Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1383

Search results for: Environmental changes

1383 Social Responsibility and Environmental Issues Addressed by Businesses in Romania

Authors: Daniela Grădinaru, Iuliana Georgescu, Loredana Huţanu (Toma), Mihai-Bogdan Afrăsinei

Abstract:

This article aims to analyze the situation of Romanian companies from an environmental point of view. Environmental issues are addressed very often nowadays, and they reach and affect every domain, including the economical one. Implementing an environmental management system will not only help the companies to comply with laws and regulations, but, above all, will offer them an important competitive advantage.

Keywords: Environmental management system, environmental reporting, environmental expenses, sustainable development.

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1382 Sustainable Ship Management

Authors: Gorana Jelic Mrcelic, Merica Sliskovic

Abstract:

Environmental responsibility includes improvement of environmental performance in order to reduce environmental impact. This paper gives a short review of some important environmental objectives, targets and actions that modern shipping company should follow.

Keywords: Environment, MARPOL, ships, pollutants.

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1381 Decision Making about the Environmental Management Implementation – Incentives and Expectations

Authors: Eva Štěpánková

Abstract:

Environmental management implementation is presently one of the ways of organization success and value improvement. Increasing an organization motivation to environmental measures introduction is caused primarily by the rising pressure of the society that generates various incentives to endeavor for the environmental performance improvement. The aim of the paper is to identify and characterize the key incentives and expectations leading organizations to the environmental management implementation. The author focuses on five businesses of different size and field, operating in the Czech Republic. The qualitative approach and grounded theory procedure are used in research. The results point out that the significant incentives for environmental management implementation represent primarily demands of customers, the opportunity to declare the environmental commitment and image improvement. The researched enterprises less commonly expect the economical contribution, competitive advantage increase or export rate improvement. The results show that marketing contributions are primarily expected from the environmental management implementation.

Keywords: Environmental management, environmental management systems, ISO 14001.

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1380 A Critical Review on the Development of a Theoretical Framework for Managing Environmental Impacts of Construction Project

Authors: Sami Mustafa M. E. Ahmed, Noor Amila Wan Abdullah Zawawi, Zulkipli B. Ghazali

Abstract:

Construction industry is considered as one of the main contributor of natural resources depletion, responsible for high level pollution and it is one of the attributes that pose climate changes and other environmental threats. A lot of efforts had and have been done to reduce and control these impacts. Project Environmental Management (PEM) includes the processes required to ensure that the impacts of the project execution to the surrounding environment will remain within the limits stated in legal permits. The main aim of most of researches conducted managing Environmental Impacts (EI) is to protect earth planet from pollution. Those researches are presenting four major environmental elements; Environmental Management Systems (EMS), Environmental Design (ED), Environmental Planning (EP) and Environmental Impacts Assessments (EIA). Although everything has been said about environmental management for construction projects, but almost everything remains to be said and therefore to be explored or rediscovered because incontestably, almost everything remains to be done. This paper aimed at reviewing some of what has been said about PEM. Also one of its objectives is to explore and rediscover the whole view of managing the EI problems by proposing a framework that based on the relation between these environmental researches.

Keywords: Environmental planning, sustainable design, EIA and EMS.

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1379 GRI – Reporting Chemical Sector's Environmental Item Disclosures

Authors: M. Suutari

Abstract:

In this content analysis research note the aim was to explore to how sustainability and especially environmental issues are conveyed into environmental items in annual reports and disclosures. As The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) is a globally wide multistakeholder process, the enterprises using voluntarily GRI framework are considered to be aware of sustainability and environmental concerns. The findings were that although these enterprises included in an environmentally sensitive industry sector and had special capabilities to consider environmental issues there were few GRIreporting enterprises presented substantially detailed environmental items in audited financial statements. There were only slight differences between publishing years 2008 and 2009 - the beginning years of economic turmoil. The environmental issues seemed not to be considered substantial enough for financial reporting as a basis for concerning investment or voting decisions.

Keywords: Environmental, reporting, financial, GRI.

