Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 239

Search results for: English

89 Persian/Arabic Document Segmentation Based On Pyramidal Image Structure

Authors: Seyyed Yasser Hashemi, Khalil Monfaredi

Abstract:

Automatic transformation of paper documents into electronic documents requires document segmentation at the first stage. However, some parameters restrictions such as variations in character font sizes, different text line spacing, and also not uniform document layout structures altogether have made it difficult to design a general-purpose document layout analysis algorithm for many years. Thus in most previously reported methods it is inevitable to include these parameters. This problem becomes excessively acute and severe, especially in Persian/Arabic documents. Since the Persian/Arabic scripts differ considerably from the English scripts, most of the proposed methods for the English scripts do not render good results for the Persian scripts. In this paper, we present a novel parameter-free method for segmenting the Persian/Arabic document images which also works well for English scripts. This method segments the document image into maximal homogeneous regions and identifies them as texts and non-texts based on a pyramidal image structure. In other words the proposed method is capable of document segmentation without considering the character font sizes, text line spacing, and document layout structures. This algorithm is examined for 150 Arabic/Persian and English documents and document segmentation process are done successfully for 96 percent of documents.

Keywords: Persian/Arabic document, document segmentation, Pyramidal Image Structure, skew detection and correction.

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88 On the Constructivist Teaching of Extensive Reading for English Majors

Authors: Haiyan Wang

Abstract:

Constructivism, the latest teaching and learning theory in western countries which is based on the premise that cognition (learning) is the result of "mental construction", lays emphasis on the learner's active learning. Guided by constructivism, this thesis discusses the teaching plan and its application in extensive reading course. In extensive reading classroom, emphasis should be laid on the activation of students' prior knowledge, grasping the skills of fast reading and the combination of reading and writing to check extracurricular reading. With three factors supplementing each other, students' English reading ability can be improved effectively.

Keywords: Constructivism, extensive reading, constructivist teaching.

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87 Integrating Blogging into Peer Assessment on College Students’ English Writing

Authors: Su-Lien Liao

Abstract:

Most of college students in Taiwan do not have sufficient English proficiency to express themselves in written English. Teachers spent a lot of time correcting the errors in students’ English writing, but the results are not satisfactory. This study aims to use blogs as a teaching and learning tool in written English. Before applying peer assessment, students should be trained to be good reviewers.  The teacher starts the course by posting the error analysis of students’ first English composition on blogs as the comment models for students. Then the students will go through the process of drafting, composing, peer response and last revision on blogs. Evaluation questionnaires and interviews will be conducted at the end of the course to see the impact and also students’ perception for the course.

Keywords: Blog, Peer assessment, English writing, Error analysis.

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86 On Developing a Core Guideline for English Language Training Programs in Business Settings

Authors: T. Ito, K. Kawaguchi, R. Ohta

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to provide a guideline to assist globally-minded companies in developing task-based English- language programs for their employees. After conducting an online self-assessment questionnaire comprised of 45 job-related tasks, we analyzed responses received from 3,000 Japanese company employees and developed a checklist that considered three areas; i) the percentage of those who need to accomplish English-language tasks in their workplace (need for English), ii) a five-point self-assessment score (task performance level), and iii) the impact of previous task experience on perceived performance (experience factor). The 45 tasks were graded according to five proficiency levels. Our results helped us to create a core guideline that may assist companies in two ways: first, in helping determine which tasks employees with a certain English proficiency should be able to satisfactorily carry out, and secondly, to quickly prioritize which business-related English skills they would need in future English language programs.

Keywords: Business settings, Can-do statements, English language training programs, Self-assessment, Task experience.

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85 Solving Definition and Relation Problems in English Navigation Terminology

Authors: Ayşe Yurdakul, Eckehard Schnieder

Abstract:

Because of the increasing multidisciplinarity and multilinguality, communication problems in different technical fields grow more and more. Therefore, each technical field has its own specific language, terminology which is characterized by the different definition of terms. In addition to definition problems, there are also relation problems between terms. Among these problems of relation, there are the synonymy, antonymy, hypernymy/hyponymy, ambiguity, risk of confusion and translation problems etc.

