Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1216

Search results for: Equivalent magnetic circuit

1216 Solver for a Magnetic Equivalent Circuit and Modeling the Inrush Current of a 3-Phase Transformer

Authors: Markus G. Ortner, Christian Magele, Klaus Krischan

Abstract:

Knowledge about the magnetic quantities in a magnetic circuit is always of great interest. On the one hand, this information is needed for the simulation of a transformer. On the other hand, parameter studies are more reliable, if the magnetic quantities are derived from a well established model. One possibility to model the 3-phase transformer is by using a magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC). Though this is a well known system, it is often not an easy task to set up such a model for a large number of lumped elements which additionally includes the nonlinear characteristic of the magnetic material. Here we show the setup of a solver for a MEC and the results of the calculation in comparison to measurements taken. The equations of the MEC are based on a rearranged system of the nodal analysis. Thus it is possible to achieve a minimum number of equations, and a clear and simple structure. Hence, it is uncomplicated in its handling and it supports the iteration process. Additional helpful tasks are implemented within the solver to enhance the performance. The electric circuit is described by an electric equivalent circuit (EEC). Our results for the 3-phase transformer demonstrate the computational efficiency of the solver, and show the benefit of the application of a MEC.

Keywords: Inrush current, magnetic equivalent circuit, nonlinear behavior, transformer.

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1215 Equivalent Circuit Modelling of Active Reflectarray Antenna

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam

Abstract:

This paper presents equivalent circuit modeling of active planar reflectors which can be used for the detailed analysis and characterization of reflector performance in terms of lumped components. Equivalent circuit representation has been proposed for PIN diodes and liquid crystal based active planar reflectors designed within X-band frequency range. A very close agreement has been demonstrated between equivalent circuit results, 3D EM simulated results as well as measured scattering parameter results. In the case of measured results, a maximum discrepancy of 1.05dB was observed in the reflection loss performance, which can be attributed to the losses occurred during measurement process.

Keywords: Equivalent circuit modelling, planar reflectors, reflectarray antenna, PIN diode, liquid crystal.

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1214 Application of Magnetic Circuit and Multiple-Coils Array in Induction Heating for Improving Localized Hyperthermia

Authors: Chi-Fang Huang, Xi-Zhang Lin, Yi-Ru Yang

Abstract:

Aiming the application of localized hyperthermia, a magnetic induction system with new approaches is proposed. The techniques in this system for improving the effectiveness of localized hyperthermia are that using magnetic circuit and the multiple-coil array instead of a giant coil for generating magnetic field. Specially, amorphous metal is adopted as the material of magnetic circuit. Detail design parameters of hardware are well described. Simulation tool is employed for this work and experiment result is reported as well.

Keywords: cancer therapy, hyperthermia, Helmholtz coil, induction heating, magnetic circuit.

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1213 Feasibility Study of a BLDC Motor with Integrated Drive Circuit

Authors: Jun-Hyuk Choi, Joon Sung Park, Jung-Moo Seo, In-Soung Jung

Abstract:

A brushless DC motor with integrated drive circuit for air management system is presented. Using magnetic equivalent circuit model a basic design of the motor is determined, and specific configurations are inspected thanks to finite element analysis. In order to reduce an unbalanced magnetic force in an axial direction, induced forces between a stator core and a permanent magnet are calculated with respect to the relative positions of them. For the high efficiency, and high power density, BLDC motor and drive are developed. Also vibration mode and eccentricity of a rotor are considered at the rated and maximum rotational speed Through the experimental results, a validity of the simulated one is confirmed.

Keywords: blower, BLDC, inverter

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1212 Effective Design Parameters on the End Effect in Single-Sided Linear Induction Motors

Authors: A. Zare Bazghaleh, M. R. Naghashan, H. Mahmoudimanesh, M. R. Meshkatoddini

Abstract:

Linear induction motors are used in various industries but they have some specific phenomena which are the causes for some problems. The most important phenomenon is called end effect. End effect decreases efficiency, power factor and output force and unbalances the phase currents. This phenomenon is more important in medium and high speeds machines. In this paper a factor, EEF , is obtained by an accurate equivalent circuit model, to determine the end effect intensity. In this way, all of effective design parameters on end effect is described. Accuracy of this equivalent circuit model is evaluated by two dimensional finite-element analysis using ANSYS. The results show the accuracy of the equivalent circuit model.

