Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Ferry Fauzi Hermawan

24 Melodic and Temporal Structure of Indonesian Sentences of Sitcom "International Class" Actors: Prosodic Study with Experimental Phonetics Approach

Authors: Tri Sulistyaningtyas, Yani Suryani, Dana Waskita, Linda Handayani Sukaemi, Ferry Fauzi Hermawan

Abstract:

The enthusiasm of foreigners studying the Indonesian language by Foreign Speakers (BIPA) was documented in a sitcom "International Class". Tone and stress when they speak the Indonesian language is unique and different from Indonesian pronunciation. By using the Praat program, this research aims to describe prosodic Indonesian language which is spoken by ‘International Class” actors consisting of Abbas from Nigeria, Lee from Korea, and Kotaro from Japan. Data for the research are taken from the video sitcom "International Class" that aired on Indonesian television. The results of this study revealed that pitch movement that arises when pronouncing Indonesian sentences was up and down gradually, there is also a rise and fall sharply. In terms of stress, respondents tend to contain a lot of stress when pronouncing Indonesian sentences. Meanwhile, in terms of temporal structure, the duration pronouncing Indonesian sentences tends to be longer than that of Indonesian speakers.

Keywords: Melodic structure, temporal structure, prosody, experimental phonetics, international class.

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23 Using Ferry Access Points to Improve the Performance of Message Ferrying in Delay-Tolerant Networks

Authors: Farzana Yasmeen, Md. Nurul Huda, Md. Enamul Haque, Michihiro Aoki, Shigeki Yamada

Abstract:

Delay-Tolerant Networks (DTNs) are sparse, wireless networks where disconnections are common due to host mobility and low node density. The Message Ferrying (MF) scheme is a mobilityassisted paradigm to improve connectivity in DTN-like networks. A ferry or message ferry is a special node in the network which has a per-determined route in the deployed area and relays messages between mobile hosts (MHs) which are intermittently connected. Increased contact opportunities among mobile hosts and the ferry improve the performance of the network, both in terms of message delivery ratio and average end-end delay. However, due to the inherent mobility of mobile hosts and pre-determined periodicity of the message ferry, mobile hosts may often -miss- contact opportunities with a ferry. In this paper, we propose the combination of stationary ferry access points (FAPs) with MF routing to increase contact opportunities between mobile hosts and the MF and consequently improve the performance of the DTN. We also propose several placement models for deploying FAPs on MF routes. We evaluate the performance of the FAP placement models through comprehensive simulation. Our findings show that FAPs do improve the performance of MF-assisted DTNs and symmetric placement of FAPs outperforms other placement strategies.

Keywords: Service infrastructure, delay-tolerant network, messageferry routing, placement models.

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22 Time/Temperature-Dependent Finite Element Model of Laminated Glass Beams

Authors: Alena Zemanová, Jan Zeman, Michal Šejnoha

Abstract:

The polymer foil used for manufacturing of laminated glass members behaves in a viscoelastic manner with temperature dependance. This contribution aims at incorporating the time/temperature-dependent behavior of interlayer to our earlier elastic finite element model for laminated glass beams. The model is based on a refined beam theory: each layer behaves according to the finite-strain shear deformable formulation by Reissner and the adjacent layers are connected via the Lagrange multipliers ensuring the inter-layer compatibility of a laminated unit. The time/temperature-dependent behavior of the interlayer is accounted for by the generalized Maxwell model and by the time-temperature superposition principle due to the Williams, Landel, and Ferry. The resulting system is solved by the Newton method with consistent linearization and the viscoelastic response is determined incrementally by the exponential algorithm. By comparing the model predictions against available experimental data, we demonstrate that the proposed formulation is reliable and accurately reproduces the behavior of the laminated glass units.

Keywords: Laminated glass, finite element method, finite-strain Reissner model, Lagrange multipliers, generalized Maxwell model, Williams-Landel-Ferry equation, Newton method.

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21 Effect of Span 60, Labrasol, and Cholesterol on Labisia pumila Loaded Niosomes Quality

Authors: H. Binti Ya’akob, C. Siew Chin, A. Abd Aziz, I. Ware, M. Fauzi Abd Jalil, N. Rashidah Ahmed, R. Sabtu

Abstract:

Labisia pumila (LP) plant extract has the potential to be applied in cosmeceutical products due to its anti-photoaging properties. The main purpose of this study was to improve transdermal delivery of LP by encapsulating LP in niosomes. Niosomes loaded LPs were prepared by coacervation phase separation method using non-ionic surfactant (Span 60), labrasol, and cholesterol. The optimum formula obtained were Span 60, labrasol and cholesterol at the mole ratio of 6:1:4. At the optimum formulation, the niosome obtained significantly improved the quality of transdermal penetration of LP compared to free LP.

