Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 498

Search results for: Fast Fourier transform (FFT)

318 Frequency Estimation Using Analytic Signal via Wavelet Transform

Authors: Sudipta Majumdar, Akansha Singh

Abstract:

Frequency estimation of a sinusoid in white noise using maximum entropy power spectral estimation has been shown to be very sensitive to initial sinusoidal phase. This paper presents use of wavelet transform to find an analytic signal for frequency estimation using maximum entropy method (MEM) and compared the results with frequency estimation using analytic signal by Hilbert transform method and frequency estimation using real data together with MEM. The presented method shows the improved estimation precision and antinoise performance.

Keywords: Frequency estimation, analytic signal, maximum entropy method, wavelet transform.

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317 On the Prediction of Transmembrane Helical Segments in Membrane Proteins Based on Wavelet Transform

Authors: Yu Bin, Zhang Yan

Abstract:

The prediction of transmembrane helical segments (TMHs) in membrane proteins is an important field in the bioinformatics research. In this paper, a new method based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has been developed to predict the number and location of TMHs in membrane proteins. PDB coded as 1KQG was chosen as an example to describe the prediction of the number and location of TMHs in membrane proteins by using this method. To access the effect of the method, 80 proteins with known 3D-structure from Mptopo database are chosen at random as the test objects (including 325 TMHs), 308 of which can be predicted accurately, the average predicted accuracy is 96.3%. In addition, the above 80 membrane proteins are divided into 13 groups according to their function and type. In particular, the results of the prediction of TMHs of the 13 groups are satisfying.

Keywords: discrete wavelet transform, hydrophobicity, membrane protein, transmembrane helical segments

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316 Numerical Inverse Laplace Transform Using Chebyshev Polynomial

Authors: Vinod Mishra, Dimple Rani

Abstract:

In this paper, numerical approximate Laplace transform inversion algorithm based on Chebyshev polynomial of second kind is developed using odd cosine series. The technique has been tested for three different functions to work efficiently. The illustrations show that the new developed numerical inverse Laplace transform is very much close to the classical analytic inverse Laplace transform.

Keywords: Chebyshev polynomial, Numerical inverse Laplace transform, Odd cosine series.

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315 Reversible, Embedded and Highly Scalable Image Compression System

Authors: Federico Pérez González, Iñaki Goirizelaia Ordorika, Pedro Iriondo Bengoa

Abstract:

In this work a new method for low complexity image coding is presented, that permits different settings and great scalability in the generation of the final bit stream. This coding presents a continuous-tone still image compression system that groups loss and lossless compression making use of finite arithmetic reversible transforms. Both transformation in the space of color and wavelet transformation are reversible. The transformed coefficients are coded by means of a coding system in depending on a subdivision into smaller components (CFDS) similar to the bit importance codification. The subcomponents so obtained are reordered by means of a highly configure alignment system depending on the application that makes possible the re-configure of the elements of the image and obtaining different importance levels from which the bit stream will be generated. The subcomponents of each importance level are coded using a variable length entropy coding system (VBLm) that permits the generation of an embedded bit stream. This bit stream supposes itself a bit stream that codes a compressed still image. However, the use of a packing system on the bit stream after the VBLm allows the realization of a final highly scalable bit stream from a basic image level and one or several improvement levels.

Keywords: Image compression, wavelet transform, highly scalable, reversible transform, embedded, subcomponents.

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314 Elliptical Features Extraction Using Eigen Values of Covariance Matrices, Hough Transform and Raster Scan Algorithms

Authors: J. Prakash, K. Rajesh

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce a new method for elliptical object identification. The proposed method adopts a hybrid scheme which consists of Eigen values of covariance matrices, Circular Hough transform and Bresenham-s raster scan algorithms. In this approach we use the fact that the large Eigen values and small Eigen values of covariance matrices are associated with the major and minor axial lengths of the ellipse. The centre location of the ellipse can be identified using circular Hough transform (CHT). Sparse matrix technique is used to perform CHT. Since sparse matrices squeeze zero elements and contain a small number of nonzero elements they provide an advantage of matrix storage space and computational time. Neighborhood suppression scheme is used to find the valid Hough peaks. The accurate position of circumference pixels is identified using raster scan algorithm which uses the geometrical symmetry property. This method does not require the evaluation of tangents or curvature of edge contours, which are generally very sensitive to noise working conditions. The proposed method has the advantages of small storage, high speed and accuracy in identifying the feature. The new method has been tested on both synthetic and real images. Several experiments have been conducted on various images with considerable background noise to reveal the efficacy and robustness. Experimental results about the accuracy of the proposed method, comparisons with Hough transform and its variants and other tangential based methods are reported.

