Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 575

Search results for: Emission inventory

575 Estimation of PM2.5 Emissions and Source Apportionment Using Receptor and Dispersion Models

Authors: Swetha Priya Darshini Thammadi, Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Sanjay Kumar Shukla

Abstract:

Source apportionment using Dispersion model depends primarily on the quality of Emission Inventory. In the present study, a CMB receptor model has been used to identify the sources of PM2.5, while the AERMOD dispersion model has been used to account for missing sources of PM2.5 in the Emission Inventory. A statistical approach has been developed to quantify the missing sources not considered in the Emission Inventory. The inventory of each grid was improved by adjusting emissions based on road lengths and deficit in measured and modelled concentrations. The results showed that in CMB analyses, fugitive sources - soil and road dust - contribute significantly to ambient PM2.5 pollution. As a result, AERMOD significantly underestimated the ambient air concentration at most locations. The revised Emission Inventory showed a significant improvement in AERMOD performance which is evident through statistical tests.

Keywords: CMB, GIS, AERMOD, PM2.5, fugitive, emission inventory.

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574 Oil Refineries Emissions: Source and Impact: A Study using AERMOD

Authors: Amir. AL-Haddad, Hisham. Ettouney, Samiya. Saqer

Abstract:

The main objectives of this paper are to measure pollutants concentrations in the oil refinery area in Kuwait over three periods during one year, obtain recent emission inventory for the three refineries of Kuwait, use AERMOD and the emission inventory to predict pollutants concentrations and distribution, compare model predictions against measured data, and perform numerical experiments to determine conditions at which emission rates and the resulting pollutant dispersion is below maximum allowable limits.

Keywords: Emissions, ISCST3 model, Modeling, Pollutants, Refinery

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573 Ranking of Inventory Policies Using Distance Based Approach Method

Authors: Gupta Amit, Kumar Ramesh, Tewari P. C.

Abstract:

Globalization is putting enormous pressure on the business organizations specially manufacturing one to rethink the supply chain in innovative manners. Inventory consumes major portion of total sale revenue. Effective and efficient inventory management plays a vital role for the successful functioning of any organization. Selection of inventory policy is one of the important purchasing activities. This paper focuses on selection and ranking of alternative inventory policies. A deterministic quantitative model based on Distance Based Approach (DBA) method has been developed for evaluation and ranking of inventory policies. We have employed this concept first time for this type of the selection problem. Four inventory policies economic order quantity (EOQ), just in time (JIT), vendor managed inventory (VMI) and monthly policy are considered. Improper selection could affect a company’s competitiveness in terms of the productivity of its facilities and quality of its products. The ranking of inventory policies is a multi-criteria problem. There is a need to first identify the selection criteria and then processes the information with reference to relative importance of attributes for comparison. Criteria values for each inventory policy can be obtained either analytically or by using a simulation technique or they are linguistic subjective judgments defined by fuzzy sets, like, for example, the values of criteria. A methodology is developed and applied to rank the inventory policies.

Keywords: Inventory Policy, Ranking, DBA, Selection criteria.

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572 A Modelling Study of the Photochemical and Particulate Pollution Characteristics above a Typical Southeast Mediterranean Urban Area

Authors: Kiriaki-Maria Fameli, Vasiliki D. Assimakopoulos, Vasiliki Kotroni

Abstract:

The Greater Athens Area (GAA) faces photochemical and particulate pollution episodes as a result of the combined effects of local pollutant emissions, regional pollution transport, synoptic circulation and topographic characteristics. The area has undergone significant changes since the Athens 2004 Olympic Games because of large scale infrastructure works that lead to the shift of population to areas previously characterized as rural, the increase of the traffic fleet and the operation of highways. However, few recent modelling studies have been performed due to the lack of an accurate, updated emission inventory. The photochemical modelling system MM5/CAMx was applied in order to study the photochemical and particulate pollution characteristics above the GAA for two distinct ten-day periods in the summer of 2006 and 2010, where air pollution episodes occurred. A new updated emission inventory was used based on official data. Comparison of modeled results with measurements revealed the importance and accuracy of the new Athens emission inventory as compared to previous modeling studies. The model managed to reproduce the local meteorological conditions, the daily ozone and particulates fluctuations at different locations across the GAA. Higher ozone levels were found at suburban and rural areas as well as over the sea at the south of the basin. Concerning PM10, high concentrations were computed at the city centre and the southeastern suburbs in agreement with measured data. Source apportionment analysis showed that different sources contribute to the ozone levels, the local sources (traffic, port activities) affecting its formation.