Keywords: Labisia pumila, niosomes, transdermal, quality.

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20 Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Lead Adsorption on Activated Carbon Derived from Mangrove Propagule Waste by Phosphoric Acid Activation

Authors: Widi Astuti, Rizki Agus Hermawan, Hariono Mukti, Nurul Retno Sugiyono

Abstract:

The removal of lead ion (Pb2+) from aqueous solution by activated carbon with phosphoric acid activation employing mangrove propagule as precursor was investigated in a batch adsorption system. Batch studies were carried out to address various experimental parameters including pH and contact time. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were able to describe the adsorption equilibrium, while the pseudo first order and pseudo second order models were used to describe kinetic process of Pb2+ adsorption. The results show that the adsorption data are seen in accordance with Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second order kinetic model.

Keywords: Activated carbon, adsorption, equilibrium, kinetic, Pb2+, mangrove propagule.

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19 Evaluation of Housing Defects in Build-Then- Sell Houses: A Study of Six Residential Areas

Authors: S. N. F. Mohd Fauzi, N. Yusof, N. Zainul Abidin

Abstract:

The Build-Then-Sell (BTS) is a novel system implemented in Malaysia after a number of complaints have been received from buyers in the preceding Sell-Then-Build (STB) system. When the government announced the implementation of the BTS in 2007, proponents of BTS have asserted that the new system will provide houses with low level of defects. Their argument however is not supported by any empirical data. Hence, this study is conducted to evaluate the housing defects in BTS houses. Six BTS residential areas have been surveyed to collect the defects data. Questionnaires were administered directly to the occupiers in each of the BTS houses through door-to-door visits. The result has shown that the rate of defects for the six residential areas is ranged from minor to slight, which only affect the aesthetic value of the house.

Keywords: Build-Then-Sell houses, housing defects, residential areas, occupiers

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18 Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow from a Vertical Cone in a Porous Medium Filled with a Nanofluid

Authors: Ezzah Liana Ahmad Fauzi, Syakila Ahmad, Ioan Pop

Abstract:

The steady mixed convection boundary layer flow from a vertical cone in a porous medium filled with a nanofluid is numerically investigated using different types of nanoparticles as Cu (copper), Al2O3 (alumina) and TiO2 (titania). The boundary value problem is solved by using the shooting technique by reducing it into an ordinary differential equation. Results of interest for the local Nusselt number with various values of the constant mixed convection parameter and nanoparticle volume fraction parameter are evaluated. It is found that dual solutions exist for a certain range of mixed convection parameter.

Keywords: boundary layer, mixed convection, nanofluid, porous medium, vertical cone.

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17 Performance Analysis of Certificateless Signature for IKE Authentication

Authors: Nazrul M. Ahmad, Asrul H. Yaacob, Ridza Fauzi, Alireza Khorram

Abstract:

Elliptic curve-based certificateless signature is slowly gaining attention due to its ability to retain the efficiency of identity-based signature to eliminate the need of certificate management while it does not suffer from inherent private key escrow problem. Generally, cryptosystem based on elliptic curve offers equivalent security strength at smaller key sizes compared to conventional cryptosystem such as RSA which results in faster computations and efficient use of computing power, bandwidth, and storage. This paper proposes to implement certificateless signature based on bilinear pairing to structure the framework of IKE authentication. In this paper, we perform a comparative analysis of certificateless signature scheme with a well-known RSA scheme and also present the experimental results in the context of signing and verification execution times. By generalizing our observations, we discuss the different trade-offs involved in implementing IKE authentication by using certificateless signature.

Keywords: Certificateless signature, IPSec, RSA signature, IKE authentication.