Keywords: Circular Hough transform, covariance matrix, Eigen values, ellipse detection, raster scan algorithm.

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313 Support Vector Machine Prediction Model of Early-stage Lung Cancer Based on Curvelet Transform to Extract Texture Features of CT Image

Authors: Guo Xiuhua, Sun Tao, Wu Haifeng, He Wen, Liang Zhigang, Zhang Mengxia, Guo Aimin, Wang Wei

Abstract:

Purpose: To explore the use of Curvelet transform to extract texture features of pulmonary nodules in CT image and support vector machine to establish prediction model of small solitary pulmonary nodules in order to promote the ratio of detection and diagnosis of early-stage lung cancer. Methods: 2461 benign or malignant small solitary pulmonary nodules in CT image from 129 patients were collected. Fourteen Curvelet transform textural features were as parameters to establish support vector machine prediction model. Results: Compared with other methods, using 252 texture features as parameters to establish prediction model is more proper. And the classification consistency, sensitivity and specificity for the model are 81.5%, 93.8% and 38.0% respectively. Conclusion: Based on texture features extracted from Curvelet transform, support vector machine prediction model is sensitive to lung cancer, which can promote the rate of diagnosis for early-stage lung cancer to some extent.

Keywords: CT image, Curvelet transform, Small pulmonary nodules, Support vector machines, Texture extraction.

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312 Design Techniques and Implementation of Low Power High-Throughput Discrete Wavelet Transform Tilters for JPEG 2000 Standard

Authors: Grigorios D. Dimitroulakos, N. D. Zervas, N. Sklavos, Costas E. Goutis

Abstract:

In this paper, the implementation of low power, high throughput convolutional filters for the one dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform and its inverse are presented. The analysis filters have already been used for the implementation of a high performance DWT encoder [15] with minimum memory requirements for the JPEG 2000 standard. This paper presents the design techniques and the implementation of the convolutional filters included in the JPEG2000 standard for the forward and inverse DWT for achieving low-power operation, high performance and reduced memory accesses. Moreover, they have the ability of performing progressive computations so as to minimize the buffering between the decomposition and reconstruction phases. The experimental results illustrate the filters- low power high throughput characteristics as well as their memory efficient operation.

Keywords: Discrete Wavelet Transform; JPEG2000 standard; VLSI design; Low Power-Throughput-optimized filters

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311 A Copyright Protection Scheme for Color Images using Secret Sharing and Wavelet Transform

Authors: Shang-Lin Hsieh, Lung-Yao Hsu, I-Ju Tsai

Abstract:

This paper proposes a copyright protection scheme for color images using secret sharing and wavelet transform. The scheme contains two phases: the share image generation phase and the watermark retrieval phase. In the generation phase, the proposed scheme first converts the image into the YCbCr color space and creates a special sampling plane from the color space. Next, the scheme extracts the features from the sampling plane using the discrete wavelet transform. Then, the scheme employs the features and the watermark to generate a principal share image. In the retrieval phase, an expanded watermark is first reconstructed using the features of the suspect image and the principal share image. Next, the scheme reduces the additional noise to obtain the recovered watermark, which is then verified against the original watermark to examine the copyright. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme can resist several attacks such as JPEG compression, blurring, sharpening, noise addition, and cropping. The accuracy rates are all higher than 97%.

Keywords: Color image, copyright protection, discrete wavelet transform, secret sharing, watermarking.

