Search results for: External costs
1263 Evaluation of External Costs of Traffic Accident in Slovak Republic
Authors: Anna Dolinayova, Jozef Danis, Juraj Camaj
The report deals with comparison of traffic accidents in Slovak republic in road and rail transport since 2009 until 2014, with evaluation of external costs and consequently with the possibilities of their internalization. The results of road traffic accidents analysis are realized in line with after-effects they have caused; in line with main cause, place of origin (within or out of town) and in accordance to age of accident´s victims and kind of injuries (easy, hard or fatal). Evaluation of individual after-effects is carried in terms of probability of traffic accidents occurrence.
Keywords: External costs, traffic accident, rail transport, road transport.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1228
1262 The Effects of Logistical Centers Realization on Society and Economy
Authors: Anna Dolinayova, Juraj Camaj, Martin Loch
Presently, it is necessary to ensure the sustainable development of passenger and freight transport. Increasing performance of road freight has had a negative impact to environment and society. It is therefore necessary to increase the competitiveness of intermodal transport, which is more environmentally friendly. The study describes the effectiveness of logistical centers realization for companies and society and research how the partial internalization of external costs reflected in the efficient use of these centers and increase the competitiveness of intermodal transport to road freight. In our research, we use the method of comparative analysis and market research to describe the advantages of logistic centers for their users as well as for society as a whole. Method normal costing is used for calculation infrastructure and total costs, method of conversion costing for determine the external costs. We modelled total society costs for road freight transport and inter modal transport chain (we assumed that most of the traffic is carried by rail) with different loading schemes for condition in the Slovak Republic. Our research has shown that higher utilization of inter modal transport chain do good not only for society, but for companies providing freight services too. Increase in use of inter modal transport chain can bring many benefits to society that do not bring direct immediate financial return. They often bring the multiplier effects, such as greater use of environmentally friendly transport mode and reduce the total society costs.
Keywords: Delivery time, economy effectiveness, logistical centers, ecological efficiency, optimization, society.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1915
1261 The Impact of Quality Cost on Revenue Sharing in Supply Chain Management
Authors: Fayza Obied-Allah
Abstract:Customer’ needs, quality, and value creation while reducing costs through supply chain management provides challenges and opportunities for companies and researchers. In the light of these challenges, modern ideas must contribute to counter these challenges and exploit opportunities. Therefore, this paper discusses the impact of the quality cost on revenue sharing as a most important incentive to configure business networks. This paper develops the quality cost approach to align with the modern era. It develops a model to measure quality costs which might enable firms to manage revenue sharing in a supply chain. The developed model includes five categories; besides the well-known four categories (namely prevention costs, appraisal costs, internal failure costs, and external failure costs), a new category has been developed in this research as a new vision of the relationship between quality costs and innovations in industry. This new category is Recycle Cost. This paper also examines whether such quality costs in supply chains influence the revenue sharing between partners. Using the author's quality cost model, the relationship between quality costs and revenue sharing among partners is examined using a case study in an Egyptian manufacturing company which is a part of a supply chain. This paper argues that the revenue-sharing proportion allocated to supplier increases as the recycle cost of supplier increases, and the revenue-sharing proportion allocated to manufacturer increases as the prevention and appraisal costs increase, as well as the failure costs, the recycle costs of manufacturer, and the recycle costs of suppliers decrease. However, the results present surprising findings. The purposes of this study are developing quality cost approach and understanding the relationships between quality costs and revenue sharing in supply chains. Therefore, the present study contributes to theory and practice by explaining how the cost of recycling can be combined in quality cost model to better understanding the revenue sharing among partners in supply chains.
Keywords: Quality cost, Recycle cost, Revenue sharing, Supply chain.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1533
1260 Tracing Quality Cost in a Luggage Manufacturing Industry
Authors: S. B. Jaju, R. R. Lakhe
Abstract:Quality costs are the costs associated with preventing, finding, and correcting defective work. Since the main language of corporate management is money, quality-related costs act as means of communication between the staff of quality engineering departments and the company managers. The objective of quality engineering is to minimize the total quality cost across the life of product. Quality costs provide a benchmark against which improvement can be measured over time. It provides a rupee-based report on quality improvement efforts. It is an effective tool to identify, prioritize and select quality improvement projects. After reviewing through the literature it was noticed that a simplified methodology for data collection of quality cost in a manufacturing industry was required. The quantified standard methodology is proposed for collecting data of various elements of quality cost categories for manufacturing industry. Also in the light of research carried out so far, it is felt necessary to standardise cost elements in each of the prevention, appraisal, internal failure and external failure costs. . Here an attempt is made to standardise the various cost elements applicable to manufacturing industry and data is collected by using the proposed quantified methodology. This paper discusses the case study carried in luggage manufacturing industry.