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1378 Environmental Performance Assessment Model as a Sustainability Decision Tool for Small and Middle Sized Enterprises

Authors: Pavol Molnar, Martin Dolinsky

Abstract:

Paper deals with environmental metrics and assessment systems devoted to Small and Medium Sized Enterprises. Authors are presenting proposed assessment model which has an ability to discover current environmental strengths and weaknesses of Small and Middle Sized Enterprise. Suggested model has also an ambition to become a Sustainability Decision Tool. Model is able to identify "best environmental devision" in the company, and to quantify how this decision contributed into overall environmental improvement. Authors understand environmental improvements as environmental innovations (product, process and organizational). Suggested model is based on its own concept; however, authors are also utilizing already existing environmental assessment tools.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, (e)IMPACT model, Environmental metrics, , Small and Middle Sized Enterprises

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1377 The Used of Environmental Ethics in Methods and Techniques of Environmental Management

Authors: Amir Hossein Davami, Ali Gholami, Ebrahim Panahpour

Abstract:

Although, it is a long time that human know about the importance of environment in life, but at the last decade of 20 century, the space that was full of hot scientific, collegial and political were made in environmental challenge, So much that, this problem not only disarrange the peace and security of life, but also it has threatened human existence. One of the problems in last years that are significant for authorities is unsatisfactory achieved results against of using huge cost for magnificent environmental projects. This subject leads thinker to this thought that for solving the environmental problems it is needed new methods include of sociology, ethics and philosophic, etc. methods apart of technical affairs. Environment ethics is a new branch of philosophic ethics discussion that discusses about the ethics relationship between humans and universe that is around them. By notifying to the above considered affairs, in today world, necessity of environmental ethics for environment management is reduplicated. In the following the article has been focused on environmental ethics role and environmental management methods and techniques for developing it.

Keywords: Environmental ethics and philosophy, Environmental challenges, Management techniques, Ethical values.

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1376 Role of Environmental Focus in Legal Protection and Efficient Management of Wetlands in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: K. R. Balabiyev, A. O. Kaipbayeva

Abstract:

The article discusses the legal framework of the government’s environmental function and analyzes the role of the national policy in protection of wetlands. The problem is of interest for it deals with the most important branch of economy – utilization of Kazakhstan’s natural resources, protection of health and environmental wellbeing of the population. Development of a longterm environmental program addressing the protection of wetlands represents the final stage of the government’s environmental policy, and is a relatively new function for the public administration system. It appeared due to the environmental measures that require immediate decisions to be taken. It is an integral part of the effort in the field of management of state-owned natural resource, as well as of the measures aimed at efficient management of natural resources to avoid their early depletion or contamination.

Keywords: Environmental focus, government’s environmental function, protection of wetlands.

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1375 Education Function of Botanical Gardens

Authors: Ruhugül Özge Ocak, Banu Öztürk Kurtaslan

Abstract:

Botanical gardens are very significant organizations which protect the environment against the increasing environmental problems, provide environmental education for people, offer recreation possibilities, etc. This article describes botanical gardens and their functions. The most important function of botanical garden is to provide environmental education for people and improve environmental awareness. Considering this function, some botanical gardens were examined and opinions were suggested about the subject.

Keywords: Botanical garden, environment, environmental education, recreation.

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1374 Peace through Environmental Stewardship

Authors: Elizabeth D. Ramos

Abstract:

Peace education supports a holistic appreciation for the value of life and the interdependence of all living systems. Peace education aims to build a culture of peace. One way of building a culture of peace is through environmental stewardship. This study sought to find out the environmental stewardship practices in selected Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in the Philippines and how these environmental stewardship practices lead to building a culture of peace. The findings revealed that there is still room for improvement in implementing environmental stewardship in schools through academic service learning. In addition, the following manifestations are implemented very satisfactorily in schools: 1) waste reduction, reuse, and recycling, 2) community service, and 3) clean and green surroundings. Administrators of schools in the study lead their staff and students in implementing environmental stewardship. It could be concluded that those involved in environmental stewardship display an acceptable culture of peace, particularly solidarity, respect for persons, and inner peace.

Keywords: Academic service learning, environmental stewardship, leadership support, peace, solidarity.

