Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1395

Search results for: Euclidean space

1395 A Method to Calculate Frenet Apparatus of the Curves in Euclidean-5 Space

Authors: Süha Yılmaz, Melih Turgut

Abstract:

In this paper, a method to calculate Frenet Apparatus of the curves in five dimensional Euclidean space is presented.

Keywords: Classical Differential Geometry, Euclidean-5 space, Frenet Apparatus.

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1394 A Method to Calculate Frenet Apparatus of W-Curves in the Euclidean 6-Space

Authors: Süha Yılmaz, Melih Turgut

Abstract:

These In this work, a regular unit speed curve in six dimensional Euclidean space, whose Frenet curvatures are constant, is considered. Thereafter, a method to calculate Frenet apparatus of this curve is presented.

Keywords: Classical Differential Geometry, Euclidean 6-space, Frenet Apparatus of the curves.

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1393 Translation Surfaces in Euclidean 3-Space

Authors: Muhammed Çetin, Yılmaz Tunçer, Nejat Ekmekçi

Abstract:

In this paper, the translation surfaces in 3-dimensional Euclidean space generated by two space curves have been investigated. It has been indicated that Scherk surface is not only minimal translation surface.

Keywords: Minimal surface, Surface of Scherk, Translationsurface

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1392 Contributions to Differential Geometry of Pseudo Null Curves in Semi-Euclidean Space

Authors: Melih Turgut, Süha Yılmaz

Abstract:

In this paper, first, a characterization of spherical Pseudo null curves in Semi-Euclidean space is given. Then, to investigate position vector of a pseudo null curve, a system of differential equation whose solution gives the components of the position vector of a pseudo null curve on the Frenet axis is established by means of Frenet equations. Additionally, in view of some special solutions of mentioned system, characterizations of some special pseudo null curves are presented.

Keywords: Semi-Euclidean Space, Pseudo Null Curves, Position Vectors.

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1391 θ -Euclidean k-Fuzzy Ideals of Semirings

Authors: D.R Prince Williams

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce the notion θ-Euclidean k-fuzzy ideal in semirings and to study the properties of the image and pre image of a θ -Euclidean k-fuzzy ideal in a semirings under epimorphism.

Keywords: semiring, fuzzy ideal, k–fuzzy ideal, θ -Euclidean Lfuzzyideal, θ -Euclidean fuzzy k–ideal, θ -Euclidean k-fuzzy ideal.

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1390 SC-LSH: An Efficient Indexing Method for Approximate Similarity Search in High Dimensional Space

Authors: Sanaa Chafik, ImaneDaoudi, Mounim A. El Yacoubi, Hamid El Ouardi

Abstract:

Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) is one of the most promising techniques for solving nearest neighbour search problem in high dimensional space. Euclidean LSH is the most popular variation of LSH that has been successfully applied in many multimedia applications. However, the Euclidean LSH presents limitations that affect structure and query performances. The main limitation of the Euclidean LSH is the large memory consumption. In order to achieve a good accuracy, a large number of hash tables is required. In this paper, we propose a new hashing algorithm to overcome the storage space problem and improve query time, while keeping a good accuracy as similar to that achieved by the original Euclidean LSH. The Experimental results on a real large-scale dataset show that the proposed approach achieves good performances and consumes less memory than the Euclidean LSH.

Keywords: Approximate Nearest Neighbor Search, Content based image retrieval (CBIR), Curse of dimensionality, Locality sensitive hashing, Multidimensional indexing, Scalability.

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1389 Some Characterizations of Isotropic Curves In the Euclidean Space

Authors: Süha Yılmaz, Melih Turgut

Abstract:

The curves, of which the square of the distance between the two points equal to zero, are called minimal or isotropic curves [4]. In this work, first, necessary and sufficient conditions to be a Pseudo Helix, which is a special case of such curves, are presented. Thereafter, it is proven that an isotropic curve-s position vector and pseudo curvature satisfy a vector differential equation of fourth order. Additionally, In view of solution of mentioned equation, position vector of pseudo helices is obtained.

Keywords: Classical Differential Geometry, Euclidean space, Minimal Curves, Isotropic Curves, Pseudo Helix.