Keywords: Quality Costs, PAF model, quantified methodology, Case study.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2116
1259 Feasibility Studies through Quantitative Methods: The Revamping of a Tourist Railway Line in Italy
Authors: Armando Cartenì, Ilaria Henke
Recently, the Italian government has approved a new law for public contracts and has been laying the groundwork for restarting a planning phase. The government has adopted the indications given by the European Commission regarding the estimation of the external costs within the Cost-Benefit Analysis, and has been approved the ‘Guidelines for assessment of Investment Projects’. In compliance with the new Italian law, the aim of this research was to perform a feasibility study applying quantitative methods regarding the revamping of an Italian tourist railway line. A Cost-Benefit Analysis was performed starting from the quantification of the passengers’ demand potentially interested in using the revamped rail services. The benefits due to the external costs reduction were also estimated (quantified) in terms of variations (with respect to the not project scenario): climate change, air pollution, noises, congestion, and accidents. Estimations results have been proposed in terms of the Measure of Effectiveness underlying a positive Net Present Value equal to about 27 million of Euros, an Internal Rate of Return much greater the discount rate, a benefit/cost ratio equal to 2 and a PayBack Period of 15 years.
Keywords: Cost-benefit analysis, evaluation analysis, demand management, external cost, transport planning, quality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 740
1258 Providing a Practical Model to Reduce Maintenance Costs: A Case Study in GeG Company
Authors: Iman Atighi, Jalal Soleimannejad, Reza Pourjafarabadi, Saeid Moradpour
In the past, we could increase profit by increasing product prices. But in the new decade, a competitive market does not let us to increase profit with increased prices. Therefore, the only way to increase profit will be to reduce costs. A significant percentage of production costs are the maintenance costs, and analysis of these costs could achieve more profit. Most maintenance strategies such as RCM (Reliability-Center-Maintenance), TPM (Total Productivity Maintenance), PM (Preventive Maintenance) and etc., are trying to reduce maintenance costs. In this paper, decreasing the maintenance costs of Concentration Plant of Golgohar Iron Ore Mining & Industrial Company (GeG) was examined by using of MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) and MTTR (Mean Time To Repair) analyses. These analyses showed that instead of buying new machines and increasing costs in order to promote capacity, the improving of MTBF and MTTR indexes would solve capacity problems in the best way and decrease costs.
Keywords: GeG Company, maintainability, maintenance costs, reliability-center-maintenance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 575
1257 Providing a Practical Model to Reduce Maintenance Costs: A Case Study in Golgohar Company
Authors: Iman Atighi, Jalal Soleimannejad, Ahmad Akbarinasab, Saeid Moradpour
In the past, we could increase profit by increasing product prices. But in the new decade, a competitive market does not let us to increase profit with increase prices. Therefore, the only way to increase profit will be reduce costs. A significant percentage of production costs are the maintenance costs, and analysis of these costs could achieve more profit. Most maintenance strategies such as RCM (Reliability-Center-Maintenance), TPM (Total Productivity Maintenance), PM (Preventive Maintenance) etc., are trying to reduce maintenance costs. In this paper, decreasing the maintenance costs of Concentration Plant of Golgohar Company (GEG) was examined by using of MTBF (Mean Time between Failures) and MTTR (Mean Time to Repair) analyses. These analyses showed that instead of buying new machines and increasing costs in order to promote capacity, the improving of MTBF and MTTR indexes would solve capacity problems in the best way and decrease costs.
Keywords: Golgohar Iron Ore Mining & Industrial Company, maintainability, maintenance costs, reliability-center-maintenance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 487
1256 The Cost Structure of Intermodal Transportation: The Chilean Case
Authors: Mabel A. Leva
This study defines a methodology to compute unitary costs for freight transportation modes. The main objective was to gather relevant costs data to support the formulation and evaluation of railway, road, pipelines and port projects. This article will concentrate on the following steps: Compilation and analysis of relevant modal cost studies, Methodological adjustments to make cost figures comparable between studies, Definition of typology and scope of transportation modes, Analysis and validation of cost values for relevant freight transportation modes in Chile. In order to define the comparison methodology for the costs between the different transportation modes, it was necessary to consider that the relevant cost depends on who performs the comparison. Thus, for the transportation user (e.g. exporter) the pertinent costs are the mode tariffs, whereas from the operators perspective (e.g. rail manager), the pertinent costs are the operating costs of each mode.
Keywords: Intermodal costs, Logistics, Transportation costs.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5326
1255 Minimizing Risk Costs through Optimal Responses in NPD Projects
Authors: Chan-Sik Kim, Jong-Seong Kim, Se Won Lee, Hoo-Gon Choi
In rapidly changing market environment, firms are investing a lot of time and resources into new product development (NPD) projects to make profit and to obtain competitive advantage. However, failure rate of NPD projects is becoming high due to various internal and external risks which hinder successful NPD projects. To reduce the failure rate, it is critical that risks have to be managed effectively and efficiently through good strategy, and treated by optimal responses to minimize risk cost. Four strategies are adopted to handle the risks in this study. The optimal responses are characterized by high reduction of risk costs with high efficiency. This study suggests a framework to decide the optimal responses considering the core risks, risk costs, response efficiency and response costs for successful NPD projects. Both binary particles warm optimization (BPSO) and multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) methods are mainly used in the framework. Although several limitations exist in use for real industries, the frame work shows good strength for handling the risks with highly scientific ways through an example.
Keywords: NPD projects, risk cost, strategy, optimal responses, Particle Swarm Optimization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1843
1254 The Finite Difference Scheme for the Suspended String Equation with the Nonlinear External Forces
Authors: Jaipong Kasemsuwan
This paper presents the finite difference scheme and the numerical simulation of suspended string. The vibration solutions when the various external forces are taken into account are obtained and compared with the solutions without external force. In addition, we also investigate how the external forces and their powers and coefficients affect the amplitude of vibration.
Keywords: Nonlinear external forces, Numerical simulation, Suspended string equation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1369
1253 A Novel Model for Simultaneously Minimising Costs and Risks in Just-in-Time Systems Using Multi-Backup Suppliers: Part 1- Modelling
Authors: Faraj El Dabee, Romeo Marian, Yousef Amer
Just-In-Time (JIT) is a lean manufacturing tool, which provides the benefits of efficiency, and of minimizing unnecessary costs for many organisations. However, the risks arising from these benefits have been disregarded. These risks impact on system processes disrupting the whole supply chain. This paper proposes an inventory model that can simultaneously reduce costs and risks in JIT systems. This model is developed to ascertain an optimal ordering strategy for procuring raw materials by using regular multi-external and local backup suppliers to reduce the total cost of the products, and at the same time to reduce the risks arising from this cost reduction within production systems. Some results that will be illustrated in the second part of this paper are presented.
Keywords: Lean manufacturing, Just-in-Time (JIT), production system, cost-risk reduction, inventory model, eternal supplier, local backup supplier.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1530
1252 The Effect of Failure Rate on Repair and Maintenance Costs of Four Agricultural Tractor Models
Authors: Fatemeh Afsharnia, Mohammad Amin Asoodar, Abbas Abdeshahi
In economical evaluation literature, although the combination of some variables such as repair and maintenance costs and accumulated use hours has been widely considered in determining of optimum life for tractor, no investigation has indicated the influence of failure rate on repair and maintenance costs. In this study, the owners of three hundred tractors, which include Massey Ferguson, John Deere and Universal, were interviewed, from five regions of Khouzestan Province. A regression model was used to predict the tractors annual repair and maintenance costs based on failure rate. Results showed that the maximum percentage of annual repair and maintenance costs occurred in engine parts for MF285, JD3140 and U650 tractors while these costs for tire, ring, ball bearing and operator seat were higher compared to other MF399 tractor systems. According to the results of the regression, the failure rate increase would lead to annual repair and maintenance costs increase for all tractors. But, of all the tractors, repair and maintenance costs of JD3140 tractors extremely affected by the failure rate increase.
