Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2229

Search results for: Exercise behavior

2229 Predictive Factors of Exercise Behaviors of Junior High School Students in Chonburi Province

Authors: Tanida Julvanichpong

Abstract:

Exercise has been regarded as a necessary and important aspect to enhance physical performance and psychology health. Body weight statistics of students in junior high school students in Chonburi Province beyond a standard risk of obesity. Promoting exercise among Junior high school students in Chonburi Province, essential knowledge concerning factors influencing exercise is needed. Therefore, this study aims to (1) determine the levels of perceived exercise behavior, exercise behavior in the past, perceived barriers to exercise, perceived benefits of exercise, perceived self-efficacy to exercise, feelings associated with exercise behavior, influence of the family to exercise, influence of friends to exercise, and the perceived influence of the environment on exercise. (2) examine the predicting ability of each of the above factors while including personal factors (sex, educational level) for exercise behavior. Pender’s Health Promotion Model was used as a guide for the study. Sample included 652 students in junior high schools, Chonburi Provience. The samples were selected by Multi-Stage Random Sampling. Data Collection has been done by using self-administered questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient, Eta, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The research results showed that: 1. Perceived benefits of exercise, influence of teacher, influence of environmental, feelings associated with exercise behavior were at a high level. Influence of the family to exercise, exercise behavior, exercise behavior in the past, perceived self-efficacy to exercise and influence of friends were at a moderate level. Perceived barriers to exercise were at a low level. 2. Exercise behavior was positively significant related to perceived benefits of exercise, influence of the family to exercise, exercise behavior in the past, perceived self-efficacy to exercise, influence of friends, influence of teacher, influence of environmental and feelings associated with exercise behavior (p < .01, respectively) and was negatively significant related to educational level and perceived barriers to exercise (p < .01, respectively). Exercise behavior was significant related to sex (Eta = 0.243, p=.000). 3. Exercise behavior in the past, influence of the family to exercise significantly contributed 60.10 percent of the variance to the prediction of exercise behavior in male students (p < .01). Exercise behavior in the past, perceived self-efficacy to exercise, perceived barriers to exercise, and educational level significantly contributed 52.60 percent of the variance to the prediction of exercise behavior in female students (p < .01).

Keywords: Predictive factors, exercise behaviors, junior high school.

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2228 Assessing Stages of Exercise Behavior Change, Self Efficacy and Decisional Balance in Iranian Nursing and Midwifery Students

Authors: Mahnaz Shafakhah, Marzieh Moattari, Rahelae Sabet Sarvestani

Abstract:

Regular physical activity contributes positively to physiological and psychological health. This study aimed to identify exercise behavior changes, self efficacy and decisional balance in nursing and midwifery students. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Iran.300undergraduate nursing and midwifery students participated in this study. Data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic information, exercise stages of change, exercise self efficacy and pros and cons exercise decisional balance. The analysis was performed using the SPSS.A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Keywords: Exercise, Behavior, Student, Self efficacy.

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2227 Sport and Exercise Behavior of Students in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Pimporn Thongmuang

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to study sport and exercise behavior of students in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University in September of 2012. The sample group used in this research was a group of regular students in undergraduate school enrolled in faculty of science and technology. This sample group consisted of 1,858 students. The research tool used to collect result was the checklist. The data was calculated by statistical percentage. From the research, it was discovered that most students did exercise in previous month. 71.6% of students exercised by running. 61.1% of students exercised in their neighborhood. 60.4% of students exercised in order to keep fit. 60.2% of students agreed that the result from this research can be educational and inspirational for students in campus in terms of living healthily by exercise.

Keywords: Exercise behavior, sport behavior, students.

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2226 Application of the Transtheoretical Model of Exercise Behavior Change Plan in High School Students

Authors: Frank C. Pan, Chih-Hao Chen

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to discuss the effect of the intervention of exercise behavior change plan for high school students on study subjects- social and psychological factors and exercise stages. This research uses the transtheoretical model as the research framework. One experiment group and one control group were used in a quasi-experimental design research. The experimental group accepted health-related physical fitness course and the traditional course; the control group accepted traditional physical education course. There is a significant difference before and after the intervention in the experimental group. Karl-s test shows the experimental group gained a better improvement than that in the control group. The Analysis of Covariance had shown the exercise stages (F=7.62, p<0.05), and the perceived exercise benefit (F=16.91, p<0.05) of the experimental group were obviously larger than those of the control group. There was no major effect on the perceived exercise barrier (F=0.61, p>0.05) after the intervention of exercise behavior change plan. However, the rate of high school students the practical implementation of the exercise is not high, obviously influenced by the exercise barrier. The academic and examination pressure may be the major causes of the exercise barrier in the high school.