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1388 Identification of Configuration Space Singularities with Local Real Algebraic Geometry

Authors: Marc Diesse, Hochschule Heilbronn

Abstract:

We address the question of identifying the configuration space singularities of linkages, i.e., points where the configuration space is not locally a submanifold of Euclidean space. Because the configuration space cannot be smoothly parameterized at such points, these singularity types have a significantly negative impact on the kinematics of the linkage. It is known that Jacobian methods do not provide sufficient conditions for the existence of CS-singularities. Herein, we present several additional algebraic criteria that provide the sufficient conditions. Further, we use those criteria to analyze certain classes of planar linkages. These examples will also show how the presented criteria can be checked using algorithmic methods.

Keywords: Linkages, configuration space singularities, real algebraic geometry, analytic geometry, computer algebra.

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1387 Use of Gaussian-Euclidean Hybrid Function Based Artificial Immune System for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

Authors: Cuneyt Yucelbas, Seral Ozsen, Sule Yucelbas, Gulay Tezel

Abstract:

Due to the fact that there exist only a small number of complex systems in artificial immune system (AIS) that work out nonlinear problems, nonlinear AIS approaches, among the well-known solution techniques, need to be developed. Gaussian function is usually used as similarity estimation in classification problems and pattern recognition. In this study, diagnosis of breast cancer, the second type of the most widespread cancer in women, was performed with different distance calculation functions that euclidean, gaussian and gaussian-euclidean hybrid function in the clonal selection model of classical AIS on Wisconsin Breast Cancer Dataset (WBCD), which was taken from the University of California, Irvine Machine-Learning Repository. We used 3-fold cross validation method to train and test the dataset. According to the results, the maximum test classification accuracy was reported as 97.35% by using of gaussian-euclidean hybrid function for fold-3. Also, mean of test classification accuracies for all of functions were obtained as 94.78%, 94.45% and 95.31% with use of euclidean, gaussian and gaussian-euclidean, respectively. With these results, gaussian-euclidean hybrid function seems to be a potential distance calculation method, and it may be considered as an alternative distance calculation method for hard nonlinear classification problems.

Keywords: Artificial Immune System, Breast Cancer Diagnosis, Euclidean Function, Gaussian Function.

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1386 Discovering Liouville-Type Problems for p-Energy Minimizing Maps in Closed Half-Ellipsoids by Calculus Variation Method

Authors: Lina Wu, Jia Liu, Ye Li

Abstract:

The goal of this project is to investigate constant properties (called the Liouville-type Problem) for a p-stable map as a local or global minimum of a p-energy functional where the domain is a Euclidean space and the target space is a closed half-ellipsoid. The First and Second Variation Formulas for a p-energy functional has been applied in the Calculus Variation Method as computation techniques. Stokes’ Theorem, Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality, Hardy-Sobolev type Inequalities, and the Bochner Formula as estimation techniques have been used to estimate the lower bound and the upper bound of the derived p-Harmonic Stability Inequality. One challenging point in this project is to construct a family of variation maps such that the images of variation maps must be guaranteed in a closed half-ellipsoid. The other challenging point is to find a contradiction between the lower bound and the upper bound in an analysis of p-Harmonic Stability Inequality when a p-energy minimizing map is not constant. Therefore, the possibility of a non-constant p-energy minimizing map has been ruled out and the constant property for a p-energy minimizing map has been obtained. Our research finding is to explore the constant property for a p-stable map from a Euclidean space into a closed half-ellipsoid in a certain range of p. The certain range of p is determined by the dimension values of a Euclidean space (the domain) and an ellipsoid (the target space). The certain range of p is also bounded by the curvature values on an ellipsoid (that is, the ratio of the longest axis to the shortest axis). Regarding Liouville-type results for a p-stable map, our research finding on an ellipsoid is a generalization of mathematicians’ results on a sphere. Our result is also an extension of mathematicians’ Liouville-type results from a special ellipsoid with only one parameter to any ellipsoid with (n+1) parameters in the general setting.

Keywords: Bochner Formula, Stokes’ Theorem, Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality, first and second variation formulas, Hardy-Sobolev type inequalities, Liouville-type problem, p-harmonic map.

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1385 Image Segmentation Based on Graph Theoretical Approach to Improve the Quality of Image Segmentation

Authors: Deepthi Narayan, Srikanta Murthy K., G. Hemantha Kumar

Abstract:

Graph based image segmentation techniques are considered to be one of the most efficient segmentation techniques which are mainly used as time & space efficient methods for real time applications. How ever, there is need to focus on improving the quality of segmented images obtained from the earlier graph based methods. This paper proposes an improvement to the graph based image segmentation methods already described in the literature. We contribute to the existing method by proposing the use of a weighted Euclidean distance to calculate the edge weight which is the key element in building the graph. We also propose a slight modification of the segmentation method already described in the literature, which results in selection of more prominent edges in the graph. The experimental results show the improvement in the segmentation quality as compared to the methods that already exist, with a slight compromise in efficiency.

Keywords: Graph based image segmentation, threshold, Weighted Euclidean distance.

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1384 The Slant Helices According to Bishop Frame

Authors: Bahaddin Bukcu, Murat Kemal Karacan

Abstract:

In this study, we have defined slant helix according to Bishop frame in Euclidean 3-Space. Furthermore, we have given some necassary and sufficient conditons for the slant helix.

Keywords: Slant helix, Bishop frame, Parallel transport frame

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1383 Applying p-Balanced Energy Technique to Solve Liouville-Type Problems in Calculus

Authors: Lina Wu, Ye Li, Jia Liu

Abstract:

We are interested in solving Liouville-type problems to explore constancy properties for maps or differential forms on Riemannian manifolds. Geometric structures on manifolds, the existence of constancy properties for maps or differential forms, and energy growth for maps or differential forms are intertwined. In this article, we concentrate on discovery of solutions to Liouville-type problems where manifolds are Euclidean spaces (i.e. flat Riemannian manifolds) and maps become real-valued functions. Liouville-type results of vanishing properties for functions are obtained. The original work in our research findings is to extend the q-energy for a function from finite in Lq space to infinite in non-Lq space by applying p-balanced technique where q = p = 2. Calculation skills such as Hölder's Inequality and Tests for Series have been used to evaluate limits and integrations for function energy. Calculation ideas and computational techniques for solving Liouville-type problems shown in this article, which are utilized in Euclidean spaces, can be universalized as a successful algorithm, which works for both maps and differential forms on Riemannian manifolds. This innovative algorithm has a far-reaching impact on research work of solving Liouville-type problems in the general settings involved with infinite energy. The p-balanced technique in this algorithm provides a clue to success on the road of q-energy extension from finite to infinite.

Keywords: Differential Forms, Hölder Inequality, Liouville-type problems, p-balanced growth, p-harmonic maps, q-energy growth, tests for series.

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1382 PIL Theory

Authors: A. Peveri

Abstract:

The curvature space-time by the presence of material, this deformation must present a pattern of deformation, not random. Space is uniform, elastic and any modification that occurs in one part, causes a change in another.

This deformation exists, must be a constant value and is independent of the observer, and relates the amount of matter, the force caused by the curvature of space and surface space. This unit of space is defined in this study as PIL and represents a constant area of space, deformable in the direction and sense of the center of mass of the body. The PIL is curved and connected to the center of mass of the Earth, to get to that point, through all matter, thus forming part of any place between particles at atomic and subatomic levels. At these levels the space between each particle is flat, unlike the macro where the space curves.

Keywords: Space flat, Space curved, Unit of space, Deformation.

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1381 Improvement of the Shortest Path Problem with Geodesic-Like Method

Authors: Wen-Haw Chen

Abstract:

This paper proposes a method to improve the shortest path problem on a NURBS (Non-uniform rational basis spline) surfaces. It comes from an application of the theory in classic differential geometry on surfaces and can improve the distance problem not only on surfaces but in the Euclidean 3-space R3 .

Keywords: shortest paths, geodesic-like method, NURBS surfaces.