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16 Land Surface Temperature and Biophysical Factors in Urban Planning

Authors: Illyani Ibrahim, Azizan Abu Samah, Rosmadi Fauzi

Abstract:

Land surface temperature (LST) is an important parameter to study in urban climate. The understanding of the influence of biophysical factors could improve the establishment of modeling urban thermal landscape. It is well established that climate hold a great influence on the urban landscape. However, it has been recognize that climate has a low priority in urban planning process, due to the complex nature of its influence. This study will focus on the relatively cloud free Landsat Thematic Mapper image of the study area, acquired on the 2nd March 2006. Correlation analyses were conducted to identify the relationship of LST to the biophysical factors; vegetation indices, impervious surface, and albedo to investigate the variation of LST. We suggest that the results can be considered by the stackholders during decision-making process to create a cooler and comfortable environment in the urban landscape for city dwellers.

Keywords: Biophysical factors, land surface temperature, urban planning.

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15 Measuring the Level of Housing Defects in the Build-Then-Sell Housing Delivery System

Authors: S. N. F. Mohd Fauzi, N. Yusof, N. Zainul Abidin

Abstract:

When the Malaysian government announced the implementation of the Build-Then-Sell (BTS) system in 2007, the proponents of the BTS have argued that the implementation of this new system may provide houses with low defects. However, there has been no empirical data to support their argument. Therefore, this study is conducted to measure the level of housing defects in the BTS housing delivery system. A survey was conducted to the occupiers in six BTS residential areas. The BTS residential areas have been identified through the media and because of the small number of population, all households in the BTS residential areas were required to participate in the study to enable the researcher to collect the data concerning defects. Questionnaire had been employed as the data collection instrument and was distributed to the respondents of this study. The result has shown that the level of defects in the BTS houses is low, as the rate of defects for all elements are slight. Such low level of defects has apparently only affected the aesthetic value of the houses.

Keywords: Build-Then-Sell houses, housing defects, residentialareas, occupiers

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14 Objective Assessment of Psoriasis Lesion Thickness for PASI Scoring using 3D Digital Imaging

Authors: M.H. Ahmad Fadzil, Hurriyatul Fitriyah, Esa Prakasa, Hermawan Nugroho, S.H. Hussein, Azura Mohd. Affandi

Abstract:

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition which affects 2-3% of population around the world. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) is a gold standard to assess psoriasis severity as well as the treatment efficacy. Although a gold standard, PASI is rarely used because it is tedious and complex. In practice, PASI score is determined subjectively by dermatologists, therefore inter and intra variations of assessment are possible to happen even among expert dermatologists. This research develops an algorithm to assess psoriasis lesion for PASI scoring objectively. Focus of this research is thickness assessment as one of PASI four parameters beside area, erythema and scaliness. Psoriasis lesion thickness is measured by averaging the total elevation from lesion base to lesion surface. Thickness values of 122 3D images taken from 39 patients are grouped into 4 PASI thickness score using K-means clustering. Validation on lesion base construction is performed using twelve body curvature models and show good result with coefficient of determinant (R2) is equal to 1.

Keywords: 3D digital imaging, base construction, PASI, psoriasis lesion thickness.

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13 Poverty Measurement by Islamic Institutions

Authors: Mohamed Saladin Abdul Rasool, Arifin Md Salleh, Mohd Fauzi Mohd Harun

Abstract:

Islamic institutions in Malaysia play a variety of socioeconomic roles such as poverty alleviation. To perform this role, these institutions face a major task in identifying the poverty group. Most of these institutions measure and operationalize poverty from the monetary perspective using variables such as income, expenditure or consumption. In practice, most Islamic institutions in Malaysia use the monetary approach in measuring poverty through the conventional Poverty Line Income (PLI) method and recently, the had al kifayah (HAK) method using total necessities of a household from an Islamic perspective. The objective of this paper is to present the PLI and also the HAK method. This micro-data study would highlight the similarities and differences of both the methods.A survey aided by a structured questionnaire was carried out on 260 selected head of households in the state of Selangor. The paper highlights several demographic factors that are associated with the three monetary indicators in the study, namely income, PLI and HAK. In addition, the study found that these monetary variables are significantly related with each other.

Keywords: Poverty line, multidimensional, necessities, monetary

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12 Design of Salbutamol Sulphate Gastroretentive Nanoparticles via Surface Charge Manipulation

Authors: Diky Mudhakir, M. Fauzi Bostanudin, Fiki Firmawan, Rachmat Mauludin

Abstract:

In the present study, development of salbutamol sulphate nanoparticles that adhere to gastric mucus was investigated. Salbutamol sulphate has low bioavailability due to short transit time in gastric. It also has a positive surface charge that provides hurdles to be encapsulated by the positively strong mucoadhesive polymer of chitosan. To overcome the difficulties, the surface charge of active ingredient was modified using several nonionic and anionic stomach-specific polymers. The nanoparticles were prepared using ionotropic gelation technique. The evaluation involved determination of particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release and in vitro mucoadhesion test. Results exhibited that the use of anionic alginate polymer was more satisfactory than that of nonionic polymer. Characteristics of the particles was nano-size, high encapsulation efficiency, fulfilled the drug release requirements and adhesive towards stomach for around 11 hours. This result shows that the salbutamol sulphate nanoparticles can be utilized for improvement its delivery.

Keywords: Mucoadhesive, salbutamol sulphate, nanosize, anionic polymer.

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11 Microbiological Contamination of Outdoor Air in Marine Durres's Harbour, Albania

Authors: Laura Gjyli, Pirro Prifti, Lindita Mukli, Silvana Gjyli, Irida Ikonomi, Jerina Kolitari

Abstract:

Microbial air contamination of the outdoor air in Marine Durres-s Harbour (Durres, Albania) was estimated by sedimentation technique in August-October 2008. The sampling areas were: Ferry Terminal (FT), Fishery Harbor (FH), East Zone (EZ), Fuel Quay (FQ) and Apollonian Beach (AB). The aim of this study was to measure the number of aerobic plate count (mesophilic aerobic bacteria) and fungi (yeasts and molds) in the outdoor air in these areas. The number of colonies that were formed determines the number of cells at the moment in the outdoor air; respectively the number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and yeasts and molds. The measure of bacteria and fungi used is CFU (Colony Forming Units) per Petri dish. It is said that marine harbours are very polluted areas. The aim of study was the definition of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and yeasts and molds number, and the comparison of microorganisms number in air sampling areas.

Keywords: Air microbiology, colony forming units, Marine Durres's Harbour, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, outdoor air, yeasts and molds.

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10 Effect of Humidity on in-Process Crystallization of Lactose during Spray Drying

Authors: Amirali Ebrahimi, T. A. G. Langrish

Abstract:

The effect of various humidities on process yields and degrees of crystallinity for spray-dried powders from spray drying of lactose with humid air in a straight-through system have been studied. It has been suggested by Williams–Landel–Ferry kinetics (WLF) that a higher particle temperature and lower glass-transition temperature would increase the crystallization rate of the particles during the spray-drying process. Freshly humidified air produced by a Buchi-B290 spray dryer as a humidifier attached to the main spray dryer decreased the particle glass-transition temperature (Tg), while allowing the particle temperature (Tp) to reach higher values by using an insulated drying chamber. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and moisture sorption analysis were used to measure the degree of crystallinity for the spray-dried lactose powders. The results showed that higher Tp-Tg, as a result of applying humid air, improved the process yield from 21 ± 4 to 26 ± 2% and crystallinity of the particles by decreasing the latent heat of crystallization from 43 ± 1 to 30 ± 11 J/g and the sorption peak height from 7.3 ± 0.7% to 6 ± 0.7%.

Keywords: Lactose, crystallization, spray drying, humid air.

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9 Optimisation of Intermodal Transport Chain of Supermarkets on Isle of Wight, UK

Authors: Jingya Liu, Yue Wu, Jiabin Luo

Abstract:

This work investigates an intermodal transportation system for delivering goods from a Regional Distribution Centre to supermarkets on the Isle of Wight (IOW) via the port of Southampton or Portsmouth in the UK. We consider this integrated logistics chain as a 3-echelon transportation system. In such a system, there are two types of transport methods used to deliver goods across the Solent Channel: one is accompanied transport, which is used by most supermarkets on the IOW, such as Spar, Lidl and Co-operative food; the other is unaccompanied transport, which is used by Aldi. Five transport scenarios are studied based on different transport modes and ferry routes. The aim is to determine an optimal delivery plan for supermarkets of different business scales on IOW, in order to minimise the total running cost, fuel consumptions and carbon emissions. The problem is modelled as a vehicle routing problem with time windows and solved by genetic algorithm. The computing results suggested that accompanied transport is more cost efficient for small and medium business-scale supermarket chains on IOW, while unaccompanied transport has the potential to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of large business scale supermarket chains.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, intermodal transport system, Isle of Wight, optimization, supermarket.

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8 A New Correlation between SPT and CPT for Various Soils

Authors: Fauzi Jarushi, S. AlKaabim, Paul Cosentino

Abstract:

The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is the most common in situ test for soil investigations. On the other hand, the Cone Penetration Test (CPT) is considered one of the best investigation tools. Due to the fast and accurate results that can be obtained it complaints the SPT in many applications like field explorations, design parameters, and quality control assessments. Many soil index and engineering properties have been correlated to both of SPT and CPT. Various foundation design methods were developed based on the outcome of these tests. Therefore it is vital to correlate these tests to each other so that either one of the tests can be used in the absence of the other, especially for preliminary evaluation and design purposes. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the SPT and CPT for different type of sandy soils in Florida. Data for this research were collected from number of projects sponsored by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT), six sites served as the subject of SPT-CPT correlations. The correlations were established between the cone resistance (qc), sleeve friction (fs) and the uncorrected SPT blow counts (N) for various soils. A positive linear relationship was found between qc, fs and N for various sandy soils. In general, qc versus N showed higher correlation coefficients than fs versus N. qc/N ratios were developed for different soil types and compared to literature values, the results of this research revealed higher ratios than literature values.

Keywords: In situ tests, Correlation, SPT, CPT.

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7 A Conceptual Framework of Scheduled Waste Management in Highway Industry

Authors: Nurul Nadhirah Anuar, Muhammad Fauzi Abdul Ghani

Abstract:

Scheduled waste management is very important in environmental and health aspects. In delivering services, highway industry has been indirectly involved in producing scheduled wastes. This paper aims to define the scheduled waste, to provide a conceptual framework of the scheduled waste management in highway industry, to highlight the effect of improper management of scheduled waste and to encourage future researchers to identify and share the present practice of scheduled waste management in their country. The understanding on effective management of scheduled waste will help the operators of highway industry, the academicians, future researchers, and encourage a friendly environment around the world. The study on scheduled waste management in highway industry is very crucial as highway transverse and run along kilometers crossing the various type of environment, residential and schools. Using Environmental Quality (Scheduled Waste) Regulations 2005 as a guide, this conceptual paper highlight several scheduled wastes produced by highway industry in Malaysia and provide a conceptual framework of scheduled waste management that focused on the highway industry. Understanding on scheduled waste management is vital in order to preserve the environment. Besides that, the waste substances are hazardous to human being. Many diseases have been associated with the improper management of schedule waste such as cancer, throat irritation and respiration problem.

Keywords: Asia Region, Environment, Highway Industry, Scheduled Waste.

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6 CPT Pore Water Pressure Correlations with PDA to Identify Pile Drivability Problem

Authors: Fauzi Jarushi, Paul Cosentino, Edward Kalajian, Hadeel Dekhn

Abstract:

At certain depths during large diameter displacement pile driving, rebound well over 0.25 inches was experienced, followed by a small permanent-set during each hammer blow. High pile rebound (HPR) soils may stop the pile driving and results in a limited pile capacity. In some cases, rebound leads to pile damage, delaying the construction project, and the requiring foundations redesign. HPR was evaluated at seven Florida sites, during driving of square precast, prestressed concrete piles driven into saturated, fine silty to clayey sands and sandy clays. Pile Driving Analyzer (PDA) deflection versus time data recorded during installation, was used to develop correlations between cone penetrometer (CPT) pore-water pressures, pile displacements and rebound. At five sites where piles experienced excessive HPR with minimal set, the pore pressure yielded very high positive values of greater than 20 tsf. However, at the site where the pile rebounded, followed by an acceptable permanent-set, the measured pore pressure ranged between 5 and 20 tsf. The pore pressure exhibited values of less than 5 tsf at the site where no rebound was noticed. In summary, direct correlations between CPTu pore pressure and rebound were produced, allowing identification of soils that produce HPR.

Keywords: CPTu, pore water pressure, pile rebound.

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5 Evaluation of Green Roof System for Green Building Projects in Malaysia

Authors: Muhammad Ashraf Fauzi, Nurhayati Abdul Malek, Jamilah Othman

Abstract:

The implementations of green roof have been widely used in the developed countries such as Germany, United Kingdom, United States and Canada. Green roof have many benefits such as aesthetic and economic value, ecological gain which are optimization of storm water management, urban heat island mitigation and energy conservation. In term of pollution, green roof can control the air and noise pollution in urban cities. The application of green roof in Malaysian building has been studied with the previous work of green roof either in Malaysia or other Asian region as like Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan and several other countries that have similar climate and environment as in Malaysia. These technologies of adapting green roof have been compared to the Green Building Index (GBI) of Malaysian buildings. The study has concentrated on the technical aspect of green roof system having focused on i) waste & recyclable materials ii) types of plants and method of planting and iii) green roof as tool to reduce storm water runoff. The finding of these areas will be compared to the suitability in achieving good practice of the GBI in Malaysia. Results show that most of the method are based on the countries own climate and environment. This suggests that the method of using green roof must adhere to the tropical climate of Malaysia. Suggestion of this research will be viewed in term of the sustainability of the green roof. Further research can be developed to implement the best method and application in Malaysian climate especially in urban cities and township.

Keywords: Green roofs, vegetation, plants, material, stormwater.

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4 Validation on 3D Surface Roughness Algorithm for Measuring Roughness of Psoriasis Lesion

Authors: M.H. Ahmad Fadzil, Esa Prakasa, Hurriyatul Fitriyah, Hermawan Nugroho, Azura Mohd Affandi, S.H. Hussein

Abstract:

Psoriasis is a widespread skin disease affecting up to 2% population with plaque psoriasis accounting to about 80%. It can be identified as a red lesion and for the higher severity the lesion is usually covered with rough scale. Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) scoring is the gold standard method for measuring psoriasis severity. Scaliness is one of PASI parameter that needs to be quantified in PASI scoring. Surface roughness of lesion can be used as a scaliness feature, since existing scale on lesion surface makes the lesion rougher. The dermatologist usually assesses the severity through their tactile sense, therefore direct contact between doctor and patient is required. The problem is the doctor may not assess the lesion objectively. In this paper, a digital image analysis technique is developed to objectively determine the scaliness of the psoriasis lesion and provide the PASI scaliness score. Psoriasis lesion is modelled by a rough surface. The rough surface is created by superimposing a smooth average (curve) surface with a triangular waveform. For roughness determination, a polynomial surface fitting is used to estimate average surface followed by a subtraction between rough and average surface to give elevation surface (surface deviations). Roughness index is calculated by using average roughness equation to the height map matrix. The roughness algorithm has been tested to 444 lesion models. From roughness validation result, only 6 models can not be accepted (percentage error is greater than 10%). These errors occur due the scanned image quality. Roughness algorithm is validated for roughness measurement on abrasive papers at flat surface. The Pearson-s correlation coefficient of grade value (G) of abrasive paper and Ra is -0.9488, its shows there is a strong relation between G and Ra. The algorithm needs to be improved by surface filtering, especially to overcome a problem with noisy data.

Keywords: psoriasis, roughness algorithm, polynomial surfacefitting.

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3 The Threats of Deforestation, Forest Fire, and CO2 Emission toward Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve in Riau, Indonesia

Authors: S. B. Rushayati, R. Meilani, R. Hermawan

Abstract:

A biosphere reserve is developed to create harmony amongst economic development, community development, and environmental protection, through partnership between human and nature. Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve (GSKBB BR) in Riau Province, Indonesia, is unique in that it has peat soil dominating the area, many springs essential for human livelihood, high biodiversity. Furthermore, it is the only biosphere reserve covering privately managed production forest areas. In this research, we aimed at analyzing the threat of deforestation and forest fire, and the potential of CO2 emission at GSKBB BR. We used Landsat image, arcView software, and ERDAS IMAGINE 8.5 Software to conduct spatial analysis of land cover and land use changes, calculated CO2 emission based on emission potential from each land cover and land use type, and exercised simple linear regression to demonstrate the relation between CO2 emission potential and deforestation. The result showed that, beside in the buffer zone and transition area, deforestation also occurred in the core area. Spatial analysis of land cover and land use changes from years 2010, 2012, and 2014 revealed that there were changes of land cover and land use from natural forest and industrial plantation forest to other land use types, such as garden, mixed garden, settlement, paddy fields, burnt areas, and dry agricultural land. Deforestation in core area, particularly at the Giam Siak Kecil Wildlife Reserve and Bukit Batu Wildlife Reserve, occurred in the form of changes from natural forest in to garden, mixed garden, shrubs, swamp shrubs, dry agricultural land, open area, and burnt area. In the buffer zone and transition area, changes also happened, what once swamp forest changed into garden, mixed garden, open area, shrubs, swamp shrubs, and dry agricultural land. Spatial analysis on land cover and land use changes indicated that deforestation rate in the biosphere reserve from 2010 to 2014 had reached 16 119 ha/year. Beside deforestation, threat toward the biosphere reserve area also came from forest fire. The occurrence of forest fire in 2014 had burned 101 723 ha of the area, in which 9 355 ha of core area, and 92 368 ha of buffer zone and transition area. Deforestation and forest fire had increased CO2 emission as much as 24 903 855 ton/year.

