Search results for: Dental implants
73 Evaluation the Distribution of Implant Supported Prostheses between 2005-2009 Years
Abstract:The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the parameters of dental implants such as patient gender, number of implant, failed implant before prosthetic restorations and failed implant after implantation and failed implant after prosthetic restorations. 135 male and 99 female patients, total 234 implant patients which have been treated with 450 implant between 2005- 2009 years in GATA Haydarpasa Training Hospital Dental Service. Twelve implants were failed before prosthetic restorations. Four implant were failed after fixed prosthetic restorations. Cumulative survival rate after prostheses were 97.56 % during 6 years period.
Keywords: Dental implants, implant supported prostheses, single implants, single crownProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1455
72 Enhancement and Characterization of Titanium Surfaces with Sandblasting and Acid Etching for Dental Implants
Authors: Busra Balli, Tuncay Dikici, Mustafa Toparli
Abstract:Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively over the past 25 years as biomedical materials in orthopedic and dental applications because of their good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. It is known that the surface properties of titanium implants can enhance the cellular response and play an important role in Osseo integration. The rate and quality of Osseo integration in titanium implants are related to their surface properties. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of sandblasting and acid etching on surface morphology, roughness, the wettability of titanium. The surface properties will be characterized by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle and roughness measurements. The results show that surface morphology, roughness, and wettability were changed and enhanced by these treatments.
Keywords: Dental implant, etching, surface modifications, surface morphology, surface roughness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1120
71 Placement of Implants in Palatum of a Teenager without Maxillary Incisor Teeth
Authors: Luan Mavriqi, Ilma Robo, Emin Kuzimi, Egresa Baca
The process of skeletal growth in an adolescent significantly affects the displacement of implants placed in the palatine suture. The problems caused by this process have an impact on the dental function and aesthetics of the affected data. If fixed prostheses are placed based on implants, the whole structure would impede maxillary growth. This is the significant difference between the maxilla and the mandible, as the lower jaw has no growth process that affects the movement of the implants or the latter to inhibit the growth of the jaw. In a teenager patient an accident occurred accompanied by loss of maxillary central incisors. The main complaint of patients is aesthetics and phonetics. Dental history of patients refers to the presence of a Maryland bridge that was accompanied by dissatisfaction on the part of the patient. Implant placement is not indicated as jaw augmentation may lead to displacement of the implant. The treatment plan includes the placement of implants in the palatum where this bone thickness allows as a procedure.in this article only the first stage of treatment is presented. Implant treatment is ongoing, will be followed by the second phase of treatment when the patient has reached the age of 18 years.
Keywords: Implants, palatum, adolescent, primary incisor teeth.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 104
70 Bioengineering for Customized Orthodontic Applications- Implant, Bracket and Dental Vibrator
Authors: Rajashekar Patil, S. Mohan Kumar, Shreya Ajmera
Abstract:To understand complex living system an effort has made by mechanical engineers and dentists to deliver prompt products and services to patients concerned about their aesthetic look. Since two decades various bracket systems have designed involving techniques like milling, injection molding which are technically not flexible for the customized dental product development. The aim of this paper to design, develop a customized system which is economical and mainly emphasizes the expertise design and integration of engineering and dental fields. A custom made selfadjustable lingual bracket and customized implants are designed and developed using computer aided design (CAD) and rapid prototyping technology (RPT) to improve the smiles and to overcome the difficulties associated with conventional ones. Lengthy orthodontic treatment usually not accepted by the patients because the patient compliance is lost. Patient-s compliance can be improved by facilitating faster tooth movements by designing a localized dental vibrator using advanced engineering principles.
Keywords: Orthodontics, Prosthodontics, Lingual bracket, Implants, Dental vibrator, Computer aided design, Rapid prototyping technology.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2942
69 Effects of Thread Dimensions of Functionally Graded Dental Implants on Stress Distribution
Authors: Kaman M. O., Celik N.
Abstract:In this study, stress distributions on dental implants made of functionally graded biomaterials (FGBM) are investigated numerically. The implant body is considered to be subjected to axial compression loads. Numerical problem is assumed to be 2D, and ANSYS commercial software is used for the analysis. The cross section of the implant thread varies as varying the height (H) and the width (t) of the thread. According to thread dimensions of implant and material properties of FGBM, equivalent stress distribution on the implant is determined and presented with contour plots along with the maximum equivalent stress values. As a result, with increasing material gradient parameter (n), the equivalent stress decreases, but the minimum stress distribution increases. Maximum stress values decrease with decreasing implant radius (r). Maximum von Mises stresses increases with decreasing H when t is constant. On the other hand, the stress values are not affected by variation of t in the case of H = constant.