Keywords: Linear induction motor, end effect, equivalent circuitmodel, finite-element method.

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1211 Electrical Equivalent Analysis of Micro Cantilever Beams for Sensing Applications

Authors: B. G. Sheeparamatti, J. S. Kadadevarmath

Abstract:

Microcantilevers are the basic MEMS devices, which can be used as sensors, actuators and electronics can be easily built into them. The detection principle of microcantilever sensors is based on the measurement of change in cantilever deflection or change in its resonance frequency. The objective of this work is to explore the analogies between mechanical and electrical equivalent of microcantilever beams. Normally scientists and engineers working in MEMS use expensive software like CoventorWare, IntelliSuite, ANSYS/Multiphysics etc. This paper indicates the need of developing electrical equivalent of the MEMS structure and with that, one can have a better insight on important parameters, and their interrelation of the MEMS structure. In this work, considering the mechanical model of microcantilever, equivalent electrical circuit is drawn and using force-voltage analogy, it is analyzed with circuit simulation software. By doing so, one can gain access to powerful set of intellectual tools that have been developed for understanding electrical circuits Later the analysis is performed using ANSYS/Multiphysics - software based on finite element method (FEM). It is observed that both mechanical and electrical domain results for a rectangular microcantlevers are in agreement with each other.

Keywords: Electrical equivalent circuit analogy, FEM analysis, micro cantilevers, micro sensors.

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1210 Prediction of the Performance of a Bar-Type Piezoelectric Vibration Actuator Depending on the Frequency Using an Equivalent Circuit Analysis

Authors: J. H. Kim, J. H. Kwon, J. S. Park, K. J. Lim

Abstract:

This paper has been investigated a technique that predicts the performance of a bar-type unimorph piezoelectric vibration actuator depending on the frequency. This paper has been proposed an equivalent circuit that can be easily analyzed for the bar-type unimorph piezoelectric vibration actuator. In the dynamic analysis, rigidity and resonance frequency, which are important mechanical elements, were derived using the basic beam theory. In the equivalent circuit analysis, the displacement and bandwidth of the piezoelectric vibration actuator depending on the frequency were predicted. Also, for the reliability of the derived equations, the predicted performance depending on the shape change was compared with the result of a finite element analysis program.

Keywords: Actuator, performance, piezoelectric, unimorph.Actuator, performance, piezoelectric, unimorph.

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1209 Thermal Modeling of Dry-Transformers and Estimating Temperature Rise

Authors: M. Ghareh, L. Sepahi

Abstract:

Temperature rise in a transformer depends on variety of parameters such as ambient temperature, output current and type of the core. Considering these parameters, temperature rise estimation is still complicated procedure. In this paper, we present a new model based on simple electrical equivalent circuit. This method avoids the complication associated to accurate estimation and is in very good agreement with practice.

Keywords: Thermal modeling, temperature rise, equivalent thermal circuit.

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1208 Modeling and Simulation of Practical Metamaterial Structures

Authors: Ridha Salhi, Mondher Labidi, Fethi Choubani

Abstract:

Metamaterials have attracted much attention in recent years because of their electromagnetic exquisite proprieties. We will present, in this paper, the modeling of three metamaterial structures by equivalent circuit model. We begin by modeling the SRR (Split Ring Resonator), then we model the HIS (High Impedance Surfaces), and finally, we present the model of the CPW (Coplanar Wave Guide). In order to validate models, we compare the results obtained by an equivalent circuit models with numerical simulation.

Keywords: Metamaterials, SRR, HIS, CPW, IDC.

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1207 Variable-Relation Criterion for Analysis of the Memristor

Authors: Qingjiang Li, Hui Xu, Haijun Liu, Xiaobo Tian

Abstract:

To judge whether the memristor can be interpreted as the fourth fundamental circuit element, we propose a variable-relation criterion of fundamental circuit elements. According to the criterion, we investigate the nature of three fundamental circuit elements and the memristor. From the perspective of variables relation, the memristor builds a direct relation between the voltage across it and the current through it, instead of a direct relation between the magnetic flux and the charge. Thus, it is better to characterize the memristor and the resistor as two special cases of the same fundamental circuit element, which is the memristive system in Chua-s new framework. Finally, the definition of memristor is refined according to the difference between the magnetic flux and the flux linkage.

Keywords: Memristor, Fundamental, Variable-Relation Criterion, Memristive system

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1206 Study of the Electromagnetic Resonances of a Cavity with an Aperture Using Numerical Method and Equivalent Circuit Method

Authors: Ming-Chu Yin, Ping-An Du

Abstract:

The shielding ability of a shielding cavity with an aperture will be greatly degraded at resonance frequencies, and the resonance modes and frequencies are affected by aperture resonances and aperture-cavity coupling, which are closely related with aperture sizes. The equivalent circuit method and numerical method of Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) are used to analyze the effects of aperture resonances and aperture-cavity coupling on the electromagnetic resonances of a cavity with an aperture in this paper. Both analytical and numerical results show that the resonance modes of a shielding cavity with an aperture consist of cavity resonance modes and aperture resonance modes, and the resonance frequencies will shift with the change of the aperture sizes because of the aperture resonances and aperture-cavity coupling. Variation rules of electromagnetic resonances with aperture sizes for a cavity with an aperture are given, which will be useful for design of shielding cavities.

Keywords: Aperture-cavity coupling, equivalent circuit method, resonances, shielding equipment.

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1205 Higher Frequency Modeling of Synchronous Exciter Machines by Equivalent Circuits and Transfer Functions

Authors: Marcus Banda

Abstract:

In this article the influence of higher frequency effects in addition to a special damper design on the electrical behavior of a synchronous generator main exciter machine is investigated. On the one hand these machines are often highly stressed by harmonics from the bridge rectifier thus facing additional eddy current losses. On the other hand the switching may cause the excitation of dangerous voltage peaks in resonant circuits formed by the diodes of the rectifier and the commutation reactance of the machine. Therefore modern rotating exciters are treated like synchronous generators usually modeled with a second order equivalent circuit. Hence the well known Standstill Frequency Response Test (SSFR) method is applied to a test machine in order to determine parameters for the simulation. With these results it is clearly shown that higher frequencies have a strong impact on the conventional equivalent circuit model. Because of increasing field displacement effects in the stranded armature winding the sub-transient reactance is even smaller than the armature leakage at high frequencies. As a matter of fact this prevents the algorithm to find an equivalent scheme. This issue is finally solved using Laplace transfer functions fully describing the transient behavior at the model ports.

Keywords: Synchronous exciter machine, Linear transfer function, SSFR, Equivalent Circuit

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1204 Design and Simulation Interface Circuit for Piezoresistive Accelerometers with Offset Cancellation Ability

Authors: Mohsen Bagheri, Ahmad Afifi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method for read out of the piezoresistive accelerometer sensors. The circuit works based on Instrumentation amplifier and it is useful for reducing offset In Wheatstone Bridge. The obtained gain is 645 with 1μv/°c Equivalent drift and 1.58mw power consumption. A Schmitt trigger and multiplexer circuit control output node. a high speed counter is designed in this work .the proposed circuit is designed and simulated In 0.18μm CMOS technology with 1.8v power supply.

Keywords: Piezoresistive accelerometer, zero offset, Schmitt trigger, bidirectional reversible counter

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1203 Analysis of Partially Shaded PV Modules Using Piecewise Linear Parallel Branches Model

Authors: Yaw-Juen Wang, Po-Chun Hsu

Abstract:

This paper presents an equivalent circuit model based on piecewise linear parallel branches (PLPB) to study solar cell modules which are partially shaded. The PLPB model can easily be used in circuit simulation software such as the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP). This PLPB model allows the user to simulate several different configurations of solar cells, the influence of partial shadowing on a single or multiple cells, the influence of the number of solar cells protected by a bypass diode and the effect of the cell connection configuration on partial shadowing.

Keywords: Cell Connection Configurations, EMTP, Equivalent Circuit, Partial Shading, Photovoltaic Module

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1202 Online Battery Equivalent Circuit Model Estimation on Continuous-Time Domain Using Linear Integral Filter Method

Authors: Cheng Zhang, James Marco, Walid Allafi, Truong Q. Dinh, W. D. Widanage

Abstract:

Equivalent circuit models (ECMs) are widely used in battery management systems in electric vehicles and other battery energy storage systems. The battery dynamics and the model parameters vary under different working conditions, such as different temperature and state of charge (SOC) levels, and therefore online parameter identification can improve the modelling accuracy. This paper presents a way of online ECM parameter identification using a continuous time (CT) estimation method. The CT estimation method has several advantages over discrete time (DT) estimation methods for ECM parameter identification due to the widely separated battery dynamic modes and fast sampling. The presented method can be used for online SOC estimation. Test data are collected using a lithium ion cell, and the experimental results show that the presented CT method achieves better modelling accuracy compared with the conventional DT recursive least square method. The effectiveness of the presented method for online SOC estimation is also verified on test data.

Keywords: Equivalent circuit model, continuous time domain estimation, linear integral filter method, parameter and SOC estimation, recursive least square.

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1201 Development and Validation of Cylindrical Linear Oscillating Generator

Authors: Sungin Jeong

Abstract:

This paper presents a linear oscillating generator of cylindrical type for hybrid electric vehicle application. The focus of the study is the suggestion of the optimal model and the design rule of the cylindrical linear oscillating generator with permanent magnet in the back-iron translator. The cylindrical topology is achieved using equivalent magnetic circuit considering leakage elements as initial modeling. This topology with permanent magnet in the back-iron translator is described by number of phases and displacement of stroke. For more accurate analysis of an oscillating machine, it will be compared by moving just one-pole pitch forward and backward the thrust of single-phase system and three-phase system. Through the analysis and comparison, a single-phase system of cylindrical topology as the optimal topology is selected. Finally, the detailed design of the optimal topology takes the magnetic saturation effects into account by finite element analysis. Besides, the losses are examined to obtain more accurate results; copper loss in the conductors of machine windings, eddy-current loss of permanent magnet, and iron-loss of specific material of electrical steel. The considerations of thermal performances and mechanical robustness are essential, because they have an effect on the entire efficiency and the insulations of the machine due to the losses of the high temperature generated in each region of the generator. Besides electric machine with linear oscillating movement requires a support system that can resist dynamic forces and mechanical masses. As a result, the fatigue analysis of shaft is achieved by the kinetic equations. Also, the thermal characteristics are analyzed by the operating frequency in each region. The results of this study will give a very important design rule in the design of linear oscillating machines. It enables us to more accurate machine design and more accurate prediction of machine performances.

Keywords: Equivalent magnetic circuit, finite element analysis, hybrid electric vehicle, free piston engine, cylindrical linear oscillating generator

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1200 A Study on Brushless DC Motor for High Torque Density

Authors: Jung-Moo Seo, Jung-Hwan Kim, Se-Hyun Rhyu, Jun-Hyuk Choi, In-Soung Jung,

Abstract:

Brushless DC motor with high torque density and slim topology for easy loading for robot system is proposed and manufactured. Electromagnetic design is executed by equivalent magnetic circuit model and numerical analysis. Manufactured motor is tested and verified characteristics comparing with conventional BLDC motor.

Keywords: Brushless DC motor, Robot joint module, Torque density, Pole/slot ratio

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1199 Optimization of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Equivalent Circuit Parameters by Direct Search Method

Authors: Mamidi Ramakrishna Rao

Abstract:

Doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is currently the choice for many wind turbines. These generators, when connected to the grid through a converter, is subjected to varied power system conditions like voltage variation, frequency variation, short circuit fault conditions, etc. Further, many countries like Canada, Germany, UK, Scotland, etc. have distinct grid codes relating to wind turbines. Accordingly, following the network faults, wind turbines have to supply a definite reactive current. To satisfy the requirements including reactive current capability, an optimum electrical design becomes a mandate for DFIG to function. This paper intends to optimize the equivalent circuit parameters of an electrical design for satisfactory DFIG performance. Direct search method has been used for optimization of the parameters. The variables selected include electromagnetic core dimensions (diameters and stack length), slot dimensions, radial air gap between stator and rotor and winding copper cross section area. Optimization for 2 MW DFIG has been executed separately for three objective functions - maximum reactive power capability (Case I), maximum efficiency (Case II) and minimum weight (Case III). In the optimization analysis program, voltage variations (10%), power factor- leading and lagging (0.95), speeds for corresponding to slips (-0.3 to +0.3) have been considered. The optimum designs obtained for objective functions were compared. It can be concluded that direct search method of optimization helps in determining an optimum electrical design for each objective function like efficiency or reactive power capability or weight minimization.

Keywords: Direct search, DFIG, equivalent circuit parameters, optimization.