Keywords: Biosphere reserve, CO2 emission, deforestation, forest fire.

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2 Time Temperature Dependence of Long Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Manufactured by Direct Long Fiber Thermoplastic Process

Authors: K. A. Weidenmann, M. Grigo, B. Brylka, P. Elsner, T. Böhlke

Abstract:

In order to reduce fuel consumption, the weight of automobiles has to be reduced. Fiber reinforced polymers offer the potential to reach this aim because of their high stiffness to weight ratio. Additionally, the use of fiber reinforced polymers in automotive applications has to allow for an economic large-scale production. In this regard, long fiber reinforced thermoplastics made by direct processing offer both mechanical performance and processability in injection moulding and compression moulding. The work presented in this contribution deals with long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene directly processed in compression moulding (D-LFT). For the use in automotive applications both the temperature and the time dependency of the materials properties have to be investigated to fulfill performance requirements during crash or the demands of service temperatures ranging from -40 °C to 80 °C. To consider both the influence of temperature and time, quasistatic tensile tests have been carried out at different temperatures. These tests have been complemented by high speed tensile tests at different strain rates. As expected, the increase in strain rate results in an increase of the elastic modulus which correlates to an increase of the stiffness with decreasing service temperature. The results are in good accordance with results determined by dynamic mechanical analysis within the range of 0.1 to 100 Hz. The experimental results from different testing methods were grouped and interpreted by using different time temperature shift approaches. In this regard, Williams-Landel-Ferry and Arrhenius approach based on kinetics have been used. As the theoretical shift factor follows an arctan function, an empirical approach was also taken into consideration. It could be shown that this approach describes best the time and temperature superposition for glass fiber reinforced polypropylene manufactured by D-LFT processing.

Keywords: Composite, long fiber reinforced thermoplastics, mechanical properties, dynamic mechanical analysis, time temperature superposition.

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1 Heat Transfer Dependent Vortex Shedding of Thermo-Viscous Shear-Thinning Fluids

Authors: Markus Rütten, Olaf Wünsch

Abstract:

Non-Newtonian fluid properties can change the flow behaviour significantly, its prediction is more difficult when thermal effects come into play. Hence, the focal point of this work is the wake flow behind a heated circular cylinder in the laminar vortex shedding regime for thermo-viscous shear thinning fluids. In the case of isothermal flows of Newtonian fluids the vortex shedding regime is characterised by a distinct Reynolds number and an associated Strouhal number. In the case of thermo-viscous shear thinning fluids the flow regime can significantly change in dependence of the temperature of the viscous wall of the cylinder. The Reynolds number alters locally and, consequentially, the Strouhal number globally. In the present CFD study the temperature dependence of the Reynolds and Strouhal number is investigated for the flow of a Carreau fluid around a heated cylinder. The temperature dependence of the fluid viscosity has been modelled by applying the standard Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation. In the present simulation campaign thermal boundary conditions have been varied over a wide range in order to derive a relation between dimensionless heat transfer, Reynolds and Strouhal number. Together with the shear thinning due to the high shear rates close to the cylinder wall this leads to a significant decrease of viscosity of three orders of magnitude in the nearfield of the cylinder and a reduction of two orders of magnitude in the wake field. Yet the shear thinning effect is able to change the flow topology: a complex K´arm´an vortex street occurs, also revealing distinct characteristic frequencies associated with the dominant and sub-dominant vortices. Heating up the cylinder wall leads to a delayed flow separation and narrower wake flow, giving lesser space for the sequence of counter-rotating vortices. This spatial limitation does not only reduce the amplitude of the oscillating wake flow it also shifts the dominant frequency to higher frequencies, furthermore it damps higher harmonics. Eventually the locally heated wake flow smears out. Eventually, the CFD simulation results of the systematically varied thermal flow parameter study have been used to describe a relation for the main characteristic order parameters.

Keywords: Heat transfer, thermo-viscous fluids, shear thinning, vortex shedding.

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