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1373 Implementation of Environmental Sustainability into Event Management

Authors: Özlem Küçükakça

Abstract:

The world population is rapidly growing. In the last few decades, environmental protection and climate change have been remarked as a global concern. All events have their own ecological footprint. Therefore, all participants who take part in the events, from event organizer to audience should be responsible for reducing carbon emissions. Currently, there is a literature gap which investigates the relationship between events and environment. Hence, this study is conducted to investigate how to implement environmental sustainability in the event management. Therefore, a wide literature and also the UK festivals database have been investigated. Finally, environmental effects and the solution of reducing impacts at events were discussed.

Keywords: Ecological footprint, environmental sustainability, events, sustainability.

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1372 Combing LCIA and Fuzzy Risk Assessment for Environmental Impact Assessment

Authors: Kevin Fong-Rey Liu, Cheng-Wu Chen, Ken Yeh, Han-Hsi Liang

Abstract:

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a procedure tool of environmental management for identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the adverse effects of development proposals. EIA reports usually analyze how the amounts or concentrations of pollutants obey the relevant standards. Actually, many analytical tools can deepen the analysis of environmental impacts in EIA reports, such as life cycle assessment (LCA) and environmental risk assessment (ERA). Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is one of steps in LCA to introduce the causal relationships among environmental hazards and damage. Incorporating the LCIA concept into ERA as an integrated tool for EIA can extend the focus of the regulatory compliance of environmental impacts to determine of the significance of environmental impacts. Sometimes, when using integrated tools, it is necessary to consider fuzzy situations due to insufficient information; therefore, ERA should be generalized to fuzzy risk assessment (FRA). Finally, the use of the proposed methodology is demonstrated through the study case of the expansion plan of the world-s largest plastics processing factory.

Keywords: Fuzzy risk analysis, life cycle impact assessment, fuzzy logic, environmental impact assessment

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1371 Ecosystem Model for Environmental Applications

Authors: Cristina Schreiner, Romeo Ciobanu, Marius Pislaru

Abstract:

This paper aims to build a system based on fuzzy models that can be implemented in the assessment of ecological systems, to determine appropriate methods of action for reducing adverse effects on environmental and implicit the population. The model proposed provides new perspective for environmental assessment, and it can be used as a practical instrument for decision –making.

Keywords: Ecosystem model, Environmental security, Fuzzy logic, Sustainability of habitable regions.

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1370 The State-of-Art Environmental Impact Assessment: An Overview

Authors: Tsolmon Tumenjargal, Muhammad Hassan Khalil, Wu Yao Guo

Abstract:

The research on the effectiveness of environmental assessment (EA) is a milestone effort to evaluate the state of the field, including many contributors related with a lot of countries since more than two decades. In the 1960s, there was a surge of interest between modern industrialized countries over unexpected opposite effects of technical invention. The interest led to choice of approaches for assessing and prediction the impressions of technology and advancement for social and economic, state health and safety, solidity and the circumstances. These are consisting of risk assessment, technology assessment, environmental impact assessment and costbenefit analysis. In this research contribution, the authors have described the research status for environmental assessment in cumulative environmental system. This article discusses the methods for cumulative effect assessment (CEA).

Keywords: Cumulative effect assessment, Environmental impact assessment.

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1369 A Hybrid DEA Model for the Measurement of the Enviromental Performance

Authors: A. Hadi-Vencheh, N. Shayesteh Moghadam

Abstract:

Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has gained great popularity in environmental performance measurement because it can provide a synthetic standardized environmental performance index when pollutants are suitably incorporated into the traditional DEA framework. Since some of the environmental performance indicators cannot be controlled by companies managers, it is necessary to develop the model in a way that it could be applied when discretionary and/or non-discretionary factors were involved. In this paper, we present a semi-radial DEA approach to measuring environmental performance, which consists of non-discretionary factors. The model, then, has been applied on a real case.

Keywords: Environmental performance, efficiency, non-discretionary variables, data envelopment analysis.

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1368 The Relationship between the Environmental and Financial Performance of Australian Electricity Producers

Authors: S. Forughi, A. De Zoysa, S. Bhati

Abstract:

The present study focuses on the environmental performance of the companies in the electricity-producing sector and its relationship with their financial performance. We will review the major studies that examined the relationship between the environmental and financial performance of firms in various industries. While the classical economic debates consider the environmental friendly activities costly and harmful to a firm’s profitability, it is claimed that firms will be rewarded with higher profitability in long run through the investments in environmental friendly activities. In this context, prior studies have examined the relationship between the environmental and financial performance of firms operating in different industry sectors. Our study will employ an environmental indicator to increase the accuracy of the results and be employed as an independent variable in our developed econometric model to evaluate the impact of the financial performance of the firms on their environmental friendly activities in the context of companies operating in the Australian electricity-producing sector. As a result, we expect our methodology to contribute to the literature and the findings of the study will help us to provide recommendations and policy implications to the electricity producers.

Keywords: Australian electricity sector, efficiency measurement, environmental-financial performance interaction, environmental index.

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1367 A Short Glimpse to Environmental Management at Alborz Integrated Land and Water Management Project-Iran

Authors: Zahra Morshedi

Abstract:

Environmental considerations have become an integral part of developmental thinking and decision making in many countries. It is growing rapidly in importance as a discipline of its own. Preventive approaches have been used at the evolutional process of environmental management as a broad and dynamic system for dealing with pollution and environmental degradation. In this regard, Environmental Assessment as an activity for identification and prediction of project’s impacts carried out in the world and its legal significance dates back to late 1960. In Iran, according to the Article 2 of Environmental Protection Act, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) should be prepared for seven categories of project. This article has been actively implementing by Department of Environment at 1997. World Bank in 1989 attempted to introducing application of Environmental Assessment for making decision about projects which are required financial assistance in developing countries. So, preparing EIA for obtaining World Bank loan was obligated. Alborz Project is one of the World Bank Projects in Iran which is environmentally significant. Seven out of ten W.B safeguard policies were considered at this project. In this paper, Alborz project, objectives, safeguard policies and role of environmental management will be elaborated

Keywords: AILWMP, EIA, Environmental Management, Safeguard Policies.

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1366 Environmental Science: A Proposal for Constructing New Knowledge for Ecotourism Itineraries

Authors: Veruska C. Dutra, Mary L. G. S. Senna

Abstract:

The principle of sustainability has been studied by different sciences with the purpose of formulating clear and concrete models. Much has been discussed about sustainability, and several points of view have been used to try to explain it; environmental science emerges from various environmental discourses that are willing to establish a new concept for understanding this complexity. This way, we focus on the activity of ecotourism as a way to integrate sustainable practices proposed by environmental science, and thus, make it possible to create a new perspective for eco-tourists and the managers of tourist destinations towards nature. The aim of this study was to suggest a direction for environmental awareness, based on environmental science, to change the eco-tourist's view of nature in ecotourism tours. The methodology used was based on a case study concerning the Jalapão State Park - JSP, located in the State of Tocantins, Northern Brazil. The study was based on discussions, theoretical studies, bibliographical research and on-site research. We have identified that to incite the tourists’ awareness, they need to visit nature to understand the environmental problems and promote actions for its preservation. We highlight in this study actions to drive their human perception through environmental science, so that the ecotourism itinerary tours to the JSP, promote a balance between the natural environment and the tourist, making them, in this way, environmental tourists.

Keywords: Science, environmental, ecotourism, Jalapão.

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1365 Environmental Policy Instruments and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: VAR Analysis

Authors: Veronika Solilová, Danuše Nerudová

Abstract:

The paper examines the interaction between the environmental taxation, size of government spending on environmental protection and greenhouse gas emissions and gross inland energy consumption. The aim is to analyze the effects of environmental taxation and government spending on environmental protection as an environmental policy instruments on greenhouse gas emissions and gross inland energy consumption in the EU15. The empirical study is performed using a VAR approach with the application of aggregated data of EU15 over the period 1995 to 2012. The results provide the evidence that the reactions of greenhouse gas emission and gross inland energy consumption to the shocks of environmental policy instruments are strong, mainly in the short term and decay to zero after about 8 years. Further, the reactions of the environmental policy instruments to the shocks of greenhouse gas emission and gross inland energy consumption are also strong in the short term, however with the deferred effects. In addition, the results show that government spending on environmental protection together with gross inland energy consumption has stronger effect on greenhouse gas emissions than environmental taxes in EU15 over the examined period.

