Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: Dipankar Sarkar

43 Studying the Behavior of Asphalt Mix and Their Properties in the Presence of Nano Materials

Authors: Aman Patidar, Dipankar Sarkar, Manish Pal

Abstract:

Due to rapid development, increase in the traffic load, higher traffic volume and seasonal variation in temperature, asphalt pavement shows distresses like rutting, fatigue and thermal cracking etc. because of this pavement fails during service life so that bitumen needs to be modified with some additive. In this study VG30 grade bitumen modify with addition of nanosilica with 1% to 5% (increment of 1%) by weight of bitumen. Hot mix asphalt (HMA) have higher mixing, laying and rolling temperatures which leads to higher consumption of fuel. To address this issue, a nano material named ZycoTherm which is chemical warm mix asphalt (WMA) additive is added to bitumen. Nanosilica modification (NSMB) results in the increase in stability compared to unmodified bitumen (UMB). WMA modified mix shows slightly higher stability than UMB and NSMB in a lower bitumen content. The Retained stability and tensile strength ratio (TSR) is more than 75% and 80% respectively for both mixes. Nanosilica with WMA has more resistant to temperature susceptibility, moisture susceptibility and short term aging than NSMB.

Keywords: HMA, nanosilica, NSMB, temperature, TSR, UMB, WMA.

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42 Attention Based Fully Convolutional Neural Network for Simultaneous Detection and Segmentation of Optic Disc in Retinal Fundus Images

Authors: Sandip Sadhukhan, Arpita Sarkar, Debprasad Sinha, Goutam Kumar Ghorai, Gautam Sarkar, Ashis K. Dhara

Abstract:

Accurate segmentation of the optic disc is very important for computer-aided diagnosis of several ocular diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and hypertensive retinopathy. The paper presents an accurate and fast optic disc detection and segmentation method using an attention based fully convolutional network. The network is trained from scratch using the fundus images of extended MESSIDOR database and the trained model is used for segmentation of optic disc. The false positives are removed based on morphological operation and shape features. The result is evaluated using three-fold cross-validation on six public fundus image databases such as DIARETDB0, DIARETDB1, DRIVE, AV-INSPIRE, CHASE DB1 and MESSIDOR. The attention based fully convolutional network is robust and effective for detection and segmentation of optic disc in the images affected by diabetic retinopathy and it outperforms existing techniques.

Keywords: Ocular diseases, retinal fundus image, optic disc detection and segmentation, fully convolutional network, overlap measure.

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41 Biological Effects of a Carbohydrate-Binding Protein from an Annelid, Perinereis nuntia Against Human and Phytopathogenic Microorganisms

Authors: Sarkar M. A. Kawsar, Sarkar M. A. Mamun, Md S. Rahman, Hidetaro Yasumitsu, Yasuhiro Ozeki

Abstract:

Lectins have a good scope in current clinical microbiology research. In the present study evaluated the antimicrobial activities of a D-galactose binding lectin (PnL) was purified from the annelid, Perinereis nuntia (polychaeta) by affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of the lectin was determined to be 32 kDa as a single polypeptide by SDS-PAGE under both reducing and non-reducing conditions. The hemagglutinating activity of the PnL showed against trypsinized and glutaraldehyde-fixed human erythrocytes was specifically inhibited by D-Gal, GalNAc, Galβ1-4Glc and Galα1-6Glc. PnL was evaluated for in vitro antibacterial screening studies against 11 gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. From the screening results, it was revealed that PnL exhibited significant antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria. Bacillus megaterium showed the highest growth inhibition by the lectin (250 μg/disc). However, PnL did not inhibit the growth of gram-negative bacteria such as Vibrio cholerae and Pseudomonas sp. PnL was also examined for in vitro antifungal activity against six fungal phytopathogens. PnL (100 μg/mL) inhibited the mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata (24.4%). These results indicate that future findings of lectin applications obtained from annelids may be of importance to life sciences.