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1380 Palmprint Recognition by Wavelet Transform with Competitive Index and PCA

Authors: Deepti Tamrakar, Pritee Khanna

Abstract:

This manuscript presents, palmprint recognition by combining different texture extraction approaches with high accuracy. The Region of Interest (ROI) is decomposed into different frequencytime sub-bands by wavelet transform up-to two levels and only the approximate image of two levels is selected, which is known as Approximate Image ROI (AIROI). This AIROI has information of principal lines of the palm. The Competitive Index is used as the features of the palmprint, in which six Gabor filters of different orientations convolve with the palmprint image to extract the orientation information from the image. The winner-take-all strategy is used to select dominant orientation for each pixel, which is known as Competitive Index. Further, PCA is applied to select highly uncorrelated Competitive Index features, to reduce the dimensions of the feature vector, and to project the features on Eigen space. The similarity of two palmprints is measured by the Euclidean distance metrics. The algorithm is tested on Hong Kong PolyU palmprint database. Different AIROI of different wavelet filter families are also tested with the Competitive Index and PCA. AIROI of db7 wavelet filter achievs Equal Error Rate (EER) of 0.0152% and Genuine Acceptance Rate (GAR) of 99.67% on the palm database of Hong Kong PolyU.

Keywords: DWT, EER, Euclidean Distance, Gabor filter, PCA, ROI.

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1379 A Family of Minimal Residual Based Algorithm for Adaptive Filtering

Authors: Noor Atinah Ahmad

Abstract:

The Minimal Residual (MR) is modified for adaptive filtering application. Three forms of MR based algorithm are presented: i) the low complexity SPCG, ii) MREDSI, and iii) MREDSII. The low complexity is a reduced complexity version of a previously proposed SPCG algorithm. Approximations introduced reduce the algorithm to an LMS type algorithm, but, maintain the superior convergence of the SPCG algorithm. Both MREDSI and MREDSII are MR based methods with Euclidean direction of search. The choice of Euclidean directions is shown via simulation to give better misadjustment compared to their gradient search counterparts.

Keywords: Adaptive filtering, Adaptive least square, Minimalresidual method.

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1378 A New Class F2 (M, 0, N)L„ p)F of The Double Difference Sequences of Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: N. Subramanian, C. Murugesan

Abstract:

The double difference sequence space I2 (M, of fuzzy numbers for both 1 < p < oo and 0 < p < 1, is introduced. Some general properties of this sequence space are studied. Some inclusion relations involving this sequence space are obtained.

Keywords: Orlicz function, solid space, metric space, completeness

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1377 Need of National Space Legislation for Space Faring Nations

Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Yang Caixia

Abstract:

The need for national space legislation is pivotal, particularly in light of the fact that in recent years space activities have grown immensely both in volume and diversity. Countries are progressively developing capabilities in space exploration and scientific discoveries, market their capabilities to manufacture satellites, provide launch services from their facilities and are looking to privatize and commercialize their space resources. Today, nations are also seeking to comprehend the technological and financial potential of the private sector and are considering to share their financial burdens with them and to limit their exposures to risks, but they are lagging behind in legal framework in this regard. In the perspective of these emerging developments, it is therefore, felt that national space legislation should be enacted with the goal of building and implementing a vibrant and transparent legal framework at the national level to hasten investments and to ensure growth in this capital intensive - highly yield strategic sector. This study looks at (I) the international legal framework that governs space activities; (II) motivation behind making national space laws; and (III) the need for national space legislation. The paper concludes with some recommendations with regards to the conceivable future direction for national space legislation, in particular space empowered sub-areas for countries.

Keywords: International conventions, national legislation, space faring nation, space law.

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1376 The Sizes of Large Hierarchical Long-Range Percolation Clusters

Authors: Yilun Shang

Abstract:

We study a long-range percolation model in the hierarchical lattice ΩN of order N where probability of connection between two nodes separated by distance k is of the form min{αβ−k, 1}, α ≥ 0 and β > 0. The parameter α is the percolation parameter, while β describes the long-range nature of the model. The ΩN is an example of so called ultrametric space, which has remarkable qualitative difference between Euclidean-type lattices. In this paper, we characterize the sizes of large clusters for this model along the line of some prior work. The proof involves a stationary embedding of ΩN into Z. The phase diagram of this long-range percolation is well understood.