Keywords: Transtheoretical model (TTM), High school students, exercise behavior

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2225 Effect of Exercise on Sexual Behavior and Semen Quality of Sahiwal Bulls

Authors: Abdelrasoul, Khalid Ahmed Elrabie

Abstract:

The study was conducted on Sahiwal cattle bulls maintained at the Artificial Breeding Complex, NDRI, Karnal, Hayana, India, to determine the effect of exercise on the sexual behavior and semen quality. Fourteen Sahiwal bulls were classified into two groups of seven each. Group-1, bulls were exercised by walking in a bull exerciser once a week one hour before semen collection, whereas bulls in group-2 were exercised daily. Sexual behavior and semen quality traits studied were: Reaction time (RT), Dismounting time (DMT), Total time taken in mounts (TTTM), Flehmen response (FR), Erection Score (ES), Protrusion Score (PS), Intensity of thrust (ITS), Temperament Score (TS), Libido Score (LS), Semen volume, Physical appearance, Mass activity, Initial progressive motility, Non-eosinophilic spermatozoa count (NESC) and post thaw motility percent. Data were analyzed by least squares technique. Group-2 showed significantly (p < 0.01) higher value in RT (sec), DMT (sec), TTTM (sec), ES, PS, ITS, LS, semen volume, semen color density and mass activity.

Keywords: Exercise, Sahiwal bulls, semen quality, sexual behavior.

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2224 Relationship between Level of Physical Activity and Exercise Imagery among Klang Valley Citizens

Authors: Kok, M.O., Omar-Fauzee, M.S., Rosli, M.H.

Abstract:

This study investigated the relationship between exercise imagery use and level of physical activity within a wide range of exercisers in Klang valley, Malaysia. One hundred and twenty four respondents (Mage = 28.92, SD = 9.34) completed two sets of questionnaires (Exercise Imagery Inventory and Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire) that measure the use of imagery and exercise frequency of participants. From the result obtained, exercise imagery is found to be significantly correlated to level of physical activity. Besides that, variables such as gender, age and ethnicity that may affect the use of imagery and exercise frequency were also being assessed in this study. Among all variables, only ethnicity showed significant difference in level of physical activity (p < 0.05). Findings in this study suggest that further investigation should be done on other variables such as socioeconomic, educational level, and selfefficacy that may affect the imagery use and frequency of physical activity among exercisers.

Keywords: Physical activity, exercise imagery, ExerciseImagery Inventory, Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire

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2223 Descriptive Study of Role Played by Exercise and Diet on Brain Plasticity

Authors: Mridul Sharma, Praveen Saroha

Abstract:

In today's world, everyone has become so busy in their to-do tasks and daily routine that they tend to ignore some of the basal components of our life, including exercise and diet. This comparative study analyzes the pathways of the relationship between exercise and brain plasticity and also includes another variable diet to study the effects of diet on learning by answering questions including which diet is known to be the best learning supporter and what are the recommended quantities of the same. Further, this study looks into inter-relation between diet and exercise, and also some other approach of the relation between diet and exercise on learning apart from through Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF).

Keywords: Basolateral amygdala, brain derived neurotrophic factor, brain plasticity, diet, exercise, mediterranean diet.

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2222 Electromyography Activity of the Rectus Femoris and Biceps Femoris Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

Authors: Mohd Safee M. K., Wan Abas W. A. B, Ibrahim F., Abu Osman N. A., Abdul Malik N. A.

Abstract:

This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p<0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63%MVC) and BF (11.43%MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the biomechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.

Keywords: Electromyography, exercise, muscle, salat.