Thus, the terminology management system iglos of the Institute for Traffic Safety and Automation Engineering of the Technische Universität Braunschweig has the target to solve these problems by a methodological standardisation of term definitions with the aid of the iglos sign model and iglos relation types. The focus of this paper should be on solving definition and relation problems between terms in English navigation terminology.

Keywords: Iglos, iglos sign model, methodological resolutions, navigation terminology, common language, technical language, positioning, definition problems, relation problems.

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84 The Use of Project to Enhance Learning Domains Stated by National Qualifications Framework: TQF

Authors: Duangkamol Thitivesa

Abstract:

This paper explores the use of project work in a content-based instruction in a Rajabhat University, Thailand. The use of project is to promote kinds of learning expected of student teachers as stated by Thailand Quality Framework: TQF. The kinds of learning are grouped into five domains: Ethical and moral development, knowledge, cognitive skill, interpersonal skills and responsibility, and analytical and communication skills. The content taught in class is used to lead the student teachers to relate their previously-acquired linguistic knowledge to meaningful realizations of the language system in passages of immediate relevance to their professional interests, teaching methods in particular. Two research questions are formulate to guide this study: 1) To what degree are the five domains of learning expected of student teachers after the use of project in a content class?, and 2) What is the academic achievement of the students’ writing skills, as part of the learning domains stated by TQF, against the 70% attainment target after the use of project to enhance the skill? The sample of the study comprised of 38 fourth-year English major students. The data was collected by means of a summative achievement test, student writing works, an observation checklist, and project diary. The scores in the summative achievement test were analyzed by mean score, standard deviation, and t-test. Project diary serves as students’ record of the language acquired during the project. List of structures and vocabulary noted in the diary has shown students’ ability to attend to, recognize, and focus on meaningful patterns of language forms.

Keywords: Thailand Quality Framework, Project Work, Writing skill.

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83 Investigating Interference Errors Made by Azzawia University 1st year Students of English in Learning English Prepositions

Authors: Aimen Mohamed Almaloul

Abstract:

The main focus of this study is investigating the interference of Arabic in the use of English prepositions by Libyan university students. Prepositions in the tests used in the study were categorized, according to their relation to Arabic, into similar Arabic and English prepositions (SAEP), dissimilar Arabic and English prepositions (DAEP), Arabic prepositions with no English counterparts (APEC), and English prepositions with no Arabic counterparts (EPAC).

The subjects of the study were the first year university students of the English department, Sabrata Faculty of Arts, Azzawia University; both males and females, and they were 100 students. The basic tool for data collection was a test of English prepositions; students are instructed to fill in the blanks with the correct prepositions and to put a zero (0) if no preposition was needed. The test was then handed to the subjects of the study.

The test was then scored and quantitative as well as qualitative results were obtained. Quantitative results indicated the number, percentages and rank order of errors in each of the categories and qualitative results indicated the nature and significance of those errors and their possible sources. Based on the obtained results the researcher could detect that students made more errors in the EPAC category than the other three categories and these errors could be attributed to the lack of knowledge of the different meanings of English prepositions. This lack of knowledge forced the students to adopt what is called the strategy of transfer.

Keywords: Foreign language acquisition, foreign language learning, interference system, interlanguage system, mother tongue interference.

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82 Reciprocal Interferences in Bilingual English-Igbo Speaking Society: The Implications in Language Pedagogy

Authors: Ugwu Elias Ikechukwu

Abstract:

Discussions on bilingualism have always dwelt on how the mother tongue interferes with the target language. This interference is considered a serious problem in second language learning. Usually, the interference has been phonological. But the objective of this research is to explore how the target language interferes with the mother tongue. In the case of the Igbo language, it interferes with English mostly at the phonological level while English interferes with Igbo at the realm of vocabulary. The result is a new language \"Engligbo\" which is a hybrid of English and Igbo. The Igbo language spoken by about 25 million people is one of the three most prominent languages in Nigeria. This paper discusses the phenomenal Engligbo, and other implications for Igbo learners of English. The method of analysis is descriptive. A number of recommendations were made that would help teachers handle problems arising from such mutual interferences.