Keywords: Functionally graded biomaterials, dental implant finite element method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2904
68 Adherence of Alveolar Fibroblasts and Microorganisms on Titanium Implants
Authors: J. Franková, V. Pivodová, F. Růžička, J. Ulrichová
Abstract:An implant elicits a biological response in the surrounding tissue which determines the acceptance and long-term function of the implant. Dental implants have become one of the main therapy methods in clinic after teeth lose. A successful implant is in contact with bone and soft tissue represent by fibroblasts. In our study we focused on the interaction between six different chemically and physically modified titanium implants (Tis-MALP, Tis-O, Tis- OA, Tis-OPAAE, Tis-OZ, Tis-OPAE) with alveolar fibroblasts as well as with five type of microorganisms (S. epidermis, S.mutans, S. gordonii, S. intermedius, C.albicans). The analysis of microorganism adhesion was determined by CFU (colony forming unite) and biofilm formation. The presence of α3β1 and vinculin expression on alveolar fibroblasts was demonstrated using phospho specific cell based ELISA (PACE). Alveolar fibroblasts have the highest expression of these proteins on Tis-OPAAE and Tis-OPAE. It corresponds with results from bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation and it was related to the lowest production of collagen I by alveolar fibroblasts on Tis-OPAAE titanium disc.
Keywords: titanium disc, alveolar fibroblasts, microorganisms, adhesionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1372
67 Polymerisation Shrinkage of Light−Cured Hydroxyapatite (HA)−Reinforced Dental Composites
Authors: Bilge S. Oduncu, Sevil Yucel, Ismail Aydin, Isil D. Sener, Gokhan Yamaner
Abstract:The dental composites are preferably used as filling materials due to their esthetic appearances. Nevertheless one of the major problems, during the application of the dental composites, is shape change named as “polymerisation shrinkage" affecting clinical success of the dental restoration while photo-polymerisation. Polymerisation shrinkage of composites arises basically from the formation of a polymer due to the monomer transformation which composes of an organic matrix phase. It was sought, throughout this study, to detect and evaluate the structural polymerisation shrinkage of prepared dental composites in order to optimize the effects of various fillers included in hydroxyapatite (HA)-reinforced dental composites and hence to find a means to modify the properties of these dental composites prepared with defined parameters. As a result, the shrinkage values of the experimental dental composites were decreased by increasing the filler content of composites and the composition of different fillers used had effect on the shrinkage of the prepared composite systems.
Keywords: Dental composites, hydroxyapatite (HA), BisGMA, shrinkage.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1917
66 Host Responses in Peri-Implant Tissue in Comparison to Periodontal Tissue
Authors: Raviporn Madarasmi, Anjalee Vacharaksa, Pravej Serichetaphongse
The host response in peri-implant tissue may differ from that in periodontal tissue in a healthy individual. The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of inflammatory cytokines in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) from single implant with different abutment types in comparison to healthy periodontal tissue. 19 participants with healthy implants and teeth were recruited according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. PICF and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected using sterile paper points. The expression level of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1α, IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 was assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Paired t test was used to compare the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines around natural teeth and peri-implant in PICF and GCF of the same individual. The Independent t-test was used to compare the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in PICF from titanium and UCLA abutment. Expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in PICF was not statistically different from GCF among titanium and UCLA abutment group. However, the level of IL-1α in the PICF from the implants with UCLA abutment was significantly higher than GCF (P=0.030). In addition, the level of IL-1β in PICF from the implants with titanium abutment was significantly higher than GCF (P=0.032). When different abutment types was compared, IL-8 expression in PICF from implants with UCLA abutment was significantly higher than titanium abutment (P=0.003).
Keywords: Abutment, dental implant, gingival crevicular fluid and peri-implant crevicular fluid.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 810
65 Analysis of Image Segmentation Techniques for Diagnosis of Dental Caries in X-ray Images
Authors: V. Geetha, K. S. Aprameya
Early diagnosis of dental caries is essential for maintaining dental health. In this paper, method for diagnosis of dental caries is proposed using Laplacian filter, adaptive thresholding, texture analysis and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. Analysis of the proposed method is compared with Otsu thresholding, watershed segmentation and active contouring method. Adaptive thresholding has comparatively better performance with 96.9% accuracy and 96.1% precision. The results are validated using statistical method, two-way ANOVA, at significant level of 5%, that shows the interaction of proposed method on performance parameter measures are significant. Hence the proposed technique could be used for detection of dental caries in automated computer assisted diagnosis system.
Keywords: Computer assisted diagnosis, dental caries, dental radiography, image segmentation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 965
64 Design Improvement of Dental Implant-Based on Bone Remodelling
Authors: Solehuddin Shuib, Koay Boon Aik, Zainul Ahmad Rajion
Abstract:There are many types of mechanical failure on the dental implant. In this project, the failure that needs to take into consideration is the bone resorption on the dental implant. Human bone has its ability to remodel after the implantation. As the dental implant is installed into the bone, the bone will detect and change the bone structure to achieve new biomechanical environment. This phenomenon is known as bone remodeling. The objective of the project is to improve the performance of dental implant by using different types of design. These designs are used to analyze and predict the failure of the dental implant by using finite element analysis (FEA) namely ANSYS. The bone is assumed to be fully attached to the implant or cement. Hence, results are then compared with other researchers. The results were presented in the form of Von Mises stress, normal stress, shear stress analysis, and displacement. The selected design will be analyzed further based on a theoretical calculation of bone remodeling on the dental implant. The results have shown that the design constructed passed the failure analysis. Therefore, the selected design is proven to have a stable performance at the recovery stage.