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2221 Heat Treatment and Rest-Inserted Exercise Enhances EMG Activity of the Lower Limb

Authors: Jae Kyun Bang, Sung Jae Hwang, Chang Yong Ko, Chi Hyun Kim

Abstract:

Prolonged immobilization leads to significant weakness and atrophy of the skeletal muscle and can also impair the recovery of muscle strength following injury. Therefore, it is important to minimize the period under immobilization and accelerate the return to normal activity. This study examined the effects of heat treatment and rest-inserted exercise on the muscle activity of the lower limb during knee flexion/extension. Twelve healthy subjects were assigned to 4 groups that included: (1) heat treatment + rest-inserted exercise; (2) heat + continuous exercise; (3) no heat + rest-inserted exercise; and (4) no heat + continuous exercise. Heat treatment was applied for 15 mins prior to exercise. Continuous exercise groups performed knee flexion/extension at 0.5 Hz for 300 cycles without rest whereas rest-inserted exercise groups performed the same exercise but with 2 mins rest inserted every 60 cycles of continuous exercise. Changes in the rectus femoris and hamstring muscle activities were assessed at 0, 1, and 2 weeks of treatment by measuring the electromyography signals of isokinetic maximum voluntary contraction. Significant increases in both the rectus femoris and hamstring muscles were observed after 2 weeks of treatment only when both heat treatment and rest-inserted exercise were performed. These results suggest that combination of various treatment techniques, such as heat treatment and rest-inserted exercise, may expedite the recovery of muscle strength following immobilization.

Keywords: Electromyography, Heat Treatment, Muscle, Rest-Inserted Exercise.

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2220 Electromyographic Activity of the Medial Gastrocnemius and Lateral Gastrocnemius Muscle during Salat-s and Specific Exercise

Authors: M. K. M. Safee, W. A. B. Wan Abas, N. A. Abu Osman, F. Ibrahim

Abstract:

This paper investigates the activity of the gastrocnemius (Gas) muscle in healthy subjects during salat (ruku- position) and specific exercise [Unilateral Plantar Flexion Exercise (UPFE)] using electromyography (EMG). Both lateral and medial Gas muscles were assessed. A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG-s level. From the result, Wilcoxon-s Rank Sum test showed no significant difference between ruku- and UPFE for both medial (p=0.082) and lateral (p=0.226) of GAS muscles. Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities.

Keywords: Electromyography, salat, exercise, muscle.

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2219 Physical Exercise Intervention on Hypertension Patients

Authors: Ling-Lih Shen, Feng-Chuan Pan

Abstract:

Chronic diseases prevailed along with economic growth as well as life style changed in recent years in Taiwan. According to the governmental statistics, hypertension related disease is the tenth of death causes with 1,816 died directly from hypertension in 2010. There were more death causes amongst the top ten had been proofed that having strong association with the hypertension, such as heart diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Hypertension or High blood pressure is one of the major indicators for chronic diseases, and was generally perceived as the major causes of mortality. The literature generally suggested that regular physical exercise was helpful to prevent the occurrence or to ease the progress of a hypertension. This paper reported the process and outcomes in detailed of an improvement project of physical exercise intervention specific for hypertension patients. Physical information were measured before and after the project to obtain information such as weight, waistline, cholesterol (HD & LD), blood examination, as well as self-perceived health status. The intervention project involved a six-week exercise program, of which contained three times a week, 30 minutes of tutored physical exercise intervention. The project had achieved several gains in changing the subjects- behavior in terms of many important biophysical indexes. Around 20% of the participants had significantly improved their cholesterols, BMI, and changed unhealthy behaviors. Results from the project were encouraging, and would be good reference for other samples.

Keywords: Intervention, biological information, hypertension patients, behavioral changes, chronic disease

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2218 The Alterations of Some Pancreas Gland Hormones after an Aerobic Strenuous Exercise in Male Students

Authors: M. Javad Pourvaghar, A. Reza Shahsavar

Abstract:

The alterations in pancreas gland secretion hormones following an aerobic and exhausting exercise was the purpose of this study. Sixteen healthy men participated in the study. The blood samples of these participants were taken in four stages under fasting condition. The first sample was taken before Bruce exhausting and aerobic test, the second sample was taken after Bruce exercise and the third and forth stages samples were taken 24 and 48 hours after the exercises respectively. The final results indicated that a strenuous aerobic exercise can have a significant effect on glucagon and insulin concentration of blood serum. The increase in blood serum insulin was higher after 24 and 48 hours. It seems that an intensive exercise has little effect on changes in glucagon concentration of blood serum. Also, disorder in secretion in glucagon and insulin concentration of serum disturbs athletes- exercise.