Keywords: percolation, component, hierarchical lattice, phase transition.

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1375 Numerical Applications of Tikhonov Regularization for the Fourier Multiplier Operators

Authors: Fethi Soltani, Adel Almarashi, Idir Mechai

Abstract:

Tikhonov regularization and reproducing kernels are the most popular approaches to solve ill-posed problems in computational mathematics and applications. And the Fourier multiplier operators are an essential tool to extend some known linear transforms in Euclidean Fourier analysis, as: Weierstrass transform, Poisson integral, Hilbert transform, Riesz transforms, Bochner-Riesz mean operators, partial Fourier integral, Riesz potential, Bessel potential, etc. Using the theory of reproducing kernels, we construct a simple and efficient representations for some class of Fourier multiplier operators Tm on the Paley-Wiener space Hh. In addition, we give an error estimate formula for the approximation and obtain some convergence results as the parameters and the independent variables approaches zero. Furthermore, using numerical quadrature integration rules to compute single and multiple integrals, we give numerical examples and we write explicitly the extremal function and the corresponding Fourier multiplier operators.

Keywords: Fourier multiplier operators, Gauss-Kronrod method of integration, Paley-Wiener space, Tikhonov regularization.

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1374 Using Spectral Vectors and M-Tree for Graph Clustering and Searching in Graph Databases of Protein Structures

Authors: Do Phuc, Nguyen Thi Kim Phung

Abstract:

In this paper, we represent protein structure by using graph. A protein structure database will become a graph database. Each graph is represented by a spectral vector. We use Jacobi rotation algorithm to calculate the eigenvalues of the normalized Laplacian representation of adjacency matrix of graph. To measure the similarity between two graphs, we calculate the Euclidean distance between two graph spectral vectors. To cluster the graphs, we use M-tree with the Euclidean distance to cluster spectral vectors. Besides, M-tree can be used for graph searching in graph database. Our proposal method was tested with graph database of 100 graphs representing 100 protein structures downloaded from Protein Data Bank (PDB) and we compare the result with the SCOP hierarchical structure.

Keywords: Eigenvalues, m-tree, graph database, protein structure, spectra graph theory.

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1373 Factoring a Polynomial with Multiple-Roots

Authors: Feng Cheng Chang

Abstract:

A given polynomial, possibly with multiple roots, is factored into several lower-degree distinct-root polynomials with natural-order-integer powers. All the roots, including multiplicities, of the original polynomial may be obtained by solving these lowerdegree distinct-root polynomials, instead of the original high-degree multiple-root polynomial directly. The approach requires polynomial Greatest Common Divisor (GCD) computation. The very simple and effective process, “Monic polynomial subtractions" converted trickily from “Longhand polynomial divisions" of Euclidean algorithm is employed. It requires only simple elementary arithmetic operations without any advanced mathematics. Amazingly, the derived routine gives the expected results for the test polynomials of very high degree, such as p( x) =(x+1)1000.

Keywords: Polynomial roots, greatest common divisor, Longhand polynomial division, Euclidean GCD Algorithm.

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1372 New Class of Chaotic Mappings in Symbol Space

Authors: Inese Bula

Abstract:

Symbolic dynamics studies dynamical systems on the basis of the symbol sequences obtained for a suitable partition of the state space. This approach exploits the property that system dynamics reduce to a shift operation in symbol space. This shift operator is a chaotic mapping. In this article we show that in the symbol space exist other chaotic mappings.

Keywords: Infinite symbol space, prefix metric, chaotic mapping, generator function, jump mapping.

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1371 Time Map

Authors: A. Peveri

Abstract:

The interaction of mass will determine the curvature of space-time, may determine that events proceed at different rates of time at each point in space, so each has a corresponding gravitational potential time. So we can find different values ​​of gravity (g), corresponding to different times (t), thus making a "map of time in space." The space-time is curved by present mass, causing a force of attraction towards the body, but if you invest the curvature of space-time, we find that this field is repulsive: Obtaining negative gravitational forces and positive gravitational forces respectively.