Keywords: Failure rate, tractor, annual repair and maintenance costs, regression model, Khouzestan.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4136
1251 Usage of Military Spending, Debt Servicing and Growth for Dealing with Emergency Plan of Indian External Debt
Authors: Sahbi Farhani
This study investigates the relationship between external debt and military spending in case of India over the period of 1970–2012. In doing so, we have applied the structural break unit root tests to examine stationarity properties of the variables. The Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach is used to test whether cointegration exists in presence of structural breaks stemming in the series. Our results indicate the cointegration among external debt, military spending, debt servicing, and economic growth. Moreover, military spending and debt servicing add in external debt. Economic growth helps in lowering external debt. The Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) analysis and Granger causality test reveal that military spending and economic growth cause external debt. The feedback effect also exists between external debt and debt servicing in case of India.
Keywords: External debt, military spending, ARDL approach, structural breaks, India.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1338
1250 Internal and External Validity in Experimental Economics
Authors: H. Chytilová, R. Maialeh
Abstract:Experimental economics is subject to criticism with regards to frequently discussed the trade-off between internal and external validity requirements, which seems to be critically flawed. This paper evaluates incompatibility of trade-off condition and condition of internal validity as a prerequisite for external validity. In addition, it outlines the imprecise concept of artificiality, which is found to be rather improving the external validity and seems to strengthen the illusory status of external versus internal validity tension. Internal validity is further analyzed with regards to Duhem- Quine problem, where unpredictability argument is significantly weakened trough application of inductivism within the illustrative hypothetical-deductive model. Our discussion partially weakens critical arguments related to the robustness of results in experimental economics, if the perfectly controlled experimental environment is secured.
Keywords: Duhem-Quine Problem, external validity, inductivism, internal validity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2673
1249 Exploring the Determinants for Successful Collaboration of SMEs
Authors: Heeyong Noh, Sungjoo Lee
Abstract:The goal of this research is discovering the determinants of the success or failure of external cooperation in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). For this, a survey was given to 190 SMEs that experienced external cooperation within the last 3 years. A logistic regression model was used to derive organizational or strategic characteristics that significantly influence whether external collaboration of domestic SMEs is successful or not. Results suggest that research and development (R&D) features in general characteristics (both idea creation and discovering market opportunities) that focused on and emphasized indirected-market stakeholders (such as complementary companies and affiliates) and strategies in innovative strategic characteristics raise the probability of successful external cooperation. This can be used meaningfully to build a policy or strategy for inducing successful external cooperation or to understand the innovation of SMEs.
Keywords: External collaboration, Innovation strategy, Logisticregression, SMEs.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2034
1248 The External Debt in the Context of Economic Growth: The Sample of Turkey
Authors: Ayşen Edirneligil, Mehmet Mucuk
Abstract:In developing countries, one of the most important restrictions about the economic growth is the lack of national savings which are supposed to finance the investments. In order to overcome this restriction and achieve the higher rate of economic growth by increasing the level of output, countries choose the external borrowing. However, there is a dispute in the literature over the correlation between external debt and economic growth. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of external debt on Turkish economic growth by using VAR analysis with the quarterly data over the period of 2002:01-2014:04. In this respect, Johansen Cointegration Test, Impulse- Response Function and Variance Decomposition Tests will be used for analyses. Empirical findings show that there is no cointegration in the long run.
Keywords: Economic growth, external debt, time series analysis, Turkish economy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1997
1247 The Impact of Transaction Costs on Rebalancing an Investment Portfolio in Portfolio Optimization
Authors: B. Marasović, S. Pivac, S. V. Vukasović
Constructing a portfolio of investments is one of the most significant financial decisions facing individuals and institutions. In accordance with the modern portfolio theory maximization of return at minimal risk should be the investment goal of any successful investor. In addition, the costs incurred when setting up a new portfolio or rebalancing an existing portfolio must be included in any realistic analysis. In this paper rebalancing an investment portfolio in the presence of transaction costs on the Croatian capital market is analyzed. The model applied in the paper is an extension of the standard portfolio mean-variance optimization model in which transaction costs are incurred to rebalance an investment portfolio. This model allows different costs for different securities, and different costs for buying and selling. In order to find efficient portfolio, using this model, first, the solution of quadratic programming problem of similar size to the Markowitz model, and then the solution of a linear programming problem have to be found. Furthermore, in the paper the impact of transaction costs on the efficient frontier is investigated. Moreover, it is shown that global minimum variance portfolio on the efficient frontier always has the same level of the risk regardless of the amount of transaction costs. Although efficient frontier position depends of both transaction costs amount and initial portfolio it can be concluded that extreme right portfolio on the efficient frontier always contains only one stock with the highest expected return and the highest risk.