Keywords: Photochemical modelling, urban pollution, greater Athens area, MM5/CAMx.

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571 Just-In-Time for Reducing Inventory Costs throughout a Supply Chain: A Case Study

Authors: Faraj Farhat El Dabee, Rajab Abdullah Hokoma

Abstract:

Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the integration between manufacturer, transporter and customer in order to form one seamless chain that allows smooth flow of raw materials, information and products throughout the entire network that help in minimizing all related efforts and costs. The main objective of this paper is to develop a model that can accept a specified number of spare-parts within the supply chain, simulating its inventory operations throughout all stages in order to minimize the inventory holding costs, base-stock, safety-stock, and to find the optimum quantity of inventory levels, thereby suggesting a way forward to adapt some factors of Just-In-Time to minimizing the inventory costs throughout the entire supply chain. The model has been developed using Micro- Soft Excel & Visual Basic in order to study inventory allocations in any network of the supply chain. The application and reproducibility of this model were tested by comparing the actual system that was implemented in the case study with the results of the developed model. The findings showed that the total inventory costs of the developed model are about 50% less than the actual costs of the inventory items within the case study.

Keywords: Holding Costs, Inventory, JIT, Modeling, SCM

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570 Improving Sales through Inventory Reduction: A Retail Chain Case Study

Authors: M. G. Mattos, J. E. Pécora Jr, T. A. Briso

Abstract:

Today's challenging business environment, with unpredictable demand and volatility, requires a supply chain strategy that handles uncertainty and risks in the right way. Even though inventory models have been previously explored, this paper seeks to apply these concepts on a practical situation. This study involves the inventory replenishment problem, applying techniques that are mainly based on mathematical assumptions and modeling. The primary goal is to improve the retailer’s supply chain processes taking store differences when setting the various target stock levels. Through inventory review policy, picking piece implementation and minimum exposure definition, we were able not only to promote the inventory reduction as well as improve sales results. The inventory management theory from literature review was then tested on a single case study regarding a particular department in one of the largest Latam retail chains.

Keywords: Inventory, distribution, retail, risk, safety stock, sales, uncertainty.

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569 Multifunctional Barcode Inventory System for Retailing. Are You Ready for It?

Authors: Ling Shi Cai, Leau Yu Beng, Charlie Albert Lasuin, Tan Soo Fun, Chin Pei Yee

Abstract:

This paper explains the development of Multifunctional Barcode Inventory Management System (MBIMS) to manage inventory and stock ordering. Today, most of the retailing market is still manually record their stocks and its effectiveness is quite low. By providing MBIMS, it will bring effectiveness to retailing market in inventory management. MBIMS will not only save time in recording input, output and refilling the inventory stock, but also in calculating remaining stock and provide auto-ordering function. This system is developed through System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) and the flow and structure of the system is fully built based on requirements of a retailing market. Furthermore, this system has been developed from methodical research and study where each part of the system is vigilantly designed. Thus, MBIMS will offer a good solution to the retailing market in achieving effectiveness and efficiency in inventory management.

Keywords: Inventory, Retailing Market, Barcode, Automated Alerting and Ordering

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568 Value Stream Oriented Inventory Management

Authors: GuentherSchuh, Till Potente, SaschaFuchs, Annika Hauptvogel, Tobias Welter

Abstract:

Producing companies aspire to high delivery availability despite appearing disruptions. To ensure high delivery availability safety stocksare required. Howeversafety stock leads to additional capital commitment and compensates disruptions instead of solving the reasons.The intention is to increase the stability in production by configuring the production planning and control systematically. Thus the safety stock can be reduced. The largest proportion of inventory in producing companies is caused by batch inventory, schedule deviations and variability of demand rates.These reasons for high inventory levels can be reduced by configuring the production planning and control specifically. Hence the inventory level can be reduced. This is enabled by synchronizing the lot size straightening the demand as well as optimizing the releasing order, sequencing and capacity control.