Keywords: Dental implant, FEA, bone remodeling, osseointegration.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 927
63 Neural Networks for Distinguishing the Performance of Two Hip Joint Implants on the Basis of Hip Implant Side and Ground Reaction Force
Authors: L. Parisi
In this research work, neural networks were applied to classify two types of hip joint implants based on the relative hip joint implant side speed and three components of each ground reaction force. The condition of walking gait at normal velocity was used and carried out with each of the two hip joint implants assessed. Ground reaction forces’ kinetic temporal changes were considered in the first approach followed but discarded in the second one. Ground reaction force components were obtained from eighteen patients under such gait condition, half of which had a hip implant type I-II, whilst the other half had the hip implant, defined as type III by Orthoload®. After pre-processing raw gait kinetic data and selecting the time frames needed for the analysis, the ground reaction force components were used to train a MLP neural network, which learnt to distinguish the two hip joint implants in the abovementioned condition. Further to training, unknown hip implant side and ground reaction force components were presented to the neural networks, which assigned those features into the right class with a reasonably high accuracy for the hip implant type I-II and the type III. The results suggest that neural networks could be successfully applied in the performance assessment of hip joint implants.
Keywords: Kinemic gait data, Neural networks, Hip joint implant, Hip arthroplasty, Rehabilitation Engineering.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1668
62 Process Optimization Regarding Geometrical Variation and Sensitivity Involving Dental Drill- and Implant-Guided Surgeries
Authors: T. Kero, R. Söderberg, M. Andersson, L. Lindkvist
Abstract:Within dental-guided surgery, there has been a lack of analytical methods for optimizing the treatment of the rehabilitation concepts regarding geometrical variation. The purpose of this study is to find the source of the greatest geometrical variation contributor and sensitivity contributor with the help of virtual variation simulation of a dental drill- and implant-guided surgery process using a methodical approach. It is believed that lower geometrical variation will lead to better patient security and higher quality of dental drill- and implant-guided surgeries. It was found that the origin of the greatest contributor to the most variation, and hence where the foci should be set, in order to minimize geometrical variation was in the assembly category (surgery). This was also the category that was the most sensitive for geometrical variation.
Keywords: Variation Simulation, Process Optimization, Guided Surgeries, Dental Prosthesis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1165
61 Assessment of Microbial Pollution of the Dental Chairs Water System (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in the City of Tripoli, Libya
Authors: Abdulsalam. I. Rafida, Ehae. Abo-Jnha, Kald. Tainah
Abstract:This study mainly aims at assessing the level of microbial pollution of the water used in the chair system in dental clinics. For this purpose 36 samples have been randomly collected from a number of dental surgeries in the city of Tripoli in Libya. However, 32 of the samples have tested positive to microbial pollution including 13 of the samples, which have tested positives to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Based on the results of the test a further investigation of the biofilms incorporated within the dental chair system has been conducted. The laboratory tests of biofilms with similar design to those found in dental chairs have proved that bacterial pollution takes place through saliva of the patients who use the chairs, and that this saliva is rich with nutrients which provides a suitable breeding ground for all types of bacteria.
Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Biofilm.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1368
60 An Antibacterial Dental Restorative Containing 3,4-Dichlorocrotonolactone: Synthesis, Formulation and Evaluation
Authors: Dong Xie, Leah Howard, Yiming Weng
The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize 5-acryloyloxy-3,4-dichlorocrotonolactone (a furanone derivative), use this derivative to modify a dental restorative, and study the effect of the derivative on the antibacterial activity and compressive strength of the formed restorative. In this study, a furanone derivative was synthesized, characterized, and used to formulate a dental restorative. Compressive strength (CS) and S. mutans viability were used to evaluate the mechanical strength and antibacterial activity of the formed restorative. The fabricated restorative specimens were photocured and conditioned in distilled water at 37oC for 24 h, followed by direct testing for CS or/and incubating with S. mutans for 48 h for antibacterial testing. The results show that the modified dental restorative showed a significant antibacterial activity without substantially decreasing the mechanical strengths. With addition of the antibacterial derivative up to 30%, the restorative kept its original CS nearly unchanged but showed a significant antibacterial activity with 68% reduction in the S. mutans viability. Furthermore, the antibacterial function of the modified restorative was not affected by human saliva. The aging study also indicates that the modified restorative may have a long-lasting antibacterial function. It is concluded that this experimental antibacterial restorative may potentially be developed into a clinically attractive dental filling restorative due to its high mechanical strength and antibacterial function.
Keywords: Antibacterial, dental filling restorative, compressive strength, S. mutans viability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1799
59 A Method for Improving Dental Crown Fit-Increasing the Robustness
Authors: Kero T., Söderberg R., Andersson M., Lindkvist L.
Abstract:The introduction of mass-customization has enabled new ways to treat patients within medicine. However, the introduction of industrialized treatments has also meant new obstacles. The purpose of this study was to introduce and theoretically test a method for improving dental crown fit. The optimization method allocates support points in order to check the final variation for dental crowns. Three different types of geometries were tested and compared. The three geometries were also divided into three sub-geometries: Current method, Optimized method and Feasible method. