Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Environmental engineering

10 Effect of Temperature on the Water Retention Capacity of Liner Materials

Authors: Ahmed M. Al-Mahbashi, Mosleh A. Al-Shamrani, Muawia Dafalla

Abstract:

Mixtures of sand and clay are frequently used to serve for specific purposes in several engineering practices. In environmental engineering, liner layers and cover layers are common for controlling waste disposal facilities. These layers are exposed to moisture and temperature fluctuation specially when existing in unsaturated condition. The relationship between soil suction and water content for these materials is essential for understanding their unsaturated behavior and properties such as retention capacity and unsaturated follow (hydraulic conductivity). This study is aimed at investigating retention capacity for two sand-natural expansive clay mixtures (15% (C15) and 30% (C30) expansive clay) at two ambient temperatures within the range of 5 -50 °C. Soil water retention curves (SWRC) for these materials were determined at these two ambient temperatures using different salt solutions for a wide range of suction (up to 200MPa). The results indicate that retention capacity of C15 mixture underwent significant changes due to temperature variations. This effect tends to be less visible when the clay fraction is doubled (C30). In addition, the overall volume change is marginally affected by high temperature within the range considered in this study.

Keywords: Soil water retention curve, sand-expansive clay mixture, suction, temperature.

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9 Geotechnical Properties and Compressibility Behavior of Organic Dredged Soils

Authors: Inci Develioglu, Hasan Firat Pulat

Abstract:

Sustainable development is one of the most important topics in today's world, and it is also an important research topic for geoenvironmental engineering. Dredging process is performed to expand the river and port channel, flood control and accessing harbors. Every year large amount of sediment are dredged for these purposes. Dredged marine soils can be reused as filling materials, road and foundation embankments, construction materials and wildlife habitat developments. In this study, geotechnical engineering properties and compressibility behavior of dredged soil obtained from the Izmir Bay were investigated. The samples with four different organic matter contents were obtained and particle size distributions, consistency limits, pH and specific gravity tests were performed. The consolidation tests were conducted to examine organic matter content (OMC) effects on compressibility behavior of dredged soil. This study has shown that the OMC has an important effect on the engineering properties of dredged soils. The liquid and plastic limits increased with increasing OMC. The lowest specific gravity belonged to sample which has the maximum OMC. The specific gravity values ranged between 2.76 and 2.52. The maximum void ratio difference belongs to sample with the highest OMC (De11% = 0.38). As the organic matter content of the samples increases, the change in the void ratio has also increased. The compression index increases with increasing OMC.

Keywords: Compressibility, consolidation, geotechnical properties, organic matter content, organic soils.

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8 Comparison of Polynomial and Radial Basis Kernel Functions based SVR and MLR in Modeling Mass Transfer by Vertical and Inclined Multiple Plunging Jets

Authors: S. Deswal, M. Pal

Abstract:

Presently various computational techniques are used in modeling and analyzing environmental engineering data. In the present study, an intra-comparison of polynomial and radial basis kernel functions based on Support Vector Regression and, in turn, an inter-comparison with Multi Linear Regression has been attempted in modeling mass transfer capacity of vertical (θ = 90O) and inclined (θ multiple plunging jets (varying from 1 to 16 numbers). The data set used in this study consists of four input parameters with a total of eighty eight cases, forty four each for vertical and inclined multiple plunging jets. For testing, tenfold cross validation was used. Correlation coefficient values of 0.971 and 0.981 along with corresponding root mean square error values of 0.0025 and 0.0020 were achieved by using polynomial and radial basis kernel functions based Support Vector Regression respectively. An intra-comparison suggests improved performance by radial basis function in comparison to polynomial kernel based Support Vector Regression. Further, an inter-comparison with Multi Linear Regression (correlation coefficient = 0.973 and root mean square error = 0.0024) reveals that radial basis kernel functions based Support Vector Regression performs better in modeling and estimating mass transfer by multiple plunging jets.

Keywords: Mass transfer, multiple plunging jets, polynomial and radial basis kernel functions, Support Vector Regression.

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7 Effect of Open-Ended Laboratory toward Learners Performance in Environmental Engineering Course: Case Study of Civil Engineering at Universiti Malaysia Sabah

Authors: N. Bolong, J. Makinda, I. Saad

Abstract:

Laboratory activities have produced benefits in student learning. With current drives of new technology resources and evolving era of education methods, renewal status of learning and teaching in laboratory methods are in progress, for both learners and the educators. To enhance learning outcomes in laboratory works particularly in engineering practices and testing, learning via handson by instruction may not sufficient. This paper describes and compares techniques and implementation of traditional (expository) with open-ended laboratory (problem-based) for two consecutive cohorts studying environmental laboratory course in civil engineering program. The transition of traditional to problem-based findings and effect were investigated in terms of course assessment student feedback survey, course outcome learning measurement and student performance grades. It was proved that students have demonstrated better performance in their grades and 12% increase in the course outcome (CO) in problem-based open-ended laboratory style than traditional method; although in perception, students has responded less favorable in their feedback.

Keywords: Engineering education, open-ended laboratory, environmental engineering lab.

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6 Implementation of Technology Concept for the Reduction of Cyanobacteria in Laboratory

Authors: D. Šebo, M. Fedorčáková

Abstract:

Following the research in the Department of environmental engineering in Faculty of mechanical engineering on Technical University of Kosice and experiences with electrocoagulation style of disposal waste water, there were designed and partly examining the equipment of two stage revitalization on the standing and little fusible water of tenet electrolysis on the little tarns. With the cooperation with vet experts was that manners prove and it is innocuous for animals, during which time cyanobacteria are totally paralyzed. For the implementation of science and research results have been obtained by means EU funds for structural development.

Keywords: Cyanobacteria, Equipment, Pollution, Stagnant Water, Technology

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5 Mechanical-Physical Characteristics Affecting the Durability of Fibre Reinforced Concrete with Recycled Aggregate

Authors: Vladimira Vytlacilova

Abstract:

The article presents findings from the study and analysis of the results of an experimental programme focused on the production of concrete and fibre reinforced concrete in which natural aggregate has been substituted with brick or concrete recyclate. The research results are analyzed to monitor the effect of mechanicalphysical characteristics on the durability properties of tested cementitious composites. The key parts of the fibre reinforced concrete mix are the basic components: aggregates – recyclate, cement, fly ash, water and fibres. Their specific ratios and the properties of individual components principally affect the resulting behaviour of fresh fibre reinforced concrete and the characteristics of the final product. The article builds on the sources dealing with the use of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste in the production of fibre reinforced concrete. The implemented procedure of testing the composite contributes to the building sustainability in environmental engineering.

Keywords: Recycled aggregate, Polypropylene fibres, Fibre Reinforced Concrete, Fly ash.

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4 Evaluation Biofilm Sewage Treatment Plant

Authors: K. M. Shahot. I. A. Ekhmaj

Abstract:

The research study is carried out to determine the efficiency of the Biofilm sewage treatment plant which is located at the Engineering Complex-s. Wastewater analyses have been carried out at the Environmental Engineering laboratory to study the six parameters: Biochemical Oxygen Demand BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand COD l, and Total Suspended Solids TSS, Ammoniac Nitrogen NH3-N and Phosphorous P which have been selected to determine the wastewater quality. The plant was designed to treat 750 Pe (population equivalent) at hydraulic retention time of 5 hours in the aerobic zone. The results show that Biofilm wastewater treatment plant was able to treat sewage successfully at different flow condition. The discharge has fulfilled the Malaysia Environmental of Standard A water quality. The achieved BOD removal is more than 85%, COD is more than 80%, TSS is more than 80%, NH3-N is more than 70%, and P was more than 70%. The Biofilm system provides a very efficient process for sewage treatment and it is compact in structure thus minimizes the required land area.