Keywords: inventory level, inventory management, production planning and control, safety stock

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567 NOx Emission and Computational Analysis of Jatropha Curcus Fuel and Crude Oil

Authors: Vipan Kumar Sohpal, Rajesh K Sharma

Abstract:

Diminishing of conventional fuels and hysterical vehicles emission leads to deterioration of the environment, which emphasize the research to work on biofuels. Biofuels from different sources attract the attention of research due to low emission and biodegradability. Emission of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and H-C reduced drastically using Biofuels (B-20) combustion. Contrary to the conventional fuel, engine emission results indicated that nitrous oxide emission is higher in Biofuels. So this paper examines and compares the nitrogen oxide emission of Jatropha Curcus (JCO) B-20% blends with the vegetable oil. In addition to that computational analysis of crude non edible oil performed to assess the impact of composition on emission quality. In conclusion, JCO have the potential feedstock for the biodiesel production after the genetic modification in the plant.

Keywords: Jatropha Curcus, computational analysis, emissions, biofuels.

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566 Sensitive Analysis of the ZF Model for ABC Multi Criteria Inventory Classification

Authors: Makram Ben Jeddou

Abstract:

ABC classification is widely used by managers for inventory control. The classical ABC classification is based on Pareto principle and according to the criterion of the annual use value only. Single criterion classification is often insufficient for a closely inventory control. Multi-criteria inventory classification models have been proposed by researchers in order to consider other important criteria. From these models, we will consider a specific model in order to make a sensitive analysis on the composite score calculated for each item. In fact, this score, based on a normalized average between a good and a bad optimized index, can affect the ABC-item classification. We will focus on items differently assigned to classes and then propose a classification compromise.

Keywords: ABC classification, Multi criteria inventory classification models, ZF-model.

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565 Applying Genetic Algorithms for Inventory Lot-Sizing Problem with Supplier Selection under Storage Space

Authors: Vichai Rungreunganaun, Chirawat Woarawichai

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to calculate the optimal inventory lot-sizing for each supplier and minimize the total inventory cost which includes joint purchase cost of the products, transaction cost for the suppliers, and holding cost for remaining inventory. Genetic algorithms (GAs) are applied to the multi-product and multi-period inventory lot-sizing problems with supplier selection under storage space. Also a maximum storage space for the decision maker in each period is considered. The decision maker needs to determine what products to order in what quantities with which suppliers in which periods. It is assumed that demand of multiple products is known over a planning horizon. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming and is solved with the GAs. The detailed computation results are presented.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Inventory lot-sizing, Supplier selection, Storage space.

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564 Simulating Economic Order Quantity and Reorder Point Policy for a Repairable Items Inventory System

Authors: Mojahid F. Saeed Osman

Abstract:

Repairable items inventory system is a management tool used to incorporate all information concerning inventory levels and movements for repaired and new items. This paper presents development of an effective simulation model for managing the inventory of repairable items for a production system where production lines send their faulty items to a repair shop considering the stochastic failure behavior and repair times. The developed model imitates the process of handling the on-hand inventory of repaired items and the replenishment of the inventory of new items using Economic Order Quantity and Reorder Point ordering policy in a flexible and risk-free environment. We demonstrate the appropriateness and effectiveness of the proposed simulation model using an illustrative case problem. The developed simulation model can be used as a reliable tool for estimating a healthy on-hand inventory of new and repaired items, backordered items, and downtime due to unavailability of repaired items, and validating and examining Economic Order Quantity and Reorder Point ordering policy, which would further be compared with other ordering strategies as future work.

Keywords: Inventory system, repairable items, simulation, maintenance, economic order quantity, reorder point.

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563 The Use of Information for Inventory Decision in the Healthcare Industry

Authors: H. L. Chan, T. M. Choi, C. L. Hui, S. F. Ng

Abstract:

In this study, we explore the use of information for inventory decision in the healthcare organization (HO). We consider the scenario when the HO can make use of the information collected from some correlated products to enhance its inventory planning. Motivated by our real world observations that HOs adopt RFID and bar-coding system for information collection purpose, we examine the effectiveness of these systems for inventory planning with Bayesian information updating. We derive the optimal ordering decision and study the issue of Pareto improvement in the supply chain. Our analysis demonstrates that RFID system will outperform the bar-coding system when the RFID system installation cost and the tag cost reduce to a level that is comparable with that of the barcoding system. We also show how an appropriately set wholesale pricing contract can achieve Pareto improvement in the HO supply chain.