Keywords: Intensive Exercise, Bruce Protocol, Glucagon, Insulin

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2217 The Effect of Breaststroke Swimming Exercise to Increase the Value of Peak Expiratory Flow

Authors: Sri Sumartiningsih, Anies Setiowati

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of breaststroke swimming exercise to improving the peak expiratory flow. Methode: This study used 17 students of men aged 19-21 years, APE values measured before and after the study. Style swimming workout done in accordance with a program that has been made. Result: Value of peak expiratory flow in male students obtained on average before exercise (530 ± 15 811) liters / min and after doing the exercises (540.59 ± 17 092) liters / minute. Paired ttest showed t = -6.446 and p = 0.000, which means there are differences in peak expiratory flow values before and after exercise swimming breaststroke. Conclusion: The conclusion is the breaststroke swimming exercise can be improving of peak expiratory flow.

Keywords: Breaststroke, peak expiratory flow.

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2216 Study on the Influence of Physical Effort on the Mental Processes of Preteen Students

Authors: Constantin Pehoiu, Cristian Savu, Silviu Badea, Cristian Borida

Abstract:

The physiological effects of physical exercise on human body are relatively well known in literature, which describes in detail the changes that occur in the cardiovascular system, the respiratory one, in bones and other systems, both during exercise and after its delivery. However, the effects of exercise on mental processes are less treated. From the literature reviews discussed in this study, it can be detached the idea that we can not exactly say that physical exercise has beneficial effects on mental processes, but neither that it would have potentially negative effects. This uncertainty, reflected in the inability to indicate precise and unequivocal meaning, favorable-unfavorable physical effort in acting on mental processes, is a prime reason to undertake a study of the phenomenon influence effort administered physical education classes on the dynamics of mental processes like attention and memory.

Keywords: management, exercise, mental process, lesson.

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2215 Association between Serum Concentrations of Anabolic Hormones and their Binding Proteins in Response to Graded Exercise in Male Athletes

Authors: A. Żebrowska, A. Kochańska-Dziurowicz, A. Stanjek-Cichoracka

Abstract:

We investigated the response of testosterone (T), growth hormone (GH), cortisol (C), steroid hormone binding globulin (SHBG), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and some anaboliccatabolic indexes, i.e.: T/C, T/SHBG, and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 to maximal exercise in endurance-trained athletes (TREN) and untrained subjects (CG). The baseline concentration of IGF-1 was higher in athletes (TREN) when compared to the CG (p<0.05). The GH concentration and GH/IGF-1 ratio increased after exercise in all subjects compared to respective values at rest. The resting IGF- 1/IGFBP-3 ratio was significantly higher in athletes. The maximal exercise test induced an increase in post-exercise T/SHGB ratio in athletes compared to CG (p<0.05). These results indicate that elevation of baseline serum IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and T/SHGB ratio after exercise might suggest that free fractions of these hormones may act as a potent stimulant of muscle hypertrophy in trained endurance athletes.

Keywords: anabolic hormones, endurance training, exercise, growth factors

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2214 Effect of Vibration Intervention on Leg-press Exercise

Authors: Youngkuen Cho, Seonhong Hwang, Jinyoung Min, Youngho Kim, Dohyung Lim, Hansung Kim

Abstract:

Many studies have emphasized the importance of resistive exercise to maintain a healthy human body, particular in prevention of weakening of physical strength. Recently, some studies advocated that an application of vibration as a supplementary means in a regular training was effective in encouraging physical strength. Aim of the current study was, therefore, to identify if an application of vibration in a resistive exercise was effective in encouraging physical strength as that in a regular training. A 3-dimensional virtual lower extremity model for a healthy male and virtual leg-press model were generated and synchronized. Dynamic leg-press exercises on a slide machine with/without extra load and on a footboard with vibration as well as on a slide machine with extra load were analyzed. The results of the current indicated that the application of the vibration on the dynamic leg-press exercise might be not greatly effective in encouraging physical strength, compared with the dynamic leg press exercise with extra load. It was, however, thought that the application of the vibration might be helpful to elderly individuals because the reduced maximum muscle strength appeared by the effect of the vibration may avoid a muscular spasm, which can be driven from a high muscle strength sometimes produced during the leg-press exercise with extra load.

Keywords: Resistive exercise, leg-press exercise, muscle strength.