Keywords: Bilingualism, Implications, Language Pedagogy, Reciprocal Interferences.

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81 Ultra High Speed Approach for Document Skew Detection and Correction Based On Centre of Gravity

Authors: Seyyed Yasser Hashemi

Abstract:

Skew detection and correction (SDC) has a direct effect in efficiency and exactitude of documents’ segmentation and analysis and thus is considered as a very important step in documents’ analysis field. Skew is a major problem in documents’ analysis for every language. For Arabic/Persian document scripts this problem is more severe because of special features of these languages. In this paper an efficient and fast algorithm for Document Skew Detection (DSD) based on the concept of segmentation and Center of Gravity (COG) is proposed. This algorithm is examined for 150 Arabic/Persian and English documents and SDC process are done successfully for 93 percent of documents with error rate of less than 1°. This algorithm shows better results for English documents compared to Arabic/Persian documents. The proposed method is also represents favorable results for handwritten, printed and also complicated documents such as newspapers and journals even with very low quality and resolution.

Keywords: Arabic/Persian document, Baseline, Centre of gravity, Document segmentation, Skew detection and correction.

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80 The Investigation of the Possible Connections between Acculturation and the Acquisition of a Second Language on Libyan Teenage Students

Authors: Hamza M. A. Muftah

Abstract:

The study investigates the possible connections between acculturation and the acquisition of a second language on Libyan teenage students in Australia. Specifically, the study examined how various socio-psychological variables influenced English oral proficiency (oral communicative competence and native-like pronunciation) of the participants. In addition, it looked at whether or not SLA affects acculturation towards the target language group. This is achieved by analysing data obtained from semi-structured interviews and oral proficiency interviews. The present study found a definite link between the students’ acculturation process and their oral communicative competence but not native-like pronunciation. The results also provided evidence that SLL process has an impact on integration into the host society as well as the acquisition of a second language culture. Yet, it did not draw a clear conclusion with respect to how such a process affects these aspects.

Keywords: Acculturation, Native-like pronunciation, Oral communicative competence, Second language acquisition, Second language learners.

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79 A Pragmatic Study of Metaphorization in English Newspaper Headlines

Authors: Wang Haiyan

Abstract:

This paper attempts to explore the phenomenon of metaphorization in English newspaper headlines from the perspective of pragmatic investigation. With relevance theory as the guideline, this paper makes an explanation of the processing of metaphor with a pragmatic approach and points that metaphor is the stimulus adopted by journalists to achieve optimal relevance in this ostensive communication, as well as the strategy to fulfill their writing purpose.

Keywords: Metaphorization, newspaper, headlines, relevance theory.

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78 A Learner-Centred or Artefact-Centred Classroom? Impact of Technology, Artefacts, and Environment on Task Processes in an English as a Foreign Language Classroom

Authors: Nobue T. Ellis

Abstract:

This preliminary study attempts to see if a learning environment influences instructor’s teaching strategies and learners’ in-class activities in a foreign language class at a university in Japan. The class under study was conducted in a computer room, while the majority of classes of the same course were offered in traditional classrooms without computers. The study also sees if the unplanned blended learning environment, enhanced, or worked against, in achieving course goals, by paying close attention to in-class artefacts, such as computers. In the macro-level analysis, the course syllabus and weekly itinerary of the course were looked at; and in the microlevel analysis, nonhuman actors in their environments were named and analyzed to see how they influenced the learners’ task processes. The result indicated that students were heavily influenced by the presence of computers, which lead them to disregard some aspects of intended learning objectives.

Keywords: Computer-assisted language learning, actor-network theory, English as a foreign language, task-based teaching.