Keywords: Efficient consumer response program, healthcare, inventory management, RFID system, bar-coding system.

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562 Estimation of Exhaust and Non-Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions’ Share from On-Road Vehicles in Addis Ababa City

Authors: Solomon Neway Jida, Jean-Francois Hetet, Pascal Chesse

Abstract:

Vehicular emission is the key source of air pollution in the urban environment. This includes both fine particles (PM2.5) and coarse particulate matters (PM10). However, particulate matter emissions from road traffic comprise emissions from exhaust tailpipe and emissions due to wear and tear of the vehicle part such as brake, tire and clutch and re-suspension of dust (non-exhaust emission). This study estimates the share of the two sources of pollutant particle emissions from on-roadside vehicles in the Addis Ababa municipality, Ethiopia. To calculate its share, two methods were applied; the exhaust-tailpipe emissions were calculated using the Europeans emission inventory Tier II method and Tier I for the non-exhaust emissions (like vehicle tire wear, brake, and road surface wear). The results show that of the total traffic-related particulate emissions in the city, 63% emitted from vehicle exhaust and the remaining 37% from non-exhaust sources. The annual roads transport exhaust emission shares around 2394 tons of particles from all vehicle categories. However, from the total yearly non-exhaust particulate matter emissions’ contribution, tire and brake wear shared around 65% and 35% emanated by road-surface wear. Furthermore, vehicle tire and brake wear were responsible for annual 584.8 tons of coarse particles (PM10) and 314.4 tons of fine particle matter (PM2.5) emissions in the city whereas surface wear emissions were responsible for around 313.7 tons of PM10 and 169.9 tons of PM2.5 pollutant emissions in the city. This suggests that non-exhaust sources might be as significant as exhaust sources and have a considerable contribution to the impact on air quality.

Keywords: Addis Ababa, automotive emission, emission estimation, particulate matters.

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561 Estimation of Methane from Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production in India

Authors: A. K. Pathak, K. Ojha

Abstract:

Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas (GHG) after carbon dioxide. Amount of methane emission from energy sector is increasing day by day with various activities. In present work, various sources of methane emission from upstream, middle stream and downstream of oil & gas sectors are identified and categorised as per IPCC-2006 guidelines. Data were collected from various oil & gas sector like (i) exploration & production of oil & gas (ii) supply through pipelines (iii) refinery throughput & production (iv) storage & transportation (v) usage. Methane emission factors for various categories were determined applying Tier-II and Tier-I approach using the collected data. Total methane emission from Indian Oil & Gas sectors was thus estimated for the year 1990 to 2007.

Keywords: Carbon credit, Climate change, Methane emission, Oil & Gas production

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560 Effect of Inventory Management on Financial Performance: Evidence from Nigerian Conglomerate Companies

Authors: Adamu Danlami Ahmed

Abstract:

Inventory management is the determinant of effective and efficient work for any manager. This study looked at the relationship between inventory management and financial performance. The population of the study comprises all conglomerate quoted companies in the Nigerian Stock Exchange market as at 31st December 2010. The scope of the study covered the period from 2010 to 2014. Descriptive, Pearson correlation and multiple regressions are used to analyze the data. It was found that inventory management is significantly related to the profitability of the company. This entails that an efficient management of the inventory cycle will enhance the profitability of the company. Also, lack of proper management of it will hinder the financial performance of organizations. Based on the results, it was recommended that a conglomerate company should try to see that inventories are kept to a minimum, as well as make sure the proper checks are maintained to make sure only needed inventories are in the store. As well as to keep track of the movement of goods, in order to avoid unnecessary delay of finished and work in progress (WIP) goods in the store and warehouse.

Keywords: Finished goods, work in progress, financial performance, inventory.

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559 Emission Constrained Economic Dispatch for Hydrothermal Coordination

Authors: Md. Sayeed Salam

Abstract:

This paper presents an efficient emission constrained economic dispatch algorithm that deals with nonlinear cost function and constraints. It is then incorporated into the dynamic programming based hydrothermal coordination program. The program has been tested on a practical utility system having 32 thermal and 12 hydro generating units. Test results show that a slight increase in production cost causes a substantial reduction in emission.