Keywords: Perinereis nuntia, Lectin, Inhibition zone, Mycelial growth.

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40 Adaptive Sampling Algorithm for ANN-based Performance Modeling of Nano-scale CMOS Inverter

Authors: Dipankar Dhabak, Soumya Pandit

Abstract:

This paper presents an adaptive technique for generation of data required for construction of artificial neural network-based performance model of nano-scale CMOS inverter circuit. The training data are generated from the samples through SPICE simulation. The proposed algorithm has been compared to standard progressive sampling algorithms like arithmetic sampling and geometric sampling. The advantages of the present approach over the others have been demonstrated. The ANN predicted results have been compared with actual SPICE results. A very good accuracy has been obtained.

Keywords: CMOS Inverter, Nano-scale, Adaptive Sampling, ArtificialNeural Network

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39 Low Power Capacitance-to-Voltage Converter for Magnetometer Interface IC

Authors: Dipankar Nag, Choe Andrew Kunil, Kevin Chai Tshun Chuan, Minkyu Je

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and implementation of a fully integrated Capacitance-to-Voltage Converter (CVC) as the analog front-end for magnetometer interface IC. The application demands very low power solution operating in the frequency of around 20 KHz. The design adapts low power architecture to create low noise electronic interface for Capacitive Micro-machined Lorentz force magnetometer sensor. Using a 0.18-μm CMOS process, simulation results of this interface IC show that the proposed CVC can provide 33 dB closed loop gain, 20 nV/√Hz input referred noise at 20 KHz, while consuming 65 μA current from 1.8-V supply. 

Keywords: Analog front end, Capacitance-to-Voltage Converter, Magnetometer, MEMS, Recycling Folded Cascode.

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38 In Vitro Antibacterial and Antifungal Effects of a 30 kDa D-Galactoside-Specific Lectin from the Demosponge, Halichondria okadai

Authors: Sarkar M. A. Kawsar, Sarkar M. A. Mamun, Md S. Rahman, Hidetaro Yasumitsu, Yasuhiro Ozeki

Abstract:

The present study has been taken to explore the screening of in vitro antimicrobial activities of D-galactose-binding sponge lectin (HOL-30). HOL-30 was purified from the marine demosponge Halichondria okadai by affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of the lectin was determined to be 30 kDa with a single polypeptide by SDS-PAGE under non-reducing and reducing conditions. HOL-30 agglutinated trypsinized and glutaraldehydefixed rabbit and human erythrocytes with preference for type O erythrocytes. The lectin was subjected to evaluation for inhibition of microbial growth by the disc diffusion method against eleven human pathogenic gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The lectin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis. However, it did not affect against gram-negative bacteria such as Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli. The largest zone of inhibition was recorded of Bacillus megaterium (12 in diameter) and Bacillus subtilis (10 mm in diameter) at a concentration of the lectin (250 μg/disc). On the other hand, the antifungal activity of the lectin was investigated against six phytopathogenic fungi based on food poisoning technique. The lectin has shown maximum inhibition (22.83%) of mycelial growth of Botrydiplodia theobromae at a concentration of 100 μg/mL media. These findings indicate that the lectin may be of importance to clinical microbiology and have therapeutic applications.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Halichondria okadai, Inhibition zone, Lectin.

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37 Laboratory Evaluation of Asphalt Concrete Prepared with Over Burnt Brick Aggregate Treated by Zycosoil

Authors: D. Sarkar, M. Pal, A. K. Sarkar

Abstract:

Asphaltic concrete for pavement construction in India are produced by using crushed stone, gravels etc. as aggregate. In north-Eastern region of India, there is a scarcity of stone aggregate. Therefore the road engineers are always in search of an optional material as aggregate which can replace the regularly used material. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the utilization of substandard or marginal aggregates in flexible pavement construction. The investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effects of using lower quality aggregates such as over burnt brick aggregate on the preparation of asphalt concrete for flexible pavements. The scope of this work included a review of available literature and existing data, a laboratory evaluation organized to determine the effects of marginal aggregates and potential techniques to upgrade these substandard materials, and a laboratory evaluation of these upgraded marginal aggregate asphalt mixtures. Over burnt brick aggregates are water susceptible and can leads to moisture damage. Moisture damage is the progressive loss of functionality of the material owing to loss of the adhesion bond between the asphalt binder and the aggregate surface. Hence zycosoil as an anti striping additive were evaluated in this study. This study summarizes the results of the laboratory evaluation carried out to investigate the properties of asphalt concrete prepared with zycosoil modified over burnt brick aggregate. Marshall specimen were prepared with stone aggregate, zycosoil modified stone aggregate, over burnt brick aggregate and zycosoil modified over burnt brick aggregate. Results show that addition of zycosoil with stone aggregate increased stability by 6% and addition of zycosoil with over burnt brick aggregate increased stability by 30%.

Keywords: Asphalt Concrete, Over Burnt Brick Aggregate, Marshall Stability, Zycosoil.

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36 Adaptive Climate Responsive Vernacular Construction in High Altitude

Authors: Ar. Amitava Sarkar

Abstract:

In the traditional architecture, buildings were designed to achieve human comfort by using locally available building materials and construction technology which were more responsive to their climatic and geographic condition. This paper will try to bring out the wisdom of the local masons and builders, often the inhabitants themselves, about their way of living, and shaping their built environment, indoor and outdoor spaces, as a response to the local climatic conditions, from the findings of a field settlement.

Keywords: Traditional architecture, High altitude, Climatic adaptation, Sustainable construction

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35 Flow Transformation: An Investigation on Theoretical Aspects and Numerical Computation

Authors: Abhisek Sarkar, Abhimanyu Gaur

Abstract:

In this report we have discussed the theoretical aspects of the flow transformation, occurring through a series of bifurcations. The parameters and their continuous diversion, the intermittent bursts in the transition zone, variation of velocity and pressure with time, effect of roughness in turbulent zone, and changes in friction factor and head loss coefficient as a function of Reynolds number for a transverse flow across a cylinder have been discussed. An analysis of the variation in the wake length with Reynolds number was done in FORTRAN.

Keywords: Attractor, Bifurcation, Energy cascade, Energy spectra, Intermittence, Vortex stretching.

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34 Analysis of Possible Causes of Fukushima Disaster

Authors: Abid Hossain Khan, Syam Hasan, M. A. R. Sarkar

Abstract:

Fukushima disaster is one of the most publicly exposed accidents in a nuclear facility which has changed the outlook of people towards nuclear power. Some have used it as an example to establish nuclear energy as an unsafe source, while others have tried to find the real reasons behind this accident. Many papers have tried to shed light on the possible causes, some of which are purely based on assumptions while others rely on rigorous data analysis. To our best knowledge, none of the works can say with absolute certainty that there is a single prominent reason that has paved the way to this unexpected incident. This paper attempts to compile all the apparent reasons behind Fukushima disaster and tries to analyze and identify the most likely one.

Keywords: Fuel meltdown, Fukushima disaster, manmade calamity, nuclear facility, tsunami.

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33 A 1.2-ns16×16-Bit Binary Multiplier Using High Speed Compressors

Authors: A. Dandapat, S. Ghosal, P. Sarkar, D. Mukhopadhyay

Abstract:

For higher order multiplications, a huge number of adders or compressors are to be used to perform the partial product addition. We have reduced the number of adders by introducing special kind of adders that are capable to add five/six/seven bits per decade. These adders are called compressors. Binary counter property has been merged with the compressor property to develop high order compressors. Uses of these compressors permit the reduction of the vertical critical paths. A 16×16 bit multiplier has been developed using these compressors. These compressors make the multipliers faster as compared to the conventional design that have been used 4-2 compressors and 3-2 compressors.

Keywords: Binary multiplier, Compressors, Counter, Column adder, Low power.