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310 Hyperspectral Imaging and Nonlinear Fukunaga-Koontz Transform Based Food Inspection

Authors: Hamidullah Binol, Abdullah Bal

Abstract:

Nowadays, food safety is a great public concern; therefore, robust and effective techniques are required for detecting the safety situation of goods. Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) is an attractive material for researchers to inspect food quality and safety estimation such as meat quality assessment, automated poultry carcass inspection, quality evaluation of fish, bruise detection of apples, quality analysis and grading of citrus fruits, bruise detection of strawberry, visualization of sugar distribution of melons, measuring ripening of tomatoes, defect detection of pickling cucumber, and classification of wheat kernels. HSI can be used to concurrently collect large amounts of spatial and spectral data on the objects being observed. This technique yields with exceptional detection skills, which otherwise cannot be achieved with either imaging or spectroscopy alone. This paper presents a nonlinear technique based on kernel Fukunaga-Koontz transform (KFKT) for detection of fat content in ground meat using HSI. The KFKT which is the nonlinear version of FKT is one of the most effective techniques for solving problems involving two-pattern nature. The conventional FKT method has been improved with kernel machines for increasing the nonlinear discrimination ability and capturing higher order of statistics of data. The proposed approach in this paper aims to segment the fat content of the ground meat by regarding the fat as target class which is tried to be separated from the remaining classes (as clutter). We have applied the KFKT on visible and nearinfrared (VNIR) hyperspectral images of ground meat to determine fat percentage. The experimental studies indicate that the proposed technique produces high detection performance for fat ratio in ground meat.

Keywords: Food (Ground meat) inspection, Fukunaga-Koontz transform, hyperspectral imaging, kernel methods.

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309 Improvements in Edge Detection Based on Mathematical Morphology and Wavelet Transform using Fuzzy Rules

Authors: Masrour Dowlatabadi, Jalil Shirazi

Abstract:

In this paper, an improved edge detection algorithm based on fuzzy combination of mathematical morphology and wavelet transform is proposed. The combined method is proposed to overcome the limitation of wavelet based edge detection and mathematical morphology based edge detection in noisy images. Experimental results show superiority of the proposed method, as compared to the traditional Prewitt, wavelet based and morphology based edge detection methods. The proposed method is an effective edge detection method for noisy image and keeps clear and continuous edges.

Keywords: Edge detection, Wavelet transform, Mathematical morphology, Fuzzy logic.

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308 Target Detection using Adaptive Progressive Thresholding Based Shifted Phase-Encoded Fringe-Adjusted Joint Transform Correlator

Authors: Inder K. Purohit, M. Nazrul Islam, K. Vijayan Asari, Mohammad A. Karim

Abstract:

A new target detection technique is presented in this paper for the identification of small boats in coastal surveillance. The proposed technique employs an adaptive progressive thresholding (APT) scheme to first process the given input scene to separate any objects present in the scene from the background. The preprocessing step results in an image having only the foreground objects, such as boats, trees and other cluttered regions, and hence reduces the search region for the correlation step significantly. The processed image is then fed to the shifted phase-encoded fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator (SPFJTC) technique which produces single and delta-like correlation peak for a potential target present in the input scene. A post-processing step involves using a peak-to-clutter ratio (PCR) to determine whether the boat in the input scene is authorized or unauthorized. Simulation results are presented to show that the proposed technique can successfully determine the presence of an authorized boat and identify any intruding boat present in the given input scene.

Keywords: Adaptive progressive thresholding, fringe adjusted filters, image segmentation, joint transform correlation, synthetic discriminant function

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307 A Comparative Study of SVM Classifiers and Artificial Neural Networks Application for Rolling Element Bearing Fault Diagnosis using Wavelet Transform Preprocessing

Authors: Commander Sunil Tyagi

Abstract:

Effectiveness of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifiers for fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings are presented in this paper. The characteristic features of vibration signals of rotating driveline that was run in its normal condition and with faults introduced were used as input to ANN and SVM classifiers. Simple statistical features such as standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis etc. of the time-domain vibration signal segments along with peaks of the signal and peak of power spectral density (PSD) are used as features to input the ANN and SVM classifier. The effect of preprocessing of the vibration signal by Discreet Wavelet Transform (DWT) prior to feature extraction is also studied. It is shown from the experimental results that the performance of SVM classifier in identification of bearing condition is better then ANN and pre-processing of vibration signal by DWT enhances the effectiveness of both ANN and SVM classifier