Keywords: Emission constraint, Hydrothermal coordination, and Economic dispatch algorithm.

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558 Emission Constrained Hydrothermal Scheduling Algorithm

Authors: Sayeed Salam

Abstract:

This paper presents an efficient emission constrained hydrothermal scheduling algorithm that deals with nonlinear functions such as the water discharge characteristics, thermal cost, and transmission loss. It is then incorporated into the hydrothermal coordination program. The program has been tested on a practical utility system having 32 thermal and 12 hydro generating units. Test results show that a slight increase in production cost causes a substantial reduction in emission.

Keywords: Emission constraint, Hydrothermal coordination, and Hydrothermal scheduling algorithm.

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557 Framework for Spare Inventory Management

Authors: Eman M. Wahba, Noha M. Galal, Khaled S. El-Kilany

Abstract:

Spare parts inventory management is one of the major areas of inventory research. Analysis of recent literature showed that an approach integrating spare parts classification, demand forecasting, and stock control policies is essential; however, adapting this integrated approach is limited. This work presents an integrated framework for spare part inventory management and an Excel based application developed for the implementation of the proposed framework. A multi-criteria analysis has been used for spare classification. Forecasting of spare parts- intermittent demand has been incorporated into the application using three different forecasting models; namely, normal distribution, exponential smoothing, and Croston method. The application is also capable of running with different inventory control policies. To illustrate the performance of the proposed framework and the developed application; the framework is applied to different items at a service organization. The results achieved are presented and possible areas for future work are highlighted.

Keywords: Demand forecasting, intermittent demand, inventory management, integrated approach, spare parts, spare part classification

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556 Electrification Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle as a Solution to Decrease CO2 Emission in Cities

Authors: M. Mourad, K. Mahmoud

Abstract:

Recently hybrid vehicles have become a major concern as one alternative vehicles. This type of hybrid vehicle contributes greatly to reducing pollution. Therefore, this work studies the influence of electrification phase of hybrid electric vehicle on emission of vehicle at different road conditions. To accomplish this investigation, a simulation model was used to evaluate the external characteristics of the hybrid electric vehicle according to variant conditions of road resistances. Therefore, this paper reports a methodology to decrease the vehicle emission especially greenhouse gas emission inside cities. The results show the effect of electrification on vehicle performance characteristics. The results show that CO2 emission of vehicle decreases up to 50.6% according to an urban driving cycle due to applying the electrification strategy for hybrid electric vehicle.

Keywords: Electrification strategy, hybrid electric vehicle, CO2 emission.

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555 The Relationship between Inventory Management and Profitability: A Comparative Research on Turkish Firms Operated in Weaving Industry, Eatables Industry, Wholesale and Retail Industry

Authors: G. Sekeroglu, M. Altan

Abstract:

Working capital is identified as firm’s all current assets. Inventories which are one of the working capital elements are very important among current assets for firms. Because, profitability is an indicator for firms’ financial success is provided with minimum cost and optimum inventory quantity. So in this study, it is investigated as comparatively that the effect of inventory management on the profitability of Turkish firms which operated in weaving industry, eatables industry, wholesale and retail industry in between 2003 – 2012 years. Research data consist of profitability ratios and inventory turnovers ratio calculated by using balance sheets and income statements of firms which operated in Borsa Istanbul (BIST). In this research, the relationship between inventories and profitability is investigated by using SPSS-20 software with regression and correlation analysis. The results achieved from three industry departments which exist in study interpreted as comparatively. Accordingly, it is determined that there is a positive relationship between inventory management and profitability in eatables industry. However, it was founded that there is no relationship between inventory management and profitability in weaving industry and wholesale and retail industry.

Keywords: Profitability, regression analysis, inventory management, working capital.

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554 Renewable Energy Supply Options in Kuwait

Authors: Osamah A. Alsayegh, Fatma A. Fairouz

Abstract:

This paper compares planning results of the electricity and water generation inventory up to year 2030 in the State of Kuwait. Currently, the generation inventory consists of oil and gas fired technologies only. The planning study considers two main cases. The first case, Reference case, examines a generation inventory based on oil and gas fired generation technologies only. The second case examines the inclusion of renewables as part of the generation inventory under two scenarios. In the first scenario, Ref-RE, renewable build-out is based on optimum economic performance of overall generation system. Result shows that the optimum installed renewable capacity with electric energy generation of 11% . In the second scenario, Ref-RE20, the renewable capacity build-out is forced to provide 20% of electric energy by 2030. The respective energy systems costs of Reference, Ref-RE and Ref-RE20 case scenarios reach US dollar 24, 10 and 14 billion annually in 2030.

Keywords: Generation inventory, solar, planning, TIMES, wind.

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553 CFD Modeling of Reduction in NOX Emission Using HiTAC Technique

Authors: Abbas Khoshhal, Masoud Rahimi, Sayed Reza Shabanian, Ammar Abdulaziz Alsairafi

Abstract:

In the present study, the rate of NOx emission in a combustion chamber working in conventional combustion and High Temperature Air Combustion (HiTAC) system are examined using CFD modeling. The effect of peak temperature, combustion air temperature and oxygen concentration on NOx emission rate was undertaken. Results show that in a fixed oxygen concentration, increasing the preheated air temperature will increase the peak temperature and NOx emission rate. In addition, it was observed that the reduction of the oxygen concentration in the fixed preheated air temperature decreases the peak temperature and NOx emission rate. On the other hand, the results show that increase of preheated air temperature at various oxygen concentrations increases the NOx emission rate. However, the rate of increase in HiTAC conditions is quite lower than the conventional combustion. The modeling results show that the NOx emission rate in HiTAC combustion is 133% less than that of the conventional combustion.

Keywords: CFD Modeling, HiTAC, NOx, Combustion.

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552 An Application of a Cost Minimization Model in Determining Safety Stock Level and Location

Authors: Bahareh Amirjabbari, Nadia Bhuiyan

Abstract:

In recent decades, the lean methodology, and the development of its principles and concepts have widely been applied in supply chain management. One of the most important strategies of being lean is having efficient inventory within the chain. On the other hand, managing inventory efficiently requires appropriate management of safety stock in order to protect against increasing stretch in the breaking points of the supply chain, which in turn can result in possible reduction of inventory. This paper applies a safety stock cost minimization model in a manufacturing company. The model results in optimum levels and locations of safety stock within the company-s supply chain in order to minimize total logistics costs.

Keywords: Cost, efficient inventory, optimization, safety stock, supply chain

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551 Retail Inventory Management for Perishable Products with Two Bins Strategy

Authors: Madhukar Nagare, Pankaj Dutta, Amey Kambli

Abstract:

Perishable goods constitute a large portion of retailer inventory and lose value with time due to deterioration and/or obsolescence. Retailers dealing with such goods required considering the factors of short shelf life and the dependency of sales on inventory displayed in determining optimal procurement policy. Many retailers follow the practice of using two bins - primary bin sales fresh items at a list price and secondary bin sales unsold items at a discount price transferred from primary bin on attaining certain age. In this paper, mathematical models are developed for primary bin and for secondary bin that maximizes profit with decision variables of order quantities, optimal review period and optimal selling price at secondary bin. The demand rates in two bins are assumed to be deterministic and dependent on displayed inventory level, price and age but independent of each other. The validity of the model is shown by solving an example and the sensitivity analysis of the model is also reported.

Keywords: Retail Inventory, Perishable Products, Two Bin, Profitable Sales.

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550 Microscopic Emission and Fuel Consumption Modeling for Light-duty Vehicles Using Portable Emission Measurement System Data

Authors: Wei Lei, Hui Chen, Lin Lu

Abstract:

Microscopic emission and fuel consumption models have been widely recognized as an effective method to quantify real traffic emission and energy consumption when they are applied with microscopic traffic simulation models. This paper presents a framework for developing the Microscopic Emission (HC, CO, NOx, and CO2) and Fuel consumption (MEF) models for light-duty vehicles. The variable of composite acceleration is introduced into the MEF model with the purpose of capturing the effects of historical accelerations interacting with current speed on emission and fuel consumption. The MEF model is calibrated by multivariate least-squares method for two types of light-duty vehicle using on-board data collected in Beijing, China by a Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS). The instantaneous validation results shows the MEF model performs better with lower Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) compared to other two models. Moreover, the aggregate validation results tells the MEF model produces reasonable estimations compared to actual measurements with prediction errors within 12%, 10%, 19%, and 9% for HC, CO, NOx emissions and fuel consumption, respectively.