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77 The Use of Project to Enhance Writing Skill

Authors: Duangkamol Thitivesa, Abigail Melad Essien

Abstract:

This paper explores the use of project work in a content-based instruction in a Rajabhat University, a teacher college, where student teachers are instructed to perform teaching roles mainly in basic education level. Its aim is to link theory to practice, and to help language teachers maximize the full potential of project work for genuine communication and give real meaning to writing activity. Two research questions are formulated to guide this study: a) What is the academic achievement of the students- writing skill against the 70% attainment target after the use of project to enhance the skill? and b) To what degree is the development of the students- writing skills during the course of project to enhance the skill? The sample of the study comprised of 38 fourth-year English major students. The data was collected by means of achievement test, student writing works, and project diary. The scores in the summative achievement test were analyzed by mean score, standard deviation, and t-test. Project diary serves as students- record of the language acquired during the project. List of structures and vocabulary noted in the diary has shown students- ability to attend to, recognize, and focus on meaningful patterns of language forms.

Keywords: EFL classroom, Project-Based Learning, project work, writing skill.

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76 Creating a Space for Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Engineering Students through English Language Teaching

Authors: Mimi N. A. Mohamed

Abstract:

The complexity of teaching English in higher institutions by non-native speakers within a second/foreign language setting has created continuous discussions and research about teaching approaches and teaching practises, professional identities and challenges. In addition, there is a growing awareness that teaching English within discipline-specific contexts adds up to the existing complexity. This awareness leads to reassessments, discussions and suggestions on course design and content and teaching approaches and techniques. In meeting expectations teaching at a university specified in a particular discipline such as engineering, English language educators are not only required to teach students to be able to communicate in English effectively but also to teach soft skills such as problem solving skills. This paper is part of a research conducted to investigate how English language educators negotiate with the complexities of teaching problem solving skills through English language teaching at a technical university. This paper reports the way an English language educator identified himself and the way he approached his teaching in this institutional context.

Keywords: English Language Teaching, Teacher Agency, Problem Solving Skills, Professional Identities.

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75 Efficient DTW-Based Speech Recognition System for Isolated Words of Arabic Language

Authors: Khalid A. Darabkh, Ala F. Khalifeh, Baraa A. Bathech, Saed W. Sabah

Abstract:

Despite the fact that Arabic language is currently one of the most common languages worldwide, there has been only a little research on Arabic speech recognition relative to other languages such as English and Japanese. Generally, digital speech processing and voice recognition algorithms are of special importance for designing efficient, accurate, as well as fast automatic speech recognition systems. However, the speech recognition process carried out in this paper is divided into three stages as follows: firstly, the signal is preprocessed to reduce noise effects. After that, the signal is digitized and hearingized. Consequently, the voice activity regions are segmented using voice activity detection (VAD) algorithm. Secondly, features are extracted from the speech signal using Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) algorithm. Moreover, delta and acceleration (delta-delta) coefficients have been added for the reason of improving the recognition accuracy. Finally, each test word-s features are compared to the training database using dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm. Utilizing the best set up made for all affected parameters to the aforementioned techniques, the proposed system achieved a recognition rate of about 98.5% which outperformed other HMM and ANN-based approaches available in the literature.

Keywords: Arabic speech recognition, MFCC, DTW, VAD.

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74 English Language Learning Strategies Used by University Students: A Case Study of English and Business English Major at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat in Bangkok

Authors: Pranee Pathomchaiwat

Abstract:

The purposes of this research are 1) to study English language learning strategies used by the fourth-year students majoring in English and Business English, 2) to study the English language learning strategies which have an affect on English learning achievement, and 3) to compare the English language learning strategies used by the students majoring in English and Business English. The population and sampling comprise of 139 university students of the Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Research instruments are language learning strategies questionnaire which was constructed by the researcher and improved on by three experts and the transcripts that show the results of English learning achievement. The questionnaire includes 1) Language Practice Strategy 2)Memory Strategy 3) Communication Strategy 4)Making an Intelligent Guess or Compensation Strategy 5) Self-discipline in Learning Management Strategy 6) Affective Strategy 7)Self-Monitoring Strategy 8) Self-studySkill Strategy. Statistics used in the study are mean, standard deviation, T-test and One Way ANOVA, Pearson product moment correlation coefficient and Regression Analysis. The results of the findings reveal that the English language learning strategies most frequently used by the students are affective strategy, making an intelligent guess or compensation strategy, self-studyskill strategy and self-monitoring strategy respectively. The aspect of making an intelligent guess or compensation strategy had the most significant affect on English learning achievement. It is found that the English language learning strategies mostly used by the Business English major students and moderately used by the English major students. Their language practice strategies uses were significantly different at the 0.05 level and their communication strategies uses were significantly different at the 0.01 level. In addition, it is found that the poor students and the fair ones most frequently used affective strategy while the good ones most frequently used making an intelligent guess or compensation strategy. KeywordsEnglish language, language learning strategies, English learning achievement, and students majoring in English, Business English. Pranee Pathomchaiwat is an Assistant Professor in Business English Program, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand (e-mail: [email protected]).

Keywords: English language, language learning strategies, English learning achievement, students majoring in English, Business English

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73 The Design of English Materials to communication the Identity of Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, for Sustainable Tourism

Authors: K. Praraththajariya

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research was to study how to communicate the identity of the Amphawa district, Samut Songkram province for sustainable tourism. The qualitative data was collected through studying related materials, exploring the area, in-depth interviews with three groups of people: three directly responsible officers who were key informants of the district, twenty foreign tourists and five Thai tourist guides. A content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. The two main findings of the study were as follows: 1. The identity of the Amphawa District, Samut Songkram province is the area controlled by Amphawa sub district (submunicipality). The working unit which runs and looks after Amphawa sub district administration is known as the Amphawa mayor. This establishment was built to be a resort for normal people and tourists visiting the Amphawa district near the Maekong River consisting of rest accommodations. Along the river there is a restaurant where food and drinks are served, rich mangrove forests, a learning center, fireflies and cork trees. The Amphawa district was built to honor and commemorate King Rama II and is where the greatest number of fireflies and cork trees can be seen in Thailand from May to October each year. 2. The communication of the identity of Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province which the researcher could find and design to present in English materials can be summed up in 5 items: 1) The history of the Amphawa District, Samut Songkram province 2) The history of King Rama II Memorial Park 3) The identity of Amphawa Floating Market 4) The Learning center of Ecosystem: Fireflies and Cork Trees 5) How to keep Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province for sustainable tourism.

Keywords: Foreigner tourists, signified, semiotics, sustainable tourism.

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72 Teaching English under the LMD Reform: The Algerian Experience

Authors: Naouel Abdellatif Mami

Abstract:

Since its independence in 1962, Algeria has struggled to establish an educational system tailored to the needs of the population it may address. Considering the historical connection with France, Algeria has always looked at the French language as a cultural imperative until late in the seventies. After the Arabization policy of 1971 and the socioeconomic changes taking place worldwide, the use of English as a communicating vehicle started to gain more space within globalized Algeria. Consequently, disparities in the use of French started to fade away at the cross-roads leaving more space to the teaching of English as a second foreign language. Moreover, the introduction of the Bologna Process and the European Credit Transfer System in Higher Education has necessitated some innovations in the design and development of new curricula adapted to the socioeconomic market. In this paper, I will try to highlight the important historical dimensions Algeria has taken towards the implementation of an English language methodology and to the status it acquired from second foreign language, to first foreign language to “the language of knowledge and sciences". I will also propose new pedagogical perspectives for a better treatment of the English language in order to encourage independent and autonomous learning.

Keywords: Teaching English as a foreign language, Globalization, post-colonial Algeria. the educational system.

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71 Particular Qualities of Education in Kazakh Society

Authors: A. K. Akhmetbekova, D. T. Koptileuova, A. B. Zhyekbaeva, M. E. Aitzhanov

Abstract:

Most of the academics connect a theory of multiculturalism with globalization and limit it by last decades of 20th century. However, Kazakh society encountered with this problem when the Soviet-s rule emerged. As a result of repression, the Second World War, development of virgin lands representatives of more than 100 nationalities lives in Kazakhstan. Communist ideology propagandized internationalism, which would defined principles of multicultural community but a common ideology demands a single culture. As a result multicultural society in the USSR developed under control of Russian culture. Education in the USSR was conducted in two departments: autochthonous and Russian. Autochthonous education narrowed student capabilities. Also because of soviet ideology science was conducted in Russian Universities provided education in Russian and all science literature were in Russian. Exceptions were humanitarian fields where Kazakh departments were admitted. Naturally non-Kazakhs studied in Russian departments, moreover Kazakhs preferred to study in Russian as most do nowadays preferring English. As a result Kazakh society consisted of Kazakhs, Kazakhs who recognized Russian as a mother tongue and other nationalities who were also Russian speakers. This aspect continues to distinguish particular qualities of multicultural community in Kazakhstan.