Keywords: ANN, Artificial Intelligence, Fault Diagnosis, Pattern Recognition, Rolling Element Bearing, SVM. Wavelet Transform

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306 Detection and Classification of Power Quality Disturbances Using S-Transform and Wavelet Algorithm

Authors: Mohamed E. Salem Abozaed

Abstract:

Detection and classification of power quality (PQ) disturbances is an important consideration to electrical utilities and many industrial customers so that diagnosis and mitigation of such disturbance can be implemented quickly. S-transform algorithm and continuous wavelet transforms (CWT) are time-frequency algorithms, and both of them are powerful in detection and classification of PQ disturbances. This paper presents detection and classification of PQ disturbances using S-transform and CWT algorithms. The results of detection and classification, provides that S-transform is more accurate in detection and classification for most PQ disturbance than CWT algorithm, where as CWT algorithm more powerful in detection in some disturbances like notching

Keywords: CWT, Disturbances classification, Disturbances detection, Power quality, S-transform.

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305 Hardware Implementation of Local Binary Pattern Based Two-Bit Transform Motion Estimation

Authors: Seda Yavuz, Anıl Çelebi, Aysun Taşyapı Çelebi, Oğuzhan Urhan

Abstract:

Nowadays, demand for using real-time video transmission capable devices is ever-increasing. So, high resolution videos have made efficient video compression techniques an essential component for capturing and transmitting video data. Motion estimation has a critical role in encoding raw video. Hence, various motion estimation methods are introduced to efficiently compress the video. Low bit‑depth representation based motion estimation methods facilitate computation of matching criteria and thus, provide small hardware footprint. In this paper, a hardware implementation of a two-bit transformation based low-complexity motion estimation method using local binary pattern approach is proposed. Image frames are represented in two-bit depth instead of full-depth by making use of the local binary pattern as a binarization approach and the binarization part of the hardware architecture is explained in detail. Experimental results demonstrate the difference between the proposed hardware architecture and the architectures of well-known low-complexity motion estimation methods in terms of important aspects such as resource utilization, energy and power consumption.

Keywords: Binarization, hardware architecture, local binary pattern, motion estimation, two-bit transform.

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304 A Novel Approach for Coin Identification using Eigenvalues of Covariance Matrix, Hough Transform and Raster Scan Algorithms

Authors: J. Prakash, K. Rajesh

Abstract:

In this paper we present a new method for coin identification. The proposed method adopts a hybrid scheme using Eigenvalues of covariance matrix, Circular Hough Transform (CHT) and Bresenham-s circle algorithm. The statistical and geometrical properties of the small and large Eigenvalues of the covariance matrix of a set of edge pixels over a connected region of support are explored for the purpose of circular object detection. Sparse matrix technique is used to perform CHT. Since sparse matrices squeeze zero elements and contain only a small number of non-zero elements, they provide an advantage of matrix storage space and computational time. Neighborhood suppression scheme is used to find the valid Hough peaks. The accurate position of the circumference pixels is identified using Raster scan algorithm which uses geometrical symmetry property. After finding circular objects, the proposed method uses the texture on the surface of the coins called texton, which are unique properties of coins, refers to the fundamental micro structure in generic natural images. This method has been tested on several real world images including coin and non-coin images. The performance is also evaluated based on the noise withstanding capability.

Keywords: Circular Hough Transform, Coin detection, Covariance matrix, Eigenvalues, Raster scan Algorithm, Texton.