Keywords: Emission, Fuel consumption, Light-duty vehicle, Microscopic, Modeling.

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549 Highlighting of the Factors and Policies Affecting CO2 Emissions Level in Malaysian Transportation Sector

Authors: M. S. Indati, H. A. Bekhet

Abstract:

Global CO2 emission and increasing fuel consumption to meet energy demand has become a threat in recent decades. Effort to reduce the CO2 emission is now a matter of priority in most countries of the world including Malaysia. Transportation has been identified as the most intensive sector of carbon-based fuels and achievement of the voluntary target to meet 40% carbon intensity reduction set at the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) means that the emission from the transport sector must be reduced accordingly. This posed a great challenge to Malaysia and effort has to be made to embrace suitable and appropriate energy policy for sustainable energy and emission reduction of this sector. The focus of this paper is to analyze the trends of Malaysia’s energy consumption and emission of four different transport sub-sectors (road, rail, aviation and maritime). Underlying factors influencing the growth of energy consumption and emission trends are discussed. Besides, technology status towards energy efficiency in transportation sub-sectors is presented. By reviewing the existing policies and trends of energy used, the paper highlights prospective policy options towards achieving emission reduction in the transportation sector.

Keywords: CO2 Emission, Energy policy, Fuel consumption, Transportation sector, Malaysia.

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548 A Multi-period Profit Maximization Policy for a Stochastic Demand Inventory System with Upward Substitution

Authors: Soma Roychowdhury

Abstract:

This paper deals with a periodic-review substitutable inventory system for a finite and an infinite number of periods. Here an upward substitution structure, a substitution of a more costly item by a less costly one, is assumed, with two products. At the beginning of each period, a stochastic demand comes for the first item only, which is quality-wise better and hence costlier. Whenever an arriving demand finds zero inventory of this product, a fraction of unsatisfied customers goes for its substitutable second item. An optimal ordering policy has been derived for each period. The results are illustrated with numerical examples. A sensitivity analysis has been done to examine how sensitive the optimal solution and the maximum profit are to the values of the discount factor, when there is a large number of periods.

Keywords: Multi-period model, inventory, random demand, upward substitution.

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547 Three Dimensional Analysis of Pollution Dispersion in Street Canyon

Authors: T. Banerjee, R. A. Christian

Abstract:

Three dimensional simulations are carried out to estimate the effect of wind direction, wind speed and geometry on the flow and dispersion of vehicular pollutant in a street canyon. The pollutant sources are motor vehicles passing between the two buildings. Suitable emission factors for petrol and diesel vehicles at varying vehicle speed are used for the estimation of the rate of emission from the streets. The dispersion of automobile pollutant released from the street is simulated by introducing vehicular emission source term as a fixed-flux boundary condition at the ground level over the road. The emission source term is suitably calculated by adopting emission factors from literature for varying conditions of street traffic. It is observed that increase in wind angle disturbs the symmetric pattern of pollution distribution along the street length. The concentration increases in the far end of the street as compared to the near end.

Keywords: Street canyon, pollution dispersion, vehicular emission, numerical simulation.

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546 A Validity and Reliability Study of Grasha- Riechmann Student Learning Style Scale

Authors: Yaşar Baykul, Musa Gürsel, Hacı Sulak, Erhan Ertekin, Ersen Yazıcı, Osman Dülger, Yasin Aslan, Kağan Büyükkarcı

Abstract:

The reliability of the tools developed to learn the learning styles is essential to find out students- learning styles trustworthily. For this purpose, the psychometric features of Grasha- Riechman Student Learning Style Inventory developed by Grasha was studied to contribute to this field. The study was carried out on 6th, 7th, and 8th graders of 10 primary education schools in Konya. The inventory was applied twice with an interval of one month, and according to the data of this application, the reliability coefficient numbers of the 6 sub-dimensions pointed in the theory of the inventory was found to be medium. Besides, it was found that the inventory does not have a structure with 6 factors for both Mathematics and English courses as represented in the theory.

Keywords: Learning styles, Grasha-Riechmann, reliability, validity.

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