Keywords: VAR analysis, greenhouse gas emissions, environmental taxation, government spending.

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1364 Environmental Sanitation Dilemma in the Tamale Metropolis, Ghana

Authors: Paul N. Napari, Patrick B. Cobbinah

Abstract:

The 21st century has been characterized by rapid urbanization with its associated environmental sanitation challenges especially in developing countries. However, studies have focused largely on institutional capacity and the resources needed to manage environmental sanitation challenges, with few insights on the attitudes of city residents. This paper analyzes the environmental sanitation situation in a rapidly urbanizing Tamale metropolis, examines how city residents’ attitudes have contributed to poor environmental sanitation and further reviews approaches that have been employed to manage environmental sanitation. Using secondary and empirical data sources, the paper reveals that only 7.5 tons of 150 tons of total daily solid wastes generated is effectively managed. The findings suggest that the poor sanitation in the city is influenced by two factors; poor attitudes of city residents and weak institutions. While poor attitudes towards environmental sanitation has resulted in indiscriminate disposal of waste, weak institutions have resulted in lack of capacity and pragmatic interventions to manage the environmental sanitation challenges in the city. The paper recommends public education on environmental sanitation, public private partnership, increased stakeholder engagement and preparation and implementation of environmental sanitation plan as mechanisms to ensure effective environmental sanitation management in the Tamale metropolis.

Keywords: Environmental sanitation, developing countries, waste management, developing countries, Tamale, urbanization.

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1363 The Integration of Environmental Educational Outcomes within Higher Education to Nurture Environmental Consciousness amongst Engineering Undergraduates

Authors: Sivapalan, S., Subramaniam, G., Clifford, M.J., Balbir Singh, M.S., Abdullah, A

Abstract:

Higher education has an important role to play in advocating environmentalism. Given this responsibility, the goal of higher education should therefore be to develop graduates with the knowledge, skills and values related to environmentalism. However, research indicates that there is a lack of consciousness amongst graduates on the need to be more environmentally aware, especially when it comes to applying the appropriate knowledge and skills related to environmentalism. Although institutions of higher learning do include environmental parameters within their undergraduate and postgraduate academic programme structures, the environmental boundaries are usually confined to specific engineering majors within an engineering programme. This makes environmental knowledge, skills and values exclusive to certain quarters of the higher education system. The incorporation of environmental literacy within higher education institutions as a whole is of utmost pertinence if a nation-s human capital is to be nurtured to become change agents for the preservation of environment. This paper discusses approaches that can be adapted by institutions of higher learning to include environmental literacy within the graduate-s higher learning experience.

Keywords: Higher education, engineering education, environmental literacy, Malaysia.

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1362 Diagnosis on Environmental Impacts of Tourism at Caju Beach in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil

Authors: Mary L. G. S. Senna, Veruska, C. Dutra, Jr., Keity L. F. Oliveira, Patrícia A. Santos, Alana C. M. Santana

Abstract:

Environmental impacts are the changes in the physical, chemical or biological properties of natural areas that are most often caused by human actions on the environment and which have consequences for human health, society and the elements of nature. The identification of the environmental impacts is important so that they are mitigated, and above all that the mitigating measures are applied in the area. This work aims to identify the environmental impacts generated in the Praia do Caju area in the city of Palmas/Brazil and show that the lack of structure on the beach intensifies the environmental impacts. The present work was carried out having as parameter, the typologies of exploratory and descriptive and quantitative research through a matrix of environmental impacts through direct observation and registration. The study took place during the holidays from August to December 2016 and photographic record of impacts. From the collected data it was possible to verify that Caju beach suffers constant degradation due to irregular deposition.

Keywords: Leisure, tourism, environmental impacts, Brazil.

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1361 Evaluation of Environmental, Technical, and Economic Indicators of a Fused Deposition Modeling Process

Authors: M. Yosofi, S. Ezeddini, A. Ollivier, V. Lavaste, C. Mayousse

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing processes have changed significantly in a wide range of industries and their application progressed from rapid prototyping to production of end-use products. However, their environmental impact is still a rather open question. In order to support the growth of this technology in the industrial sector, environmental aspects should be considered and predictive models may help monitor and reduce the environmental footprint of the processes. This work presents predictive models based on a previously developed methodology for the environmental impact evaluation combined with a technical and economical assessment. Here we applied the methodology to the Fused Deposition Modeling process. First, we present the predictive models relative to different types of machines. Then, we present a decision-making tool designed to identify the optimum manufacturing strategy regarding technical, economic, and environmental criteria.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, decision-makings, environmental impact, predictive models.