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2213 The Effect of Four-Week Resistance Exercise along with Milk Consumption on NT-proBNP and Plasma Troponin I

Authors: Rostam Abdi, Ahmad Abdi, Zahra Vahedi Langrodi

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate four-week resistance exercise and milk supplement on NT-proBNP and plasma troponin I of male students. Concerning the methodology of the study, 21 senior high school students of Ardebil city were selected. The selected subjects were randomly shared in three groups of control, exercise- water and exercise- milk. The exercise program includes resistance exercise for a big muscle group. The subjects of control group rested during the study and did not participate in any training. The subjects of exercise- water experimental group immediately received 400 cc water after exercise and exercise- milk group immediately received 400 cc low fat milk. Control-water groups consumed the same amount of water. 48 hours before and after the last exercise session, the blood sample of the subjects were taken for measuring the variables. NT-proBNP and Troponin I concentrations were measured by ELISA. For data analysis, one-way variance analysis test, correlated t-test and Bonferroni post hoc test were used. The significant difference of p ≤ 0.05 was accepted. Resistance training along with milk consumption leads to increase of plasma NT-proBNP, however; this increase has not reached the significant level. Furthermore, meaningful increase was observed in plasma NT–proBNP in exercise group between pretest and posttest values. Furthermore, no meaningful difference was observed between groups in terms of Troponin I after milk consumption. It seems that endurance exercises lead to change in the structure of heart muscle and is along with an increase of NT-proBNP. Furthermore, there is the possibility that milk consumption can lead to release of heart troponin I. The mechanism through which protein supplements have been put on heart troponin I is unknown and requires more research.

Keywords: Resistance exercise, milk, NT-proBNP, Troponin I.

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2212 The Effects of the Parent Training Program for Obesity Reduction on Health Behaviors of School-Age Children

Authors: Muntanavadee Maytapattana

Abstract:

The purposes of the study were to evaluate the effectiveness of the Parent Training Program for Obesity Reduction (PTPOR) on health behaviors of school-age children. An Ecological Systems Theory (EST) was approached the study and a randomized control trial was used in this study. Participants were school-age overweight or obese children and their parents. One hundred and one parent-child dyads were recruited and random assigned into the PTPOR (N=30), Educational Intervention or EI (N=32), and control group (N=39). The parents in the PTPOR group participated in five sessions including an educational session, a cooking session, aerobic exercise training, 2-time group discussion sessions, and 4-time telephoned counseling sessions. Repeated Measure ANCOVA was used to analyze data. The results presented that the outcomes of the PTPOR group were better than the EI and the control groups at 1st, 8th, and 32nd weeks after finishing the program such as child exercise behavior (F(2,97) = 3.98, p = .02) and child dietary behavior (F(2,97) = 9.42, p = .00). The results suggest that nurses and health care providers should utilize the PTPOR for child weight reduction and for the health promotion of a lifestyle among overweight and obese children.

Keywords: Parent training program for obesity reduction, child health behaviors, school-age children.

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2211 Exercise and Cognitive Function: Time Course of the Effects

Authors: Simon B. Cooper, Stephan Bandelow, Maria L. Nute, John G. Morris, Mary E. Nevill

Abstract:

Previous research has indicated a variable effect of exercise on adolescents’ cognitive function. However, comparisons between studies are difficult to make due to differences in: the mode, intensity and duration of exercise employed; the components of cognitive function measured (and the tests used to assess them); and the timing of the cognitive function tests in relation to the exercise. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the time course (10 and 60min post-exercise) of the effects of 15min intermittent exercise on cognitive function in adolescents. 45 adolescents were recruited to participate in the study and completed two main trials (exercise and resting) in a counterbalanced crossover design. Participants completed 15min of intermittent exercise (in cycles of 1 min exercise, 30s rest). A battery of computer based cognitive function tests (Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm and visual search test) were completed 30 min pre- and 10 and 60min post-exercise (to assess attention, working memory and perception respectively).The findings of the present study indicate that on the baseline level of the Stroop test, 10min following exercise response times were slower than at any other time point on either trial (trial by session time interaction, p = 0.0308). However, this slowing of responses also tended to produce enhanced accuracy 10min post-exercise on the baseline level of the Stroop test (trial by session time interaction, p = 0.0780). Similarly, on the complex level of the visual search test there was a slowing of response times 10 min post-exercise (trial by session time interaction, p = 0.0199). However, this was not coupled with an improvement in accuracy (trial by session time interaction, p = 0.2349). The mid-morning bout of exercise did not affect response times or accuracy across the morning on the Sternberg paradigm. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest an equivocal effect of exercise on adolescents' cognitive function. The mid-morning bout of exercise appears to cause a speed-accuracy trade off immediately following exercise on the Stroop test (participants become slower but more accurate), whilst slowing response times on the visual search test and having no effect on performance on the Sternberg paradigm. Furthermore, this work highlights the importance of the timing of the cognitive function tests relative to the exercise and the components of cognitive function examined in future studies. 