Keywords: Croatian capital market, Fractional quadratic programming, Markowitz model, Portfolio optimization, Transaction costs.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2802
1246 Impact of Fiscal Policy on Economic Growth under the Contributions of Level of External Debt in Developing Countries
Authors: Zohreh Bang Tavakoli, Shuktika Chatterjee
This study investigates the fiscal policy impact on countries’ economic growth in developing countries with a different external debt level. The fiscal policy effectiveness has been re-emphasized in the global financial crisis of 2008 with the external debt as its new contemporary driver. Different theories have proposed the economic consequence of fiscal policy, specifically for developing countries. However, fiscal policy literature is lacking research regarding the fiscal policy’s effectiveness with the external debt’s contributions through comprehensive study. Also, high levels of external debt will influence economic growth. Through foreign resources and channel of investment in which high level of debt decreases the amount of foreign investment in the developing countries. The finding of this study suggests that only countries with a low external debt level and appropriate fiscal policies and good quality institutions can gain the proper quantity and quality of foreign investors in which will help the economic growth. For this, this research is examining the impact of fiscal policy on developing countries' economic growth in the situation of different external debt levels.
Keywords: fiscal policy, external debt, gross domestic product, developing countriesProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 303
1245 Just-In-Time for Reducing Inventory Costs throughout a Supply Chain: A Case Study
Authors: Faraj Farhat El Dabee, Rajab Abdullah Hokoma
Abstract:Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the integration between manufacturer, transporter and customer in order to form one seamless chain that allows smooth flow of raw materials, information and products throughout the entire network that help in minimizing all related efforts and costs. The main objective of this paper is to develop a model that can accept a specified number of spare-parts within the supply chain, simulating its inventory operations throughout all stages in order to minimize the inventory holding costs, base-stock, safety-stock, and to find the optimum quantity of inventory levels, thereby suggesting a way forward to adapt some factors of Just-In-Time to minimizing the inventory costs throughout the entire supply chain. The model has been developed using Micro- Soft Excel & Visual Basic in order to study inventory allocations in any network of the supply chain. The application and reproducibility of this model were tested by comparing the actual system that was implemented in the case study with the results of the developed model. The findings showed that the total inventory costs of the developed model are about 50% less than the actual costs of the inventory items within the case study.
Keywords: Holding Costs, Inventory, JIT, Modeling, SCMProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3373
1244 A Memetic Algorithm for an Energy-Costs-Aware Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problem
Authors: Christian Böning, Henrik Prinzhorn, Eric C. Hund, Malte Stonis
In this article, the flexible job-shop scheduling problem is extended by consideration of energy costs which arise owing to the power peak, and further decision variables such as work in process and throughput time are incorporated into the objective function. This enables a production plan to be simultaneously optimized in respect of the real arising energy and logistics costs. The energy-costs-aware flexible job-shop scheduling problem (EFJSP) which arises is described mathematically, and a memetic algorithm (MA) is presented as a solution. In the MA, the evolutionary process is supplemented with a local search. Furthermore, repair procedures are used in order to rectify any infeasible solutions that have arisen in the evolutionary process. The potential for lowering the real arising costs of a production plan through consideration of energy consumption levels is highlighted.
Keywords: Energy costs, flexible job-shop scheduling, memetic algorithm, power peak.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 980
1243 A Novel Model for Simultaneously Minimising Costs and Risks in Just-in-Time Systems Using Multi-Backup Suppliers: Part 2- Results
Authors: Faraj El Dabee, Romeo Marian, Yousef Amer
This paper implements the inventory model developed in the first part of this paper in a simplified problem to simultaneously reduce costs and risks in JIT systems. This model is developed to ascertain an optimal ordering strategy for procuring raw materials by using regular multi-external and local backup suppliers to reduce the total cost of the products, and at the same time to reduce the risks arising from this cost reduction within production systems. A comparison between the cost of using the JIT system and using the proposed inventory model shows the superiority of the use of the inventory model.