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32 Analytical Comparison of Conventional Algorithms with Vedic Algorithm for Digital Multiplier

Authors: Akhilesh G. Naik, Dipankar Pal

Abstract:

In today’s scenario, the complexity of digital signal processing (DSP) applications and various microcontroller architectures have been increasing to such an extent that the traditional approaches to multiplier design in most processors are becoming outdated for being comparatively slow. Modern processing applications require suitable pipelined approaches, and therefore, algorithms that are friendlier with pipelined architectures. Traditional algorithms like Wallace Tree, Radix-4 Booth, Radix-8 Booth, Dadda architectures have been proven to be comparatively slow for pipelined architectures. These architectures, therefore, need to be optimized or combined with other architectures amongst them to enhance its performances and to be made suitable for pipelined hardware/architectures. Recently, Vedic algorithm mathematically has proven to be efficient by appearing to be less complex and with fewer steps for its output establishment and have assumed renewed importance. This paper describes and shows how the Vedic algorithm can be better suited for pipelined architectures and also can be combined with traditional architectures and algorithms for enhancing its ability even further. In this paper, we also established that for complex applications on DSP and other microcontroller architectures, using Vedic approach for multiplication proves to be the best available and efficient option.

Keywords: Wallace tree, Radix-4 Booth, Radix-8 Booth, Dadda, Vedic, Single-Stage Karatsuba, Looped Karatsuba.

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31 Effect of Sedimentation on Torque Transmission in the Larger Radius Magnetorheological Clutch

Authors: Manish Kumar Thakur, Chiranjit Sarkar

Abstract:

Sedimentation of magnetorheological (MR) fluid affects its working. MR fluid is a smart fluid that has unique qualities such as quick responsiveness and easy controllability. It is used in the MR damper, MR brake, and MR clutch. In this work effect of sedimentation on torque transmission in the shear mode operated MR clutch is investigated. A test rig is developed to test the impact of sedimentation on torque transmission in the MR clutch. Torque transmission capability of MR clutch has been measured under two conditions to confirm the result of sedimentation. The first experiment is done just after filling and the other after one week. It has been observed that transmission torque is decreased after sedimentation. Hence sedimentation affects the working of the MR clutch.

Keywords: Clutch, magnetorheological fluid, sedimentation, torque.

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30 The Effect of Micro Tools Fabricated Dent on Alumina/Alumina Oxide Interface

Authors: Taposh Roy, Dipankar Choudhury, Belinda Pingguan-Murphy

Abstract:

The tribological outcomes of micro dent are found to be outstanding in many engineering and natural surfaces. Ceramic (Al2O3) is considered one of the most potential material to bearing surfaces particularly, artificial hip or knee implant. A well-defined micro dent on alumina oxide interface could further decrease friction and wear rate, thus increase their stability and durability. In this study we fabricated circular micro dent surface profiles (Dia: 400µm, Depth 20µm, P: 1.5mm; Dia: 400µm, Depth 20µm, P: 2mm) on pure Al2O3 (99.6%) substrate by using a micro tool machines. A preliminary tribological experiment was carried out to compare friction coefficient of these fabricated dent surfaces with that of non-textured surfaces. The experiment was carried on well know pin-on-disk specimens while other experimental parameters such as hertz pressure, speed, lubrication, and temperature were maintained to standard of simulated hip joints condition. The experiment results revealed that micro dent surface texture reduced 15%, 8% and 4% friction coefficient under 0.132,0.162, 0.187 GPa contact pressure respectively. Since this is a preliminary tribological study, we will pursue further experiments considering higher ranges of dent profiles and longer run experiments. However, the preliminary results confirmed the suitability of fabricating dent profile to ceramic surfaces by using micro tooling, and also their improved tribological performance in simulated hip joints.

Keywords: Micro dent, tribology, ceramic on ceramic hipjoints.