Keywords: Ideology, internationalism, multicultural society, Russian society.

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70 Improving E-Government Services for Non- English Speaking Background (NESB) Communities in Australia

Authors: M. Mohammad, Y-C Lan

Abstract:

Australian government agencies have a natural desire to provide migrants a wide range of opportunities. Consequently, government online services should be equally available to migrants with a non-English speaking background (NESB). Despite the commendable efforts of governments and local agencies in Australia to provide such services, in reality, many NESB communities are not taking advantage of these services. This article–based on an extensive case study regarding the use of online government services by the Arabic NESB community in Australia–reports on the possible reasons for this issue, as well as suggestions for improvement. The conclusion is that Australia should implement ICT-based or e-government policies, programmes, and services that more accurately reflect migrant cultures and languages so that migrant integration can be more fully accomplished. Specifically, this article presents an NESB Model that adopts the value of usercentricity or a more individual-focused approach to government online services in Australia.

Keywords: Barriers to use, e-government, ICT, NESB community, online services.

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69 Communicative Competence in Technical Oral Presentation: That “Magic“ Perceived by ESL Educators versus Content Experts

Authors: Ena Bhattacharyya, Zullina H. Shaari

Abstract:

Till date, English as a Second Language (ESL) educators involved in teaching language and communication to engineering students face an uphill task in developing graduate communicative competency. This challenge is accentuated by the apparent lack of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) materials for engineering students in the engineering curriculum. As such, most ESL educators are forced to play multiple roles. They don tasks such as curriculum designers, material writers and teachers with limited knowledge of the disciplinary content. Previous research indicates that prospective professional engineers should possess some sub-sets of competency: technical, linguistic oral immediacy, meta-cognitive and rhetorical explanatory competence. Another study revealed that engineering students need to be equipped with technical and linguistic oral immediacy competence. However, little is known whether these competency needs are in line with the educators- perceptions of communicative competence. This paper examines the best mix of communicative competence subsets that create the magic for engineering students in technical oral presentations. For the purpose of this study, two groups of educators were interviewed. These educators were language and communication lecturers involved in teaching a speaking course and content experts who assess students- technical oral presentations at tertiary level. The findings indicate that these two groups differ in their perceptions

Keywords: Communicative competence, Content experts, Educators, Technical Oral Presentations

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68 A National Idea in Conditions of the Islamic Revival

Authors: G. E. Nadirova, Sh. S. Kaliyeva, A. A. Mustafaeva, B. Zh. Aktaulova

Abstract:

Discussion and development of principles of the uniform nation formation within the limits of the Kazakhstan state obviously became one of the most pressing questions of the day. The fact that this question has not been solved "from above" as many other questions has caused really brisk discussion, shows us increase of civil consciousness in Kazakhstan society, and also the actuality of this theme which can be carried in the category of fatal questions. In any sense, nation building has raised civil society to a much higher level. It would be better to begin with certain definitions. First is the word "nation". The second is the "state". Both of these terms are very closely connected with each other, so that in English language they are in general synonyms. In Russian more shades of these terms exist. For example in Kazakhstan the citizens of the country irrespective of nationality (but mainly with reference to non-kazakhs) are called «kazakhstanians», while the name of the title nation is \"Kazakhs\". The same we can see in Russia, where, for example, the Chechen or the Yakut –are \"Rossiyane\" which means “the citizens of Russian Federation, but not \"Russians\". The paper was written under the research project “Islam in modern Kazakhstan: the nature and outcome of the religious revival”.

Keywords: Islamic revival, Kazakhs, Kazakhstan, Nation, National idea.

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67 Arabic Word Semantic Similarity

Authors: Faaza A, Almarsoomi, James D, O'Shea, Zuhair A, Bandar, Keeley A, Crockett

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the production of an Arabic word semantic similarity benchmark dataset. It is the first of its kind for Arabic which was particularly developed to assess the accuracy of word semantic similarity measurements. Semantic similarity is an essential component to numerous applications in fields such as natural language processing, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and psychology. Most of the reported work has been done for English. To the best of our knowledge, there is no word similarity measure developed specifically for Arabic. In this paper, an Arabic benchmark dataset of 70 word pairs is presented. New methods and best possible available techniques have been used in this study to produce the Arabic dataset. This includes selecting and creating materials, collecting human ratings from a representative sample of participants, and calculating the overall ratings. This dataset will make a substantial contribution to future work in the field of Arabic WSS and hopefully it will be considered as a reference basis from which to evaluate and compare different methodologies in the field.

Keywords: Arabic categories, benchmark dataset, semantic similarity, word pair, stimulus Arabic words

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66 The Importance of Theatrical Language in the Creativeness of the Actor

Authors: Ordabek Khozhamberdiyev

Abstract:

In this article, some methods are mentioned for developing the theatrical language by giving information of “theatrical language" since the arising of the language in obsolete terms, and today, and also by examining the problems. Being able to talk meaningfully in the theater stage is a skillful art. Maybe, to be able to convey the idea of the poet, his/her world outlook and his/her feelings from the bottom of the heart as such, also conveying the speech norms without breaking them to the ear of audience in a fascinating way in adverse of a repellent way is the most difficult one. Because of this, “the word is the mirror of the idea". The importance of the theatrical language should not be perceived as only a post, it is “as the yarn that the culture carpet is weaved from". Thereby, it is a tool which transposes our culture and our life style from generation to generation. At the time of creativeness, the “word" comes out from the poet, “the word and feeling" art comes out from the actor. If it was not so, the audience could read the texts of the work himself/herself instead of going to the theater in order to see the performance. The fundamental works by the Turkish, Kazakh and English scientists have been taken as a basis for the research done.

Keywords: language, sound, stage, theatrical language, voice

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65 Novelist Calls Out Poemist: A Psycholinguistic and Contrastive Analysis of the Errors in Turkish EFL Learners- Interlanguage

Authors: Mehmet Ozcan

Abstract:

This study is designed to investigate errors emerged in written texts produced by 30 Turkish EFL learners with an explanatory, and thus, qualitative perspective. Erroneous language elements were identified by the researcher first and then their grammaticality and intelligibility were checked by five native speakers of English. The analysis of the data showed that it is difficult to claim that an error stems from only one single factor since different features of an error are triggered by different factors. Our findings revealed two different types of errors: those which stem from the interference of L1 with L2 and those which are developmental ones. The former type contains more global errors whereas the errors in latter type are more intelligible.

Keywords: Contrastive analysis, Error analysis, Language acquisition, Language transfer, Turkish

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64 Post Colonial Socio-Cultural Reflections in Telugu Literature

Authors: Kanakasabha Ramana

Abstract:

The Post colonial society in India has witnessed the turmoil to come out from the widespread control and influence of colonialism. The socio-cultural life of a society with all its dynamics is reflected in realistic forms of literature. The social events and human experience are drawn into a new creative form and are given to the reader as a new understanding and perspective of life. It enables the reader to understand the essence of life and motivates him to prepare for a positive change. After India becoming free from the colonial rule in 1947, systematic efforts were made by central and state governments and institutions to limit the role of English and simultaneously enlarge the function of Indian languages by planning in a strategic manner. The eighteen languages recognized as national languages are having very rich literatures. Telugu language is one among the Dravidian language family and is widely spoken by a majority of people. The post colonial socio-cultural factors were very well reflected in Telugu literature. The anti-colonial, reform oriented, progressive, post modernistic trends in Telugu literature are nothing but creative reflections of the post colonial society. This paper examines the major socio-cultural reflections in Telugu literature of the post colonial period.

Keywords: postcolonialism, culture, progressive movement, Telugu Literature.

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63 Working Memory Capacity in Australian Sign Language (Auslan)/English Interpreters and Deaf Signers

Authors: Jihong Wang

Abstract:

Little research has examined working memory capacity (WMC) in signed language interpreters and deaf signers. This paper presents the findings of a study that investigated WMC in professional Australian Sign Language (Auslan)/English interpreters and deaf signers. Thirty-one professional Auslan/English interpreters (14 hearing native signers and 17 hearing non-native signers) completed an English listening span task and then an Auslan working memory span task, which tested their English WMC and their Auslan WMC, respectively. Moreover, 26 deaf signers (6 deaf native signers and 20 deaf non-native signers) completed the Auslan working memory span task. The results revealed a non-significant difference between the hearing native signers and the hearing non-native signers in their English WMC, and a non-significant difference between the hearing native signers and the hearing non-native signers in their Auslan WMC. Moreover, the results yielded a non-significant difference between the hearing native signers- English WMC and their Auslan WMC, and a non-significant difference between the hearing non-native signers- English WMC and their Auslan WMC. Furthermore, a non-significant difference was found between the deaf native signers and the deaf non-native signers in their Auslan WMC.

Keywords: deaf signers, signed language interpreters, working memory capacity

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62 Towards Benchmarking English Residential Gas Consumption

Authors: J.Morris, D.Allinson, J.Harrison, K.J. Lomas

Abstract:

The UK Government has emphasized the role of Local Authorities as a key player in its flagship residential energy efficiency strategies, by identifying and targeting areas for energy efficiency improvements. Residential energy consumption in England is characterized by significant geographical variation in energy demand, which makes centralized targeting of areas for energy efficiency intervention difficult. This paper draws on research which aims to understand how demographic, social, economic, urban form and climatic factors influence the geographical variations in English residential gas consumption. The paper reports the findings of a multiple regression model that shows how 64% of the geographical variation in residential gas consumption is accounted for by variations in these factors. Results from this study, after further refinement and validation, can be used by Local Authorities to identify areas within their boundaries that have higher than expected gas consumption, these may be prime targets for energy efficiency initiatives.

Keywords: UK Housing, Heating Energy, Socio-Economics, Statistical Modelling

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61 Awareness of Reading Strategies among EFL Learners at Bangkok University

Authors: Nuttanuch Munsakorn

Abstract:

This questionnaire-based study, aimed to measure and compare the awareness of English reading strategies among EFL learners at Bangkok University (BU) classified by their gender, field of study, and English learning experience. Proportional stratified random sampling was employed to formulate a sample of 380 BU students. The data were statistically analyzed in terms of the mean and standard deviation. t-Test analysis was used to find differences in awareness of reading strategies between two groups (-male and female- /-science and social-science students). In addition, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare reading strategy awareness among BU students with different lengths of English learning experience. The results of this study indicated that the overall awareness of reading strategies of EFL learners at BU was at a high level (ðÑ = 3.60) and that there was no statistically significant difference between males and females, and among students who have different lengths of English learning experience at the significance level of 0.05. However, significant differences among students coming from different fields of study were found at the same level of significance.

Keywords: EFL learners, higher education, reading comprehension, reading strategies

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60 Accent Identification by Clustering and Scoring Formants

Authors: Dejan Stantic, Jun Jo

Abstract:

There have been significant improvements in automatic voice recognition technology. However, existing systems still face difficulties, particularly when used by non-native speakers with accents. In this paper we address a problem of identifying the English accented speech of speakers from different backgrounds. Once an accent is identified the speech recognition software can utilise training set from appropriate accent and therefore improve the efficiency and accuracy of the speech recognition system. We introduced the Q factor, which is defined by the sum of relationships between frequencies of the formants. Four different accents were considered and experimented for this research. A scoring method was introduced in order to effectively analyse accents. The proposed concept indicates that the accent could be identified by analysing their formants.

Keywords: Accent Identification, Formants, Q Factor.

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