Keywords: Lean manufacturing, Just-in-Time (JIT), production system, cost-risk reduction, inventory model, eternal supplier, local backup supplier.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1411
1242 The Use of Process-Oriented Methods of Calculation to Determine the Costs of Logistics Processes
Authors: Tomas Cechura, Michal Simon
The aim of this paper is to create a proposal for determining the costs of logistics processes by using process-oriented calculation methods. The traditional approach is that logistics costs are part of manufacturing overhead which is usually calculated as a percentage surcharge. Therefore in the traditional approach it is not obvious where and in which activities costs were incurred. So it is impossible to trace logistics costs to products. Our point of view is trying to fix or at least improve this issue. Another benefit of applying the process approach is identification of logistics processes which are otherwise part of manufacturing overhead. In the first part this paper describes the development of process-oriented methods over time. The next part shows the possibility of implementing the process-oriented method called Prozesskostenrechnung to logistics processes. The conclusion summarizes advantages and disadvantages of using this method in logistics.
Keywords: Cost, logistics, calculation, process-oriented method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1462
1241 Effects of External and Internal Focus of Attention in Motor Learning of Children Cerebral Palsy
Authors: Morteza Pourazar, Fatemeh Mirakhori, Fazlolah Bagherzadeh, Rasool Hemayattalab
The purpose of study was to examine the effects of external and internal focus of attention in the motor learning of children with cerebral palsy. The study involved 30 boys (7 to 12 years old) with CP type 1 who practiced throwing beanbags. The participants were randomly assigned to the internal focus, external focus, and control groups, and performed six blocks of 10-trial with attentional focus reminders during a practice phase and no reminders during retention and transfer tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on the last factor was used. The results show that significant main effects were found for time and group. However, the interaction of time and group was not significant. Retention scores were significantly higher for the external focus group. The external focus group performed better than other groups; however, the internal focus and control groups’ performance did not differ. The study concluded that motor skills in Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (SHCP) children could be enhanced by external attention.
Keywords: Cerebral Palsy, external attention, internal attention, throwing task.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1363
1240 Performance Evaluation of Energy Efficient Communication Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Authors: Toshihiko Sasama, Kentaro Kishida, Kazunori Sugahara, Hiroshi Masuyama
Abstract:A mobile ad hoc network is a network of mobile nodes without any notion of centralized administration. In such a network, each mobile node behaves not only as a host which runs applications but also as a router to forward packets on behalf of others. Clustering has been applied to routing protocols to achieve efficient communications. A CH network expresses the connected relationship among cluster-heads. This paper discusses the methods for constructing a CH network, and produces the following results: (1) The required running costs of 3 traditional methods for constructing a CH network are not so different from each other in the static circumstance, or in the dynamic circumstance. Their running costs in the static circumstance do not differ from their costs in the dynamic circumstance. Meanwhile, although the routing costs required for the above 3 methods are not so different in the static circumstance, the costs are considerably different from each other in the dynamic circumstance. Their routing costs in the static circumstance are also very different from their costs in the dynamic circumstance, and the former is one tenths of the latter. The routing cost in the dynamic circumstance is mostly the cost for re-routing. (2) On the strength of the above results, we discuss new 2 methods regarding whether they are tolerable or not in the dynamic circumstance, that is, whether the times of re-routing are small or not. These new methods are revised methods that are based on the traditional methods. We recommended the method which produces the smallest routing cost in the dynamic circumstance, therefore producing the smallest total cost.
Keywords: cluster, mobile ad hoc network, re-routing cost, simulationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1176
1239 Evaluation of The Energy Performance of Shading Devices based on Incremental Costs
Authors: Jian Yao, Chengwen Yan
Solar shading designs are important for reduction of building energy consumption and improvement of indoor thermal environment. This paper carried out a number of building simulations for evaluation of the energy performance of different shading devices based on incremental costs. The results show that movable shading devices lower incremental costs by up to 50% compared with fixed ones for the same building energy efficiency for residential buildings, and wing panel shadings are much more suitable in commercial buildings than baring screen ones and overhangs for commercial buildings.