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1198 Design, Analysis and Modeling of Dual Band Microstrip Loop Antenna Using Defective Ground Plane

Authors: R. Bansal, A. Jain, M. Kumar, R. S. Meena

Abstract:

Present wireless communication demands compact and intelligent devices with multitasking capabilities at affordable cost. The focus in the presented paper is on a dual band antenna for wireless communication with the capability of operating at two frequency bands with same structure. Two resonance frequencies are observed with the second operation band at 4.2GHz approximately three times the first resonance frequency at 1.5GHz. Structure is simple loop of microstrip line with characteristic impedance 50 ohms. The proposed antenna is designed using defective ground structure (DGS) and shows the nearly one third reductions in size as compared to without DGS. This antenna was simulated on electromagnetic (EM) simulation software and fabricated using microwave integrated circuit technique on RT-Duroid dielectric substrate (εr= 2.22) of thickness (H=15 mils). The designed antenna was tested on automatic network analyzer and shows the good agreement with simulated results. The proposed structure is modeled into an equivalent electrical circuit and simulated on circuit simulator. Subsequently, theoretical analysis was carried out and simulated. The simulated, measured, equivalent circuit response, and theoretical results shows good resemblance. The bands of operation draw many potential applications in today’s wireless communication.

Keywords: Defective Ground plane, Dual band, Loop Antenna, Microstrip antenna, Resonance frequency.

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1197 Development of Blower for Air Management System of Fuel Cell Modules

Authors: Joo-Han Kim, Jung-Moo Seo, Ha Gyeong Sung, Se Hyun Rhyu

Abstract:

This study presents a blower for air management system of fuel cell modules. A blower is composed of BLDC motor and impeller. Magnetic equivalent circuit model and finite element analysis are used to design the motor, and an improved structure is considered to reduce a mechanical loss induced from bearing units. Finally, air blower system combined with the motor and an impeller is manufactured and output properties, such as an air pressure and an amount of flowing air, are measured. Through the experimental results, a validity of the simulated one is confirmed.

Keywords: Fuel cell modules, BLDC motor, Impeller, Air management

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1196 Piezoelectric Transducer Modeling: with System Identification (SI) Method

Authors: Nora Taghavi, Ali Sadr

Abstract:

System identification is the process of creating models of dynamic process from input- output signals. The aim of system identification can be identified as “ to find a model with adjustable parameters and then to adjust them so that the predicted output matches the measured output". This paper presents a method of modeling and simulating with system identification to achieve the maximum fitness for transformation function. First by using optimized KLM equivalent circuit for PVDF piezoelectric transducer and assuming different inputs including: sinuside, step and sum of sinusides, get the outputs, then by using system identification toolbox in MATLAB, we estimate the transformation function from inputs and outputs resulted in last program. Then compare the fitness of transformation function resulted from using ARX,OE(Output- Error) and BJ(Box-Jenkins) models in system identification toolbox and primary transformation function form KLM equivalent circuit.

Keywords: PVDF modeling, ARX, BJ(Box-Jenkins), OE(Output-Error), System Identification.

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1195 Optimization by Means of Genetic Algorithm of the Equivalent Electrical Circuit Model of Different Order for Li-ion Battery Pack

Authors: V. Pizarro-Carmona, S. Castano-Solis, M. Cortés-Carmona, J. Fraile-Ardanuy, D. Jimenez-Bermejo

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to optimize the Equivalent Electric Circuit Model (EECM) of different orders to obtain greater precision in the modeling of Li-ion battery packs. Optimization includes considering circuits based on 1RC, 2RC and 3RC networks, with a dependent voltage source and a series resistor. The parameters are obtained experimentally using tests in the time domain and in the frequency domain. Due to the high non-linearity of the behavior of the battery pack, Genetic Algorithm (GA) was used to solve and optimize the parameters of each EECM considered (1RC, 2RC and 3RC). The objective of the estimation is to minimize the mean square error between the measured impedance in the real battery pack and those generated by the simulation of different proposed circuit models. The results have been verified by comparing the Nyquist graphs of the estimation of the complex impedance of the pack. As a result of the optimization, the 2RC and 3RC circuit alternatives are considered as viable to represent the battery behavior. These battery pack models are experimentally validated using a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation platform that reproduces the well-known New York City cycle (NYCC) and Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycles for electric vehicles. The results show that using GA optimization allows obtaining EECs with 2RC or 3RC networks, with high precision to represent the dynamic behavior of a battery pack in vehicular applications.

Keywords: Li-ion battery packs modeling optimized, EECM, GA, electric vehicle applications.

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1194 Equivalent Field Calculation to Irregular Symmetric and Asymmetric Photon Fields

Authors: N. Chegeni, M. J. Tahmasebi Birgani

Abstract:

Equivalent fields are frequently used for central axis depth-dose calculations of rectangular and irregular shaped photon beam. Since most of the proposed models to calculate the equivalent square field, are dosimetry-based, a simple physical-based method to calculate the equivalent square field size was used as the basis of this study. The table of the sides of the equivalent square for rectangular fields was constructed and then compared with the well-known tables of BJR and Venselaar with the average relative error percentage of 2.5±2.5 % and 1.5±1.5 % respectively. To evaluate the accuracy of this method, the PDDs were measured for some special irregular symmetric and asymmetric treatment fields and their equivalent squares for Siemens Primus Plus linear accelerator for both energies 6 and 18MV. The mean relative differences of PDDs measurement for these fields and their equivalent square was approximately 1% or less. As a result, this method can be employed to calculate equivalent field not only for rectangular fields but also for any irregular symmetric or asymmetric field.

Keywords: Equivalent field, asymmetric field, irregular field, multi leaf collimators.

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1193 Simulation and Analytical Investigation of Different Combination of Single Phase Power Transformers

Authors: M. Salih Taci, N. Tayebi, I. Bozkır

Abstract:

In this paper, the equivalent circuit of the ideal single-phase power transformer with its appropriate voltage current measurement was presented. The calculated values of the voltages and currents of the different connections single phase normal transformer and the results of the simulation process are compared. As it can be seen, the calculated results are the same as the simulated results. This paper includes eight possible different transformer connections. Depending on the desired voltage level, step-down and step-up application transformer is considered. Modelling and analysis of a system consisting of an equivalent source, transformer (primary and secondary), and loads are performed to investigate the combinations. The obtained values are simulated in PSpice environment and then how the currents, voltages and phase angle are distributed between them is explained based on calculation.

Keywords: Transformer, simulation, equivalent model, parallel series combinations.

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1192 Hydrothermal Behavior of G-S Magnetically Stabilized Beds Consisting of Magnetic and Non-Magnetic Admixtures

Authors: Z. Al-Qodah, M. Al-Busoul, A. Khraewish

Abstract:

The hydrothermal behavior of a bed consisting of magnetic and shale oil particle admixtures under the effect of a transverse magnetic field is investigated. The phase diagram, bed void fraction are studied under wide range of the operating conditions i.e., gas velocity, magnetic field intensity and fraction of the magnetic particles. It is found that the range of the stabilized regime is reduced as the magnetic fraction decreases. In addition, the bed voidage at the onset of fluidization decreases as the magnetic fraction decreases. On the other hand, Nusselt number and consequently the heat transfer coefficient is found to increase as the magnetic fraction decreases. An empirical equation is investigated to relate the effect of the gas velocity, magnetic field intensity and fraction of the magnetic particles on the heat transfer behavior in the bed.

Keywords: Magnetic stabilization; Magnetic stabilized fluidizedbeds; Gas-fluidized beds.

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1191 Design and Development of On-Line, On-Site, In-Situ Induction Motor Performance Analyser

Authors: G. S. Ayyappan, Srinivas Kota, Jaffer R. C. Sheriff, C. Prakash Chandra Joshua

Abstract:

In the present scenario of energy crises, energy conservation in the electrical machines is very important in the industries. In order to conserve energy, one needs to monitor the performance of an induction motor on-site and in-situ. The instruments available for this purpose are very meager and very expensive. This paper deals with the design and development of induction motor performance analyser on-line, on-site, and in-situ. The system measures only few electrical input parameters like input voltage, line current, power factor, frequency, powers, and motor shaft speed. These measured data are coupled to name plate details and compute the operating efficiency of induction motor. This system employs the method of computing motor losses with the help of equivalent circuit parameters. The equivalent circuit parameters of the concerned motor are estimated using the developed algorithm at any load conditions and stored in the system memory. The developed instrument is a reliable, accurate, compact, rugged, and cost-effective one. This portable instrument could be used as a handy tool to study the performance of both slip ring and cage induction motors. During the analysis, the data can be stored in SD Memory card and one can perform various analyses like load vs. efficiency, torque vs. speed characteristics, etc. With the help of the developed instrument, one can operate the motor around its Best Operating Point (BOP). Continuous monitoring of the motor efficiency could lead to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of motors. LCA helps in taking decisions on motor replacement or retaining or refurbishment.

Keywords: Energy conservation, equivalent circuit parameters, induction motor efficiency, life cycle assessment, motor performance analysis.

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1190 The Influence of Reaction Parameters on Magnetic Properties of Synthesized Strontium Ferrite

Authors: M. Bahgat, F. M. Awan, H. A. Hanafy

Abstract:

The conventional ceramic route was utilized to prepare a hard magnetic powder (M-type strontium ferrite, SrFe12O19). The stoichiometric mixture of iron oxide and strontium carbonate were calcined at 1000oC and then fired at various temperatures. The influence of various reaction parameters such as mixing ratio, calcination temperature, firing temperature and firing time on the magnetic behaviors of the synthesized magnetic powder were investigated. The magnetic properties including Coercivity (Hc), Magnetic saturation (Ms), and Magnetic remnance (Mr) were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. Morphologically the produced magnetic powder has a dense hexagonal grain shape structure.

Keywords: Hard magnetic materials, ceramic route, strontium ferrite, magnetic properties.

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1189 Magnetic End Leakage Flux in a Spoke Type Rotor Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

Authors: Petter Eklund, Jonathan Sjölund, Sandra Eriksson, Mats Leijon

Abstract:

The spoke type rotor can be used to obtain magnetic flux concentration in permanent magnet machines. This allows the air gap magnetic flux density to exceed the remanent flux density of the permanent magnets but gives problems with leakage fluxes in the magnetic circuit. The end leakage flux of one spoke type permanent magnet rotor design is studied through measurements and finite element simulations. The measurements are performed in the end regions of a 12 kW prototype generator for a vertical axis wind turbine. The simulations are made using three dimensional finite elements to calculate the magnetic field distribution in the end regions of the machine. Also two dimensional finite element simulations are performed and the impact of the two dimensional approximation is studied. It is found that the magnetic leakage flux in the end regions of the machine is equal to about 20% of the flux in the permanent magnets. The overestimation of the performance by the two dimensional approximation is quantified and a curve-fitted expression for its behavior is suggested.

Keywords: End effects, end leakage flux, permanent magnet machine, spoke type rotor.

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1188 Mathematical Modeling on Capturing of Magnetic Nanoparticles in an Implant Assisted Channel for Magnetic Drug Targeting

Authors: Shashi Sharma, V. K. Katiyar, Uaday Singh

Abstract:

In IA-MDT, the magnetic implants are placed strategically at the target site to greatly and locally increase the magnetic force on MDCPs and help to attract and retain the MDCPs at the targeted region. In the present work, we develop a mathematical model to study the capturing of magnetic nanoparticles flowing within a fluid in an implant assisted cylindrical channel under magnetic field. A coil of ferromagnetic SS-430 has been implanted inside the cylindrical channel to enhance the capturing of magnetic nanoparticles under magnetic field. The dominant magnetic and drag forces, which significantly affect the capturing of nanoparticles, are incorporated in the model. It is observed through model results that capture efficiency increases as we increase the magnetic field from 0.1 to 0.5 T, respectively. The increase in capture efficiency by increase in magnetic field is because as the magnetic field increases, the magnetization force, which is attractive in nature and responsible to attract or capture the magnetic particles, increases and results the capturing of large number of magnetic particles due to high strength of attractive magnetic force.

Keywords: Capture efficiency, Implant assisted-Magnetic drug targeting (IA-MDT), Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs).

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1187 Simulation of a Boost PFC Converter with Electro Magnetic Interference Filter

Authors: P. Ram Mohan, M. Vijaya Kumar, O. V. Raghava Reddy

Abstract:

This paper deals with the simulation of a Boost Power Factor Correction (PFC) Converter with Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI) Filter. The diode rectifier with output capacitor gives poor power factor. The Boost Converter of PFC Circuit is analyzed and then simulated with diode rectifier. The Boost PFC Converter with EMI Filter is simulated for resistive load. The power factor is improved using the proposed converter.

Keywords: Boost Converter, Power Factor Correction, Electro Magnetic Interference, Diode Rectifier

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