Keywords: Space-time, time, positive gravitation, negative gravitation.

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1370 Weighted Composition Operators Acting between Kind of Weighted Bergman-Type Spaces and the Bers-Type Space

Authors: Amnah E. Shammahy

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the boundedness and compactness of the weighted composition operator Wu,φ, which is induced by an holomorphic function u and holomorphic self-map φ, acting between the NK-space and the Bers-type space Hα on the unit disk.

Keywords: Weighted composition operators, NK-space, Bers-type space.

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1369 Research on Spatial Morphology and Protection of Traditional Rural Settlements Based on Space Syntax: Taking Xiazhuang Village and Shijia Village in Huzhou as Example

Authors: Shenpu Liu

Abstract:

Space syntax, a paradigm of the urban research, which manifests people’s intuitive and abstract perception of a material space with a solid mathematical way, explores how space represents its social characteristics. Taking Xiazhuang village and Shijia Village in Huzhou as an example and focusing on inward structure and street space, this article recognizes the connotative significance of the settlement with the aid of space syntax theory and quantitative analysis method from the perspective of spatial configuration to present relevant suggestions for its future planning and provides references for traditional rural settlement protection.

Keywords: Shijia village, space configuration, space syntax, traditional rural settlement, Xiazhuang village.

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1368 Topological Quantum Diffeomorphisms in Field Theory and the Spectrum of the Space-Time

Authors: Francisco Bulnes

Abstract:

Through the Fukaya conjecture and the wrapped Floer cohomology, the correspondences between paths in a loop space and states of a wrapping space of states in a Hamiltonian space (the ramification of field in this case is the connection to the operator that goes from TM to T*M) are demonstrated where these last states are corresponding to bosonic extensions of a spectrum of the space-time or direct image of the functor Spec, on space-time. This establishes a distinguished diffeomorphism defined by the mapping from the corresponding loops space to wrapping category of the Floer cohomology complex which furthermore relates in certain proportion D-branes (certain D-modules) with strings. This also gives to place to certain conjecture that establishes equivalences between moduli spaces that can be consigned in a moduli identity taking as space-time the Hitchin moduli space on G, whose dual can be expressed by a factor of a bosonic moduli spaces.

Keywords: Floer cohomology, Fukaya conjecture, Lagrangian submanifolds, spectrum of ring, topological quantum diffeomorphisms.

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1367 Generation of Photo-Mosaic Images through Block Matching and Color Adjustment

Authors: Hae-Yeoun Lee

Abstract:

Mosaic refers to a technique that makes image by gathering lots of small materials in various colors. This paper presents an automatic algorithm that makes the photo-mosaic image using photos. The algorithm is composed of 4 steps: partition and feature extraction, block matching, redundancy removal and color adjustment. The input image is partitioned in the small block to extract feature. Each block is matched to find similar photo in database by comparing similarity with Euclidean difference between blocks. The intensity of the block is adjusted to enhance the similarity of image by replacing the value of light and darkness with that of relevant block. Further, the quality of image is improved by minimizing the redundancy of tiles in the adjacent blocks. Experimental results support that the proposed algorithm is excellent in quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis.

Keywords: Photo-mosaic, Euclidean distance, Block matching, Intensity adjustment.

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1366 Digital Transformation as the Subject of the Knowledge Model of the Discursive Space

Authors: Rafal Maciag

Abstract:

Due to the development of the current civilization, one must create suitable models of its pervasive massive phenomena. Such a phenomenon is the digital transformation, which has a substantial number of disciplined, methodical interpretations forming the diversified reflection. This reflection could be understood pragmatically as the current temporal, a local differential state of knowledge. The model of the discursive space is proposed as a model for the analysis and description of this knowledge. Discursive space is understood as an autonomous multidimensional space where separate discourses traverse specific trajectories of what can be presented in multidimensional parallel coordinate system. Discursive space built on the world of facts preserves the complex character of that world. Digital transformation as a discursive space has a relativistic character that means that at the same time, it is created by the dynamic discourses and these discourses are molded by the shape of this space.

Keywords: Knowledge, digital transformation, discourse, discursive space, complexity.

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