Keywords: Solar shading, Incremental costs, Building energy consumption.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1447
1238 A Study of the Costs and Benefits of Smart City Projects Including the Scenario of Public-Private Partnerships
Authors: Patrick T. I. Lam, Wenjing Yang
A smart city project embraces benefits and costs which can be classified under direct and indirect categories. Externalities come into the picture, but they are often difficult to quantify. Despite this barrier, policy makers need to carry out cost-benefit analysis to justify the huge investments needed to make a city smart. The recent trend is towards the engagement of the private sector to utilize their resources and expertise, especially in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) areas, where innovations blossom. This study focuses on the identification of costs (on a life cycle basis) and benefits associated with smart city project developments based on a comprehensive literature review and case studies, where public-private partnerships would warrant consideration, the related costs and benefits are highlighted. The findings will be useful for policy makers of cities.
Keywords: Costs and benefits, identification, public-private partnerships, smart city projects.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1492
1237 Development of State Model Theory for External Exclusive NOR Type LFSR Structures
Authors: Afaq Ahmad
Abstract:Using state space technique and GF(2) theory, a simulation model for external exclusive NOR type LFSR structures is developed. Through this tool a systematic procedure is devised for computing pseudo-random binary sequences from such structures.
Keywords: LFSR, external exclusive NOR type, recursivebinary sequence, initial state - next state, state transition matrix.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1453
1236 Optimal External Merge Sorting Algorithm with Smart Block Merging
Authors: Mir Hadi Seyedafsari, Iraj Hasanzadeh
Abstract:Like other external sorting algorithms, the presented algorithm is a two step algorithm including internal and external steps. The first part of the algorithm is like the other similar algorithms but second part of that is including a new easy implementing method which has reduced the vast number of inputoutput operations saliently. As decreasing processor operating time does not have any effect on main algorithm speed, any improvement in it should be done through decreasing the number of input-output operations. This paper propose an easy algorithm for choose the correct record location of the final list. This decreases the time complexity and makes the algorithm faster.
Keywords: External sorting algorithm, internal sortingalgorithm, fast sorting, robust algorithm.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2062
1235 Some Solid Transportation Models with Crisp and Rough Costs
Authors: Pradip Kundu, Samarjit Kar, Manoranjan Maiti
In this paper, some practical solid transportation models are formulated considering per trip capacity of each type of conveyances with crisp and rough unit transportation costs. This is applicable for the system in which full vehicles, e.g. trucks, rail coaches are to be booked for transportation of products so that transportation cost is determined on the full of the conveyances. The models with unit transportation costs as rough variables are transformed into deterministic forms using rough chance constrained programming with the help of trust measure. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the proposed models in crisp environment as well as with unit transportation costs as rough variables.
Keywords: Solid transportation problem, Rough set, Rough variable, Trust measure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2460
1234 A Concept to Assess the Economic Importance of the On-Site Activities of ETICS
Authors: V. Sulakatko, F. U. Vogdt, I. Lill
Construction technology and on-site construction activities have a direct influence on the life cycle costs of energy efficiently renovated apartment buildings. The systematic inadequacies of the External Thermal Insulation Composite System (ETICS) which occur during the construction phase increase the risk for all stakeholders, reduce mechanical durability and increase the life cycle costs of the building. The economic effect of these shortcomings can be minimised if the risk of the most significant on-site activities is recognised. The objective of the presented ETICS economic assessment concept is to evaluate the economic influence of on-site shortcomings and reveal their significance to the foreseeable future repair costs. The model assembles repair techniques, discusses their direct cost calculation methods, argues over the proper usage of net present value over the life cycle of the building, and proposes a simulation tool to evaluate the risk of on-site activities. As the technique is dependent on the selected real interest rate, a sensitivity analysis is anticipated to determine the validity of the recommendations. After the verification of the model on the sample buildings by the industry, it is expected to increase economic rationality of resource allocation and reduce high-risk systematic shortcomings during the construction process of ETICS.
Keywords: Activity-based cost estimating, Cost estimation, ETICS, Life cycle costing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 683