Abstract:

This study focuses on examining why the range of experience with respect to HIV infection is so diverse, especially in regard to the latency period. An agent-based approach in modelling the infection is used to extract high-level behaviour which cannot be obtained analytically from the set of interaction rules at the cellular level. A prototype model encompasses local variation in baseline properties, contributing to the individual disease experience, and is included in a network which mimics the chain of lymph nodes. The model also accounts for stochastic events such as viral mutations. The size and complexity of the model require major computational effort and parallelisation methods are used.

Keywords: HIV, Immune modelling, Agent-based system, individual response.

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