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1360 Sustainable Development: The Human Rights Approach to Environmental Protection in South Africa

Authors: C. M. van der Bank, Marjoné van der Bank

Abstract:

International and domestic environmental law has evolved quite rapidly in the last few decades. At the international level the Stockholm and Rio Declarations paved the way for a broad based consensus of the international community on environmental issues and principles. At the Domestic level also many states have incorporated environmental protection in their constitutions and even more states are doing the same at least in their domestic legislations. In this process of evolution environmental law has unleashed a number of novel principles such as; the participatory principle, the polluter pays principle, the precautionary principle, the intergenerational and intra-generational principles, the prevention principle, the sustainable development principle and so on.

Keywords: Environment, human rights, international, protection.

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1359 Behavior of Media Exposure and Participation in Environmental Activities of King Mongkut-s University of Technology Thonburi Dormitory Students

Authors: Kuntida Thamwipat, Sorakrich Maneewan, Thanarat Pumjaroen

Abstract:

The purposes of this research were 1) to investigate behavior of media exposure and participation in environmental activities of King Mongkut-s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT) dormitory students, 2) to compare the correlation between faculties and participation in environmental activities of KMUTT dormitory students, and 3) to compare the correlation between media exposure and participation in environmental activities of KMUTT dormitory students. The tool used for collecting data was questionnaire. The research findings revealed that dormitory students were mostly exposed to the environmental media via public relations boards for general media and KMUTT dormitory media. Dormitory students were daily exposed to media via websites on the internet and weekly for other media. Dormitory students participation in the environmental activities was at high level (x = 3.65) on an individual basis and was at medium level (x = 2.76) on a collective basis. Faculties did not correlate with the participation in environmental activities of dormitory students at the .01 statistical level and media exposure via various media correlated with participation in environmental activities of dormitory students at the .01 statistical level.

Keywords: Dormitary Students, Environmental Activities Media Exposure, Participation.

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1358 Fuzzy Based Environmental System Approach for Impact Assessment - Case Studies

Authors: Marius Pislaru, Alexandru F. Trandabat

Abstract:

Environmental studies have expanded dramatically all over the world in the past few years. Nowadays businesses interact with society and the environment in ways that put their mark on both sides. Efforts improving human standard living, through the control of nature and the development of new products, have also resulted in contamination of the environment. Consequently companies play an important role in environmental sustainability of a region or country. Therefore we can say that a company's sustainable development is strictly dependent on the environment. This article presents a fuzzy model to evaluate a company's environmental impact. Article illustrates an example of the automotive industry in order to prove the usefulness of using such a model.

Keywords: fuzzy approach, environmental impact assessment, sustainability

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1357 Fuzzy Risk-Based Life Cycle Assessment for Estimating Environmental Aspects in EMS

Authors: Kevin Fong-Rey Liu, Ken Yeh, Cheng-Wu Chen, Han-Hsi Liang

Abstract:

Environmental aspects plays a central role in environmental management system (EMS) because it is the basis for the identification of an organization-s environmental targets. The existing methods for the assessment of environmental aspects are grouped into three categories: risk assessment-based (RA-based), LCA-based and criterion-based methods. To combine the benefits of these three categories of research, this study proposes an integrated framework, combining RA-, LCA- and criterion-based methods. The integrated framework incorporates LCA techniques for the identification of the causal linkage for aspect, pathway, receptor and impact, uses fuzzy logic to assess aspects, considers fuzzy conditions, in likelihood assessment, and employs a new multi-criteria decision analysis method - multi-criteria and multi-connection comprehensive assessment (MMCA) - to estimate significant aspects in EMS. The proposed model is verified, using a real case study and the results show that this method successfully prioritizes the environmental aspects.

Keywords: Environmental management system, environmental aspect, risk assessment, life cycle assessment.