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303 A New Algorithm to Stereo Correspondence Using Rank Transform and Morphology Based On Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Razagh Hafezi, Ahmad Keshavarz, Vida Moshfegh

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel algorithm of stereo correspondence with rank transform. In this algorithm we used the genetic algorithm to achieve the accurate disparity map. Genetic algorithms are efficient search methods based on principles of population genetic, i.e. mating, chromosome crossover, gene mutation, and natural selection. Finally morphology is employed to remove the errors and discontinuities.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, morphology, rank transform, stereo correspondence

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302 Wavelet Transform and Support Vector Machine Approach for Fault Location in Power Transmission Line

Authors: V. Malathi, N.S.Marimuthu

Abstract:

This paper presents a wavelet transform and Support Vector Machine (SVM) based algorithm for estimating fault location on transmission lines. The Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used for data pre-processing and this data are used for training and testing SVM. Five types of mother wavelet are used for signal processing to identify a suitable wavelet family that is more appropriate for use in estimating fault location. The results demonstrated the ability of SVM to generalize the situation from the provided patterns and to accurately estimate the location of faults with varying fault resistance.

Keywords: Fault location, support vector machine, supportvector regression, transmission lines, wavelet transform.

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301 Applying Similarity Theory and Hilbert Huang Transform for Estimating the Differences of Pig-s Blood Pressure Signals between Situations of Intestinal Artery Blocking and Unblocking

Authors: Jia-Rong Yeh, Tzu-Yu Lin, Jiann-Shing Shieh, Yun Chen

Abstract:

A mammal-s body can be seen as a blood vessel with complex tunnels. When heart pumps blood periodically, blood runs through blood vessels and rebounds from walls of blood vessels. Blood pressure signals can be measured with complex but periodic patterns. When an artery is clamped during a surgical operation, the spectrum of blood pressure signals will be different from that of normal situation. In this investigation, intestinal artery clamping operations were conducted to a pig for simulating the situation of intestinal blocking during a surgical operation. Similarity theory is a convenient and easy tool to prove that patterns of blood pressure signals of intestinal artery blocking and unblocking are surely different. And, the algorithm of Hilbert Huang Transform can be applied to extract the character parameters of blood pressure pattern. In conclusion, the patterns of blood pressure signals of two different situations, intestinal artery blocking and unblocking, can be distinguished by these character parameters defined in this paper.

Keywords: Blood pressure, spectrum, intestinal artery, similarity theory and Hilbert Huang Transform.

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300 Opponent Color and Curvelet Transform Based Image Retrieval System Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Yesubai Rubavathi Charles, Ravi Ramraj

Abstract:

In order to retrieve images efficiently from a large database, a unique method integrating color and texture features using genetic programming has been proposed. Opponent color histogram which gives shadow, shade, and light intensity invariant property is employed in the proposed framework for extracting color features. For texture feature extraction, fast discrete curvelet transform which captures more orientation information at different scales is incorporated to represent curved like edges. The recent scenario in the issues of image retrieval is to reduce the semantic gap between user’s preference and low level features. To address this concern, genetic algorithm combined with relevance feedback is embedded to reduce semantic gap and retrieve user’s preference images. Extensive and comparative experiments have been conducted to evaluate proposed framework for content based image retrieval on two databases, i.e., COIL-100 and Corel-1000. Experimental results clearly show that the proposed system surpassed other existing systems in terms of precision and recall. The proposed work achieves highest performance with average precision of 88.2% on COIL-100 and 76.3% on Corel, the average recall of 69.9% on COIL and 76.3% on Corel. Thus, the experimental results confirm that the proposed content based image retrieval system architecture attains better solution for image retrieval.

Keywords: Content based image retrieval, Curvelet transform, Genetic algorithm, Opponent color histogram, Relevance feedback.

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299 Oil Debris Signal Detection Based on Integral Transform and Empirical Mode Decomposition

Authors: Chuan Li, Ming Liang

Abstract:

Oil debris signal generated from the inductive oil debris monitor (ODM) is useful information for machine condition monitoring but is often spoiled by background noise. To improve the reliability in machine condition monitoring, the high-fidelity signal has to be recovered from the noisy raw data. Considering that the noise components with large amplitude often have higher frequency than that of the oil debris signal, the integral transform is proposed to enhance the detectability of the oil debris signal. To cancel out the baseline wander resulting from the integral transform, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method is employed to identify the trend components. An optimal reconstruction strategy including both de-trending and de-noising is presented to detect the oil debris signal with less distortion. The proposed approach is applied to detect the oil debris signal in the raw data collected from an experimental setup. The result demonstrates that this approach is able to detect the weak oil debris signal with acceptable distortion from noisy raw data.

Keywords: Integral transform, empirical mode decomposition, oil debris, signal processing, detection.

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298 Enhancement of Pulsed Eddy Current Response Based on Power Spectral Density after Continuous Wavelet Transform Decomposition

Authors: A. Benyahia, M. Zergoug, M. Amir, M. Fodil

Abstract:

The main objective of this work is to enhance the Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) response from the aluminum structure using signal processing. Cracks and metal loss in different structures cause changes in PEC response measurements. In this paper, time-frequency analysis is used to represent PEC response, which generates a large quantity of data and reduce the noise due to measurement. Power Spectral Density (PSD) after Wavelet Decomposition (PSD-WD) is proposed for defect detection. The experimental results demonstrate that the cracks in the surface can be extracted satisfactorily by the proposed methods. The validity of the proposed method is discussed.

Keywords: NDT, pulsed eddy current, continuous wavelet transform, Mexican hat wavelet mother, defect detection, power spectral density.

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297 Detection and Classification of Faults on Parallel Transmission Lines Using Wavelet Transform and Neural Network

Authors: V.S.Kale, S.R.Bhide, P.P.Bedekar, G.V.K.Mohan

Abstract:

The protection of parallel transmission lines has been a challenging task due to mutual coupling between the adjacent circuits of the line. This paper presents a novel scheme for detection and classification of faults on parallel transmission lines. The proposed approach uses combination of wavelet transform and neural network, to solve the problem. While wavelet transform is a powerful mathematical tool which can be employed as a fast and very effective means of analyzing power system transient signals, artificial neural network has a ability to classify non-linear relationship between measured signals by identifying different patterns of the associated signals. The proposed algorithm consists of time-frequency analysis of fault generated transients using wavelet transform, followed by pattern recognition using artificial neural network to identify the type of the fault. MATLAB/Simulink is used to generate fault signals and verify the correctness of the algorithm. The adaptive discrimination scheme is tested by simulating different types of fault and varying fault resistance, fault location and fault inception time, on a given power system model. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme for fault diagnosis is able to classify all the faults on the parallel transmission line rapidly and correctly.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, fault detection and classification, parallel transmission lines, wavelet transform.

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296 A Method for Quality Inspection of Motors by Detecting Abnormal Sound

Authors: Tadatsugu Kitamoto

Abstract:

Recently, a quality of motors is inspected by human ears. In this paper, I propose two systems using a method of speech recognition for automation of the inspection. The first system is based on a method of linear processing which uses K-means and Nearest Neighbor method, and the second is based on a method of non-linear processing which uses neural networks. I used motor sounds in these systems, and I successfully recognize 86.67% of motor sounds in the linear processing system and 97.78% in the non-linear processing system.

Keywords: Acoustical diagnosis, Neural networks, K-means, Short-time Fourier transformation

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295 Motion Parameter Estimation via Dopplerlet-Transform-Based Matched Field Processing

Authors: Hongyan Dai

Abstract:

This work presents a matched field processing (MFP) algorithm based on Dopplerlet transform for estimating the motion parameters of a sound source moving along a straight line and with a constant speed by using a piecewise strategy, which can significantly reduce the computational burden. Monte Carlo simulation results and an experimental result are presented to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm advocated.

Keywords: matched field processing; Dopplerlet transform; motion parameter estimation; piecewise strategy

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294 Application of Fourier Series Based Learning Control on Mechatronic Systems

Authors: Sandra Baßler, Peter Dünow, Mathias Marquardt

Abstract:

A Fourier series based learning control (FSBLC) algorithm for tracking trajectories of mechanical systems with unknown nonlinearities is presented. Two processes are introduced to which the FSBLC with PD controller is applied. One is a simplified service robot capable of climbing stairs due to special wheels and the other is a propeller driven pendulum with nearly the same requirements on control. Additionally to the investigation of learning the feed forward for the desired trajectories some considerations on the implementation of such an algorithm on low cost microcontroller hardware are made. Simulations of the service robot as well as practical experiments on the pendulum show the capability of the used FSBLC algorithm to perform the task of improving control behavior for repetitive task of such mechanical systems.