Keywords: Sewage, Bio film, Cosmo-Ball, Activated sludge

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3 Mixed Convection in a Vertical Heated Channel: Influence of the Aspect Ratio

Authors: Ameni Mokni , Hatem Mhiri , Georges Le Palec , Philippe Bournot

Abstract:

In mechanical and environmental engineering, mixed convection is a frequently encountered thermal fluid phenomenon which exists in atmospheric environment, urban canopy flows, ocean currents, gas turbines, heat exchangers, and computer chip cooling systems etc... . This paper deals with a numerical investigation of mixed convection in a vertical heated channel. This flow results from the mixing of the up-going fluid along walls of the channel with the one issued from a flat nozzle located in its entry section. The fluiddynamic and heat-transfer characteristics of vented vertical channels are investigated for constant heat-flux boundary conditions, a Rayleigh number equal to 2.57 1010, for two jet Reynolds number Re=3 103 and 2104 and the aspect ratio in the 8-20 range. The system of governing equations is solved with a finite volumes method and an implicit scheme. The obtained results show that the turbulence and the jet-wall interaction activate the heat transfer, as does the drive of ambient air by the jet. For low Reynolds number Re=3 103, the increase of the aspect Ratio enhances the heat transfer of about 3%, however; for Re=2 104, the heat transfer enhancement is of about 12%. The numerical velocity, pressure and temperature fields are post-processed to compute the quantities of engineering interest such as the induced mass flow rate, and average Nusselt number, in terms of Rayleigh, Reynolds numbers and dimensionless geometric parameters are presented.

Keywords: Aspect Ratio, Channel, Jet, Mixed convection

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2 The Index of Sustainable Functionality: An Application for Measuring Sustainability

Authors: G.T. Cirella, L. Tao

Abstract:

The index of sustainable functionality (ISF) is an adaptive, multi-criteria technique that is used to measure sustainability; it is a concept that can be transposed to many regions throughout the world. An ISF application of the Southern Regional Organisation of Councils (SouthROC) in South East Queensland (SEQ) – the fastest growing region in Australia – indicated over a 25 year period an increase of over 10% level of functionality from 58.0% to 68.3%. The ISF of SouthROC utilised methodologies that derived from an expert panel based approach. The overall results attained an intermediate level of functionality which amounted to related concerns of economic progress and lack of social awareness. Within the region, a solid basis for future testing by way of measured changes and developed trends can be established. In this regard as management tool, the ISF record offers support for regional sustainability practice and decision making alike. This research adaptively analyses sustainability – a concept that is lacking throughout much of the academic literature and any reciprocal experimentation. This lack of knowledge base has been the emphasis of where future sustainability research can grow from and prove useful in rapidly growing regions. It is the intentions of this research to help further develop the notions of index-based quantitative sustainability.

Keywords: Environmental engineering, index of sustainable functionality, sustainability indicators, sustainable development.

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1 Bayesian Decision Approach to Protection on the Flood Event in Upper Ayeyarwady River, Myanmar

Authors: Min Min Swe Zin

Abstract:

This paper introduces the foundations of Bayesian probability theory and Bayesian decision method. The main goal of Bayesian decision theory is to minimize the expected loss of a decision or minimize the expected risk. The purposes of this study are to review the decision process on the issue of flood occurrences and to suggest possible process for decision improvement. This study examines the problem structure of flood occurrences and theoretically explicates the decision-analytic approach based on Bayesian decision theory and application to flood occurrences in Environmental Engineering. In this study, we will discuss about the flood occurrences upon an annual maximum water level in cm, 43-year record available from 1965 to 2007 at the gauging station of Sagaing on the Ayeyarwady River with the drainage area - 120193 sq km by using Bayesian decision method. As a result, we will discuss the loss and risk of vast areas of agricultural land whether which will be inundated or not in the coming year based on the two standard maximum water levels during 43 years. And also we forecast about that lands will be safe from flood water during the next 10 years.

Keywords: Bayesian decision method, conditional binomial distribution, minimax rules, prior beta distribution.

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