Keywords: Adolescents, cognitive function, exercise.

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2210 Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Fluid Intelligence in Early Adults: Electroencephalogram Study

Authors: Ladda Leungratanamart, Seree Chadcham

Abstract:

Fluid intelligence declines along with age, but it can be developed. For this reason, increasing fluid intelligence in young adults can be possible. This study examined the effects of a two-month treadmill exercise program on fluid intelligence. The researcher designed a treadmill exercise program to promote cardiorespiratory fitness. Thirty-eight healthy voluntary students from the Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Chon Buri were assigned randomly to an exercise group (n=18) and a control group (n=20). The experiment consisted of three sessions: The baseline session consisted of measuring the VO2max, electroencephalogram and behavioral response during performed the Raven Progressive Matrices (RPM) test, a measure of fluid intelligence. For the exercise session, an experimental group exercises using treadmill training at 60 % to 80 % maximum heart rate for 30 mins, three times per week, whereas the control group did not exercise. For the following two sessions, each participant was measured the same as baseline testing. The data were analyzed using the t-test to examine whether there is significant difference between the means of the two groups. The results showed that the mean VO2 max in the experimental group were significantly more than the control group (p<.05), suggesting a two-month treadmill exercise program can improve fluid intelligence. When comparing the behavioral data, it was found that experimental group performed RPM test more accurately and faster than the control group. Neuroelectric data indicated a significant increase in percentages of alpha band ERD (%ERD) at P3 and Pz compared to the pre-exercise condition and the control group. These data suggest that a two-month treadmill exercise program can contribute to the development of cardiorespiratory fitness which influences an increase fluid intelligence. Exercise involved in cortical activation in difference brain areas.

Keywords: Treadmill exercise, fluid intelligence, raven progressive matrices test, %ERD of upper Alpha band.

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2209 Behavior of Czech Consumers during Crisis

Authors: M. Stoklasa, H. Starzyczna, P. Sykorova

Abstract:

This paper presents partial results of primary research on consumer purchasing behavior in times of crisis. It starts with brief theoretical debate on purchasing behavior and short secondary research related to the issues, which is used for the comparison of results. For purpose of collecting data, questionnaire survey was given to 355 respondents in Moravian-Silesian region. Hypotheses deal with the relationship of the financial situation of the respondents and their purchasing behavior. The research analysis disclosed that consumers change their behavior during crisis and MS region has some specifics compared to other regions.

Keywords: Crisis, financial situation, consumer behavior, postponement of purchases, consumer credit.

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2208 Arterial CO2 Pressure Drives Ventilation with a Time Delay during Recovery from an Impulse-like Exercise without Metabolic Acidosis

Authors: R. Afroundeh, T. Arimitsu, R. Yamanaka, C. S. Lian, T. Yunoki, T. Yano, K. Shirakawa

Abstract:

We investigated this hypothesis that arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2) drives ventilation (V.E) with a time delay duringrecovery from short impulse-like exercise (10 s) with work load of 200 watts. V.E and end tidal CO2 pressure (PETCO2) were measured continuously during rest, warming up, exercise and recovery periods. PaCO2 was predicted (PaCO2 pre) from PETCO2 and tidal volume (VT). PETCO2 and PaCO2 pre peaked at 20 s of recovery. V.E increased and peaked at the end of exercise and then decreased during recovery; however, it peaked again at 30 s of recovery, which was 10 s later than the peak of PaCO2 pre. The relationship between V. E and PaCO2pre was not significant by using data of them obtained at the same time but was significant by using data of V.E obtained 10 s later for data of PaCO2 pre. The results support our hypothesis that PaCO2 drives V.E with a time delay.

Keywords: Arterial CO2 pressure, impulse-like exercise, time delay, ventilation.

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2207 Fashion Consumption for Fashion Innovators: A Study of Fashion Consumption Behavior of Innovators and Non-Innovators

Authors: Vaishali P. Joshi, Pallav Joshi

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to examine the differences fashion innovators and non-fashion innovators in their fashion consumption behavior in terms of their pre-purchase behavior, purchase behavior and post purchase behavior. The questionnaire was distributed to a female college student for data collection for achieving the objective of the first part of the study. Question-related to fashion innovativeness and fashion consumption behavior was asked. The sample was comprised of 81 college females ages 18 through 30 who were attending Business Management degree. A series of attitude questions was used to categorize respondents on the Innovativeness Scale. 32 respondents with a score of 21 and above were designated as Fashion innovators and the remainder (49) as Non-fashion innovators. Findings showed that there exist significant differences between innovators and non-innovators in their fashion consumption behavior. Data was analyzed through frequency distribution table. Many differences were found in the behavior of innovators and non-innovators in terms of their pre-purchase, actual purchase, and post-purchase behavior.

Keywords: Consumption behavior, fashion, innovativeness, frequency distribution table.

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2206 Feature Extractions of EMG Signals during a Constant Workload Pedaling Exercise

Authors: Bing-Wen Chen, Alvin W. Y. Su, Yu-Lin Wang

Abstract:

Electromyography (EMG) is one of the important indicators during exercise, as it is closely related to the level of muscle activations. This work quantifies the muscle conditions of the lower limbs in a constant workload exercise. Surface EMG signals of the vastus laterals (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), gastrocnemius medianus (GM), gastrocnemius lateral (GL) and Soleus (SOL) were recorded from fourteen healthy males. The EMG signals were segmented in two phases: activation segment (AS) and relaxation segment (RS). Period entropy (PE), peak count (PC), zero crossing (ZC), wave length (WL), mean power frequency (MPF), median frequency (MDF) and root mean square (RMS) are calculated to provide the quantitative information of the measured EMG segments. The outcomes reveal that the PE, PC, ZC and RMS have significantly changed (p<.001); WL presents moderately changed (p<.01); MPF and MDF show no changed (p>.05) during exercise. The results also suggest that the RS is also preferred for performance evaluation, while the results of the extracted features in AS are usually affected directly by the amplitudes. It is further found that the VL exhibits the most significant changes within six muscles during pedaling exercise. The proposed work could be applied to quantify the stamina analysis and to predict the instant muscle status in athletes.

Keywords: EMG, feature extraction, muscle status, pedaling exercise, relaxation segment.

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2205 The Relationship between the Disposition Effect and Herding Behavior: Evidence from Taiwan’s Information Technology Stocks

Authors: Chih-Hsiang Chang

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the relationship between the disposition effect and herding behavior of investors trading Taiwanese information technology stocks. This study differs from previous literature in two aspects. First, in contrast with the earlier studies that focused on investigating investors’ herding behavior, this study explores the possibility that the disposition effect drives investors’ herding behavior. Additionally, it takes an in-depth look at the interdependence between the disposition effect and herding behavior of investors, including lead-lag relationship and volatility transmission effect. Empirical results show that investors trading Taiwan’s information technology stocks exhibit pronounced herding behavior and that the disposition effect has a great impact on their herding behavior.

Keywords: Herding behavior, Disposition effect, Behavioral finance.

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2204 Effects of an Educative Model in Socially Responsible Behavior and Other Psychological Variables

Authors: Gracia V. Navarro, Maria V. Gonzalez, Carlos G. Reed

Abstract:

The eudaimonic perspective in philosophy and psychology suggests that a good life is closely related to developing oneself in order to contribute to the well-being and happiness of other people and of the world as a whole. Educational psychology can help to achieve this through the design and validation of educative models. Since 2004, the University of Concepcion and other Chilean universities apply an educative model to train socially responsible professionals, people that in the exercise of their profession contribute to generate equity for the development and assess the impacts of their decisions, opting for those that serve the common good. The main aim is to identify if a relationship exists between achieved learning, attitudes toward social responsibility, self-attribution of socially responsible behavior, value type, professional behavior observed and, participation in a specific model to train socially responsible (SR) professionals. The Achieved Learning and Attitudes Toward Social Responsibility Questionnaire, interview with employers and Values Questionnaire and Self-attribution of SR Behavior Questionnaire is applied to 394 students and graduates, divided into experimental and control groups (trained and not trained under the educative model), in order to identify the professional behavior of the graduates. The results show that students and graduates perceive cognitive, affective and behavioral learning, with significant differences in attitudes toward social responsibility and self-attribution of SR behavior, between experimental and control. There are also differences in employers' perceptions about the professional practice of those who were trained under the model and those who were not. It is concluded that the educative model has an impact on the learning of social responsibility and educates for a full life. It is also concluded that it is necessary to identify mediating variables of the model effect.