Keywords: Climbing stairs, FSBLC, ILC, Service robot.

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293 Lifting Wavelet Transform and Singular Values Decomposition for Secure Image Watermarking

Authors: Siraa Ben Ftima, Mourad Talbi, Tahar Ezzedine

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a technique of secure watermarking of grayscale and color images. This technique consists in applying the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) in LWT (Lifting Wavelet Transform) domain in order to insert the watermark image (grayscale) in the host image (grayscale or color image). It also uses signature in the embedding and extraction steps. The technique is applied on a number of grayscale and color images. The performance of this technique is proved by the PSNR (Pick Signal to Noise Ratio), the MSE (Mean Square Error) and the SSIM (structural similarity) computations.

Keywords: Color image, grayscale image, singular values decomposition, lifting wavelet transform, image watermarking, watermark, secure.

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292 CO-OFDM DSP Channel Estimation

Authors: Pranav Ravikumar, Arunabha Bera, Vijay K. Mehra, Anand Kumar

Abstract:

This paper solves the Non Linear Schrodinger Equation using the Split Step Fourier method for modeling an optical fiber. The model generates a complex wave of optical pulses and using the results obtained two graphs namely Loss versus Wavelength and Dispersion versus Wavelength are generated. Taking Chromatic Dispersion and Polarization Mode Dispersion losses into account, the graphs generated are compared with the graphs formulated by JDS Uniphase Corporation which uses standard values of dispersion for optical fibers. The graphs generated when compared with the JDS Uniphase Corporation plots were found to be more or less similar thus verifying that the model proposed is right. MATLAB software was used for doing the modeling.

Keywords: Modulation, Non Linear Schrodinger Equation, Optical fiber, Split Step Fourier Method.

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291 New Approach to Spectral Analysis of High Bit Rate PCM Signals

Authors: J. P. Dubois

Abstract:

Pulse code modulation is a widespread technique in digital communication with significant impact on existing modern and proposed future communication technologies. Its widespread utilization is due to its simplicity and attractive spectral characteristics. In this paper, we present a new approach to the spectral analysis of PCM signals using Riemann-Stieltjes integrals, which is very accurate for high bit rates. This approach can serve as a model for similar spectral analysis of other competing modulation schemes.

Keywords: Coding, discrete Fourier, power spectral density, pulse code modulation, Riemann-Stieltjes integrals.

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290 A Laplace Transform Dual-Reciprocity Boundary Element Method for Axisymmetric Elastodynamic Problems

Authors: B. I. Yun

Abstract:

A dual-reciprocity boundary element method is presented for the numerical solution of a class of axisymmetric elastodynamic problems. The domain integrals that arise in the integrodifferential formulation are converted to line integrals by using the dual-reciprocity method together suitably constructed interpolating functions. The second order time derivatives of the displacement in the governing partial differential equations are suppressed by using Laplace transformation. In the Laplace transform domain, the problem under consideration is eventually reduced to solving a system of linear algebraic equations. Once the linear algebraic equations are solved, the displacement and stress fields in the physical domain can be recovered by using a numerical technique for inverting Laplace transforms.

Keywords: Axisymmetric elasticity, boundary element method, dual-reciprocity method, Laplace transform.

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289 Dynamic Action Induced By Walking Pedestrian

Authors: J. Kala, V. Salajka, P. Hradil

Abstract:

The main focus of this paper is on the human induced forces. Almost all existing force models for this type of load (defined either in the time or frequency domain) are developed from the assumption of perfect periodicity of the force and are based on force measurements conducted on rigid (i.e. high frequency) surfaces. To verify the different authors conclusions the vertical pressure measurements invoked during the walking was performed, using pressure gauges in various configurations. The obtained forces are analyzed using Fourier transformation. This load is often decisive in the design of footbridges. Design criteria and load models proposed by widely used standards and other researchers were introduced and a comparison was made.

Keywords: Pedestrian action, Experimental analysis, Fourier series, serviceability, cycle loading.

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