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1356 Impact of Environmental Factors on Profit Efficiency of Rice Production: A Study in Vietnam-s Red River Delta

Authors: Long Van Hoang, Mitsuyasu Yabe

Abstract:

Environmental factors affect agriculture production productivity and efficiency resulted in changing of profit efficiency. This paper attempts to estimate the impacts of environmental factors to profitability of rice farmers in the Red River Delta of Vietnam. The dataset was extracted from 349 rice farmers using personal interviews. Both OLS and MLE trans-log profit functions were used in this study. Five production inputs and four environmental factors were included in these functions. The estimation of the stochastic profit frontier with a two-stage approach was used to measure profitability. The results showed that the profit efficiency was about 75% on the average and environmental factors change profit efficiency significantly beside farm specific characteristics. Plant disease, soil fertility, irrigation apply and water pollution were the four environmental factors cause profit loss in rice production. The result indicated that farmers should reduce household size, farm plots, apply row seeding technique and improve environmental factors to obtain high profit efficiency with special consideration is given for irrigation water quality improvement.

Keywords: Profit efficiency; Profit function; Environmental factors; OLS and MLE estimations; Rice Production; Vietnam

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1355 An Introduction to the Concept of Environmental Audit: Indian Context

Authors: Pradip Kumar Das

Abstract:

Phenomenal growth of population and industry exploits the environment in varied ways. Consequently, the greenhouse effect and other allied problems are threatening mankind the world over. Protection and up gradation of environment have, therefore, become the prime necessity all of mankind for the sustainable development of environment. People in humbler walks of life including the corporate citizens have become aware of the impacts of environmental pollution. Governments of various nations have entered the picture with laws and regulations to correct and cure the effects of present and past violations of environmental practices and to obstruct future violations of good environmental disciplines. In this perspective, environmental audit directs verification and validation to ensure that the various environmental laws are complied with and adequate care has been taken towards environmental protection and preservation. The discipline of environmental audit has experienced expressive development throughout the world. It examines the positive and negative effects of the activities of an enterprise on environment and provides an in-depth study of the company processes any growth in realizing long-term strategic goals. Environmental audit helps corporations assess its achievement, correct deficiencies and reduce risk to the health and improving safety. Environmental audit being a strong management tool should be administered by industry for its own self-assessment. Developed countries all over the globe have gone ahead in environment quantification; but unfortunately, there is a lack of awareness about pollution and environmental hazards among the common people in India. In the light of this situation, the conceptual analysis of this study is concerned with the rationale of environmental audit on the industry and the society as a whole and highlights the emerging dimensions in the auditing theory and practices. A modest attempt has been made to throw light on the recent development in environmental audit in developing nations like India and the problems associated with the implementation of environmental audit. The conceptual study also reflects that despite different obstacles, environmental audit is becoming an increasing aspect within the corporate sectors in India and lastly, conclusions along with suggestions have been offered to improve the current scenario.

Keywords: Environmental audit, environmental hazards, environmental laws, environmental protection, environmental preservation.

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1354 Corporate Environmentalism: A Case Study in the Czech Republic

Authors: Pavel Adámek

Abstract:

This study examines perception of environmental approach in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) – the process by which firms integrate environmental concern into business. Based on a review of the literature, the paper synthesizes focus on environmental issues with the reflection in a case study in the Czech Republic. Two themes of corporate environmentalism are discussed – corporate environmental orientation and corporate stances toward environmental concerns. It provides theoretical material on greening organizational culture that is helpful in understanding the response of contemporary business to environmental problems. We integrate theoretical predictions with empirical findings confronted with reality. Scales to measure these themes are tested in a survey of managers in 229 Czech firms. We used the process of in-depth questioning. The research question was derived and answered in the context of the corresponding literature and conducted research. A case study showed us that environmental approach is variety different (depending on the size of the firm) in SMEs sector. The results of the empirical mapping demonstrate Czech company’s approach to environment and define the problem areas and pinpoint the main limitation in the expansion of environmental aspects. We contribute to the debate for recognition of the particular role of environmental issues in business reality.

Keywords: Corporate environmentalism, Czech Republic, empirical mapping, environmental performance.

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