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29 Design Optimization of the Primary Containment Building of a Pressurized Water Reactor

Authors: M. Hossain, A. H. Khan, M. A. R. Sarkar

Abstract:

Primary containment structure is one of the five safety layers of a nuclear facility which is needed to be designed in such a manner that it can withstand the pressure and excessive radioactivity during accidental situations. It is also necessary to ensure minimization of cost with maximum possible safety in order to make the design economically feasible and attractive. This paper attempts to identify the optimum design conditions for primary containment structure considering both mechanical and radiation safety keeping the economic aspects in mind. This work takes advantage of commercial simulation software to identify the suitable conditions without the requirement of costly experiments. Generated data may be helpful for further studies.

Keywords: PWR, concrete containment, finite element approach, neutron attenuation, Von Mises Stress.

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28 Control Strategy of SRM Converters for Power Quality Improvement

Authors: Yogesh Pahariya, Rakesh Saxena, Biswaroop Sarkar

Abstract:

The selection of control strategy depends on the converters of the drive including power, speed, performance and the possible system costs. A number of attempts were therefore made in recent times to develop novel power electronic converter structures for SRM drives, based on the utilization. Many of the converters with variable speed drives have no input power factor correction circuits. This results in harmonic pollution of the utility supply, which should be avoided. The effect of power factor variation in terms of harmonic content is also analyzed in this study. The proposed topologies were simulated using MATLAB / Simulink software package and the results are obtained.

Keywords: Harmonic Pollution, Power Electronic Converter, Power Quality, Simulation.

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27 A Semi-Cylindrical Capacitive Sensor Used for Soil Moisture Measurement

Authors: Subir Das, Tuhin Subhra Sarkar, Badal Chakraborty

Abstract:

Differing from the structure of traditional parallel plate capacitive sensor a semi cylindrical capacitive sensor has been introduced in this present work to measure the soil moisture conveniently. Here, the numerical analysis method to evaluate the capacitance from the semi-cylindrical capacitive sensor is analyzed and discussed. The changes of capacitance with the variation of soil moisture obtained linear in the nano farad range (nF) and which converted into voltage variation by using proper signal conditioning circuit. Experimental results depict the satisfactory performance of the sensor for measurement of soil moisture in the range of 0 to 70%. We investigated the linearity of 4% of FSO and sensitivity of 70 mV/unit percentage changes in soil moisture level (DB).

Keywords: Semi cylindrical Capacitive Sensor, Capacitance to Voltage converter Circuit, Soil Moisture.

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26 Signal Processing Approach to Study Multifractality and Singularity of Solar Wind Speed Time Series

Authors: Tushnik Sarkar, Mofazzal H. Khondekar, Subrata Banerjee

Abstract:

This paper investigates the nature of the fluctuation of the daily average Solar wind speed time series collected over a period of 2492 days, from 1st January, 1997 to 28th October, 2003. The degree of self-similarity and scalability of the Solar Wind Speed signal has been explored to characterise the signal fluctuation. Multi-fractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) method has been implemented on the signal which is under investigation to perform this task. Furthermore, the singularity spectra of the signals have been also obtained to gauge the extent of the multifractality of the time series signal.

Keywords: Detrended fluctuation analysis, generalized Hurst exponent, holder exponents, multifractal exponent, multifractal spectrum, singularity spectrum, time series analysis.

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25 Effect of Heat Treatment on the Portevin-Le Chatelier Effect of Al-2.5%Mg Alloy

Authors: A. Chatterjee, A. Sarkar, N. Gayathri, P. Mukherjee, P. Barat

Abstract:

An experimental study is presented on the effect of microstructural change on the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect behaviour of Al-2.5%Mg alloy. Tensile tests are performed on the as received and heat treated (at 400 ºC for 16 hours) samples for a wide range of strain rates. The serrations observed in the stress-time curve are investigated from statistical analysis point of view. Microstructures of the samples are characterized by optical metallography and X-ray diffraction. It is found that the excess vacancy generated due to heat treatment leads to decrease in the strain rate sensitivity and the increase in the number of stress drop occurrences per unit time during the PLC effect. The microstructural parameters like domain size, dislocation density have no appreciable effect on the PLC effect as far as the statistical behavior of the serrations is considered.

Keywords: Dynamic strain ageing, Heat treatment, Portevin-LeChatelier effect

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24 Impact of MAC Layer on the Performance of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Authors: T.G. Basavaraju, Subir Kumar Sarkar, C Puttamadappa

Abstract:

Mobile Ad hoc Networks is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by multi-hop wireless links without centralized infrastructure support. As mobile communication gains popularity, the need for suitable ad hoc routing protocols will continue to grow. Efficient dynamic routing is an important research challenge in such a network. Bandwidth constrained mobile devices use on-demand approach in their routing protocols because of its effectiveness and efficiency. Many researchers have conducted numerous simulations for comparing the performance of these protocols under varying conditions and constraints. Most of them are not aware of MAC Protocols, which will impact the relative performance of routing protocols considered in different network scenarios. In this paper we investigate the choice of MAC protocols affects the relative performance of ad hoc routing protocols under different scenarios. We have evaluated the performance of these protocols using NS2 simulations. Our results show that the performance of routing protocols of ad hoc networks will suffer when run over different MAC Layer protocols.

Keywords: AODV, DSR, DSDV, MAC, MANETs, relativeperformance

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23 DNS of a Laminar Separation Bubble

Authors: N. K. Singh, S. Sarkar

Abstract:

Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to study the evolution of a boundary layer that was laminar initially followed by separation and then reattachment owing to generation of turbulence. This creates a closed region of recirculation, known as the laminar-separation bubble. The present simulation emulates the flow environment encountered in a modern LP turbine blade, where a laminar separation bubble may occur on the suction surface. The unsteady, incompressible three-dimensional (3-D) Navier-Stokes (NS) equations have been solved over a flat plate in the Cartesian coordinates. The adverse pressure gradient, which causes the flow to separate, is created by a boundary condition. The separated shear layer undergoes transition through appearance of ╬ø vortices, stretching of these create longitudinal streaks. Breakdown of the streaks into small and irregular structures makes the flow turbulent downstream.

Keywords: Adverse pressure gradient, direct numerical simulation, laminar separation bubble.

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22 Design of a Novel Inclination Sensor Utilizing Grayscale Image

Authors: Tuhin Subhra Sarkar, Subir Das

Abstract:

Several research works have been done in recent times utilizing grayscale image for the measurement of many physical phenomena. In this present paper, we have designed an embedded based inclination sensor utilizing the grayscale image with a resolution of 0.3º. The sensor module consists of a circular shaped metal disc, laminated with grayscale image and an optical transreceiver. The sensor principle is based on temporal changes in light intensity by the movement of grayscale image with the inclination of the target surface and the variation of light intensity has been detected in terms of voltage by the signal processing circuit (SPC).The output of SPC is fed to a microcontroller program to display the inclination angel digitally. The experimental results are shown a satisfactory performance of the sensor in a small inclination measuring range of -40º to + 40º with a sensitivity of 62 mV/°.

Keywords: Grayscale image, Inclination Sensor, Microcontroller Program, Signal Processing Circuit.

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21 Solid Waste Management in Steel Industry - Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Sushovan Sarkar, Debabrata Mazumder

Abstract:

Solid waste management in steel industry is broadly classified in “4 Rs” i.e. reduce, reuse, recycle and restore the materials. Reuse and recycling the entire solid waste generated in the process of steel making is a viable solution in targeting a clean, green and zero waste technology leading to sustainable development of the steel industry. Solid waste management has gained importance in steel industry in view of its uncertainty, volatility and speculation due to world competitive standards, rising input costs, scarcity of raw materials and solid waste generated like in other sectors. The challenges that the steel Industry faces today are the requirement of a sustainable development by meeting the needs of our present generation without compromising the ability of future generations. Technologies are developed not only for gainful utilization of solid wastes in manufacture of conventional products but also for conversion of same in to completely new products.

Keywords: Reuse, recycle, solid waste, sustainable development.

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20 Effects of Synthetic Jet in Suppressing Cavity Oscillations

Authors: S. Sarkar, R. Mandal

Abstract:

The three-dimensional incompressible flow past a rectangular open cavity is investigated, where the aspect ratio of the cavity is considered as 4. The principle objective is to use large-eddy simulation to resolve and control the large-scale structures, which are largely responsible for flow oscillations in a cavity. The flow past an open cavity is very common in aerospace applications and can be a cause of acoustic source due to hydrodynamic instability of the shear layer and its interactions with the downstream edge. The unsteady Navier-stokes equations have been solved on a staggered mesh using a symmetry-preserving central difference scheme. Synthetic jet has been used as an active control to suppress the cavity oscillations in wake mode for a Reynolds number of ReD = 3360. The effect of synthetic jet has been studied by varying the jet amplitude and frequency, which is placed at the upstream wall of the cavity. The study indicates that there exits a frequency band, which is larger than a critical value, is effective in attenuating cavity oscillations when blowing ratio is more than 1.0.

Keywords: Cavity oscillation, Large Eddy Simulation, Synthetic Jet, Flow Control, Turbulence

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19 Modal Propagation Properties of Elliptical Core Optical Fibers Considering Stress-Optic Effects

Authors: M. Shah Alam, Sarkar Rahat M. Anwar

Abstract:

The effect of thermally induced stress on the modal properties of highly elliptical core optical fibers is studied in this work using a finite element method. The stress analysis is carried out and anisotropic refractive index change is calculated using both the conventional plane strain approximation and the generalized plane strain approach. After considering the stress optical effect, the modal analysis of the fiber is performed to obtain the solutions of fundamental and higher order modes. The modal effective index, modal birefringence, group effective index, group birefringence, and dispersion of different modes of the fiber are presented. For propagation properties, it can be seen that the results depend much on the approach of stress analysis.

Keywords: Birefringence, dispersion, elliptical core fiber, optical mode analysis, stress-optic effect, stress analysis.

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18 Conceptual Design of Experimental Helium Cooling Loop for Indian TBM R&D Experiments

Authors: B. K. Yadav, A. Gandhi, A. K. Verma, T. S. Rao, A. Saraswat, E. R. Kumar, M. Sarkar, K. N. Vyas

Abstract:

This paper deals with the conceptual design of Experimental Helium Cooling Loop (EHCL) for Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) and its related thermal hydraulic experiments. Indian TBM team is developing Lead Lithium cooled Ceramic Breeder (IN-LLCB) TBM to be tested in ITER. The TBM box structure is cooled by high pressure (8 MPa) and high temperature (300-500C) helium gas.

The first wall of TBM made of complex channel geometry having several parallel channels carrying helium gas for efficient heat extraction. Several mock-ups of these channels need to be tested before finalizing the TBM first wall design and fabrication. Besides the individual testing of such mock-ups of breeding blanket, the testing of Pb-Li to helium heat exchanger, the operational experience of helium loop and understanding of the behavior of high pressure and high temperature system components are very essential for final development of Helium Cooling System for LLCB TBM in ITER. The main requirements and characteristics of the EHCL and its conceptual design are presented in this paper.

Keywords: DEMO, EHCL, ITER, LLCB TBM.

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17 Wavelet-Based Classification of Myocardial Ischemia, Arrhythmia, Congestive Heart Failure and Sleep Apnea

Authors: Santanu Chattopadhyay, Gautam Sarkar, Arabinda Das

Abstract:

This paper presents wavelet based classification of various heart diseases. Electrocardiogram signals of different heart patients have been studied. Statistical natures of electrocardiogram signals for different heart diseases have been compared with the statistical nature of electrocardiograms for normal persons. Under this study four different heart diseases have been considered as follows: Myocardial Ischemia (MI), Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), Arrhythmia and Sleep Apnea. Statistical nature of electrocardiograms for each case has been considered in terms of kurtosis values of two types of wavelet coefficients: approximate and detail. Nine wavelet decomposition levels have been considered in each case. Kurtosis corresponding to both approximate and detail coefficients has been considered for decomposition level one to decomposition level nine. Based on significant difference, few decomposition levels have been chosen and then used for classification.

Keywords: Arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, discrete wavelet transform, electrocardiogram, myocardial ischemia, sleep apnea.

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16 Spread Spectrum Image Watermarking for Secured Multimedia Data Communication

Authors: Tirtha S. Das, Ayan K. Sau, Subir K. Sarkar

Abstract:

Digital watermarking is a way to provide the facility of secure multimedia data communication besides its copyright protection approach. The Spread Spectrum modulation principle is widely used in digital watermarking to satisfy the robustness of multimedia signals against various signal-processing operations. Several SS watermarking algorithms have been proposed for multimedia signals but very few works have discussed on the issues responsible for secure data communication and its robustness improvement. The current paper has critically analyzed few such factors namely properties of spreading codes, proper signal decomposition suitable for data embedding, security provided by the key, successive bit cancellation method applied at decoder which have greater impact on the detection reliability, secure communication of significant signal under camouflage of insignificant signals etc. Based on the analysis, robust SS watermarking scheme for secure data communication is proposed in wavelet domain and improvement in secure communication and robustness performance is reported through experimental results. The reported result also shows improvement in visual and statistical invisibility of the hidden data.

Keywords: Spread spectrum modulation, spreading code, signaldecomposition, security, successive bit cancellation

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15 Risk Based Building Information Modeling (BIM) for Urban Infrastructure Transportation Project

Authors: Debasis Sarkar

Abstract:

Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a holistic documentation process for operational visualization, design coordination, estimation and project scheduling. BIM software defines objects parametrically and it is a tool for virtual reality. Primary advantage of implementing BIM is the visual coordination of the building structure and systems such as Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) and it also identifies the possible conflicts between the building systems. This paper is an attempt to develop a risk based BIM model which would highlight the primary advantages of application of BIM pertaining to urban infrastructure transportation project. It has been observed that about 40% of the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) companies use BIM but primarily for their outsourced projects. Also, 65% of the respondents agree that BIM would be used quiet strongly for future construction projects in India. The 3D models developed with Revit 2015 software would reduce co-ordination problems amongst the architects, structural engineers, contractors and building service providers (MEP). Integration of risk management along with BIM would provide enhanced co-ordination, collaboration and high probability of successful completion of the complex infrastructure transportation project within stipulated time and cost frame.

Keywords: Building information modeling (BIM), infrastructure transportation, project risk management, underground metro rail.

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14 Process Design and Application of Aerobic Hybrid Bioreactor in the Treatment of Municipal Wastewater

Authors: Sushovan Sarkar, Debabrata Mazumder

Abstract:

Hybrid bioreactor having both suspended-growth and attached-growth bacteria is found a novel and excellent bioreactor system for treating the municipal wastewater containing inhibitory substrates too. In this reactor a fraction of substrate is used by suspended biomass and the remaining by attached biomass resulting in the competition between the two growths for the substrate. The combination of suspended and attached growth provides the system with enhanced biomass concentration and sludge age more than those in ASP. Similar to attached growth system, the hybrid bioreactor ensures considerable efficiency for treating toxic and refractory substances in wastewater. For the process design of hybrid bioreactor a suitable mathematical model is required. Although various mathematical models were developed on hybrid bioreactor in due course of time in earlier research works, none of them was found having a specific simplified solution of the corresponding models and without having any drawback. To overcome this drawback authors already developed a simplified mathematical model for process design of a hybrid bioreactor. The present paper briefly highlights on the various aspects of process design of an aerobic hybrid bioreactor for the treatment of municipal wastewater.

Keywords: Hybrid bioreactor, mathematical model, process design, application, municipal wastewater.

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