Keywords: Educative model, good life, professional social responsibility (SR), values.

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2203 Effects of the Intermittent Exercise Programs on Lipid Profile and Anthropometric Characteristics at Obese Young Subjects

Authors: Vasilescu M., Rusu L, Balseanu TA., Cosma G., Dragomir M.

Abstract:

The aim of our research was to evaluate the effects of physical exercise on lipid profile and anthropometric characteristics in young subjects, diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MS). The study has been developed during 28 weeks on 20 young obese patients which have undertaken an intermittent submaximal exercise program. After 28 weeks of physical activity, the results show significant effects on anthropometric characteristics and serum lipid profile of research subjects. Additionally, the results of this study confirms the major correlation between the variations of intraabdominal adiposity, determined ultrasonographycally, and the changes of serum lipid concentrations, a better correlation than it is used abdominal circumference or body weight index.

Keywords: lipid metabolism, adiposity, physical exercise

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2202 The Effects of Physical Activity and Serotonin on Depression, Anxiety, Body Image and Mental Health

Authors: Sh. Khoshemehry, M. E. Bahram, M. J. Pourvaghar

Abstract:

Sport has found a special place as an effective phenomenon in all societies of the contemporary world. The relationship between physical activity and exercise with different sciences has provided new fields for human study. The range of issues related to exercise and physical education is such that it requires specialized sciences and special studies. In this article, the psychological and social sections of exercise have been investigated for children and adults. It can be used for anyone in different age groups. Exercise and regular physical movements have a great impact on the mental and social health of the individual in addition to body health. It affects the individual's adaptability in society and his/her personality. Exercise affects the treatment of diseases such as depression, anxiety, stress, body image, and memory. Exercise is a safe haven for young people to achieve the optimum human development in its shelter. The effects of sensorimotor skills on mental actions and mental development are such a way that many psychologists and sports science experts believe these activities should be included in training programs in the first place. Familiarity of students and scholars with different programs and methods of sensorimotor activities not only causes their mental actions; but also increases mental health and vitality, enhances self-confidence and, therefore, mental health.

Keywords: Anxiety, mental health, physical activity, serotonin.

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2201 Analysis of Cooperative Learning Behavior Based on the Data of Students' Movement

Authors: Wang Lin, Li Zhiqiang

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the cooperative learning behavior pattern based on the data of students' movement. The study firstly reviewed the cooperative learning theory and its research status, and briefly introduced the k-means clustering algorithm. Then, it used clustering algorithm and mathematical statistics theory to analyze the activity rhythm of individual student and groups in different functional areas, according to the movement data provided by 10 first-year graduate students. It also focused on the analysis of students' behavior in the learning area and explored the law of cooperative learning behavior. The research result showed that the cooperative learning behavior analysis method based on movement data proposed in this paper is feasible. From the results of data analysis, the characteristics of behavior of students and their cooperative learning behavior patterns could be found.

Keywords: Behavior pattern, cooperative learning, data analyze, K-means clustering algorithm.

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2200 Changes in Postural Stability after Coordination Exercise

Authors: Ivan Struhár, Martin Sebera, Lenka Dovrtělová

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to find out if the special type of exercise with elastic cord can improve the level of postural stability. The exercise programme was conducted twice a week for 3 months. The participants were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. The electronic balance board was used for testing of postural stability. All participants trained for 18 hours at the time of experiment without any special form of coordination programme. The experimental group performed 90 minutes plus of coordination exercise. The result showed that differences between pre-test and post-test occurred in the experimental group. It was used the nonparametric Wilcoxon t-test for paired samples (p=0.012; the significance level 95%). We calculated effect size by Cohen´s d. In the experimental group d is 1.96 which indicates a large effect. In the control group d is 0.04 which confirms no significant improvement.

Keywords: Balance board, balance training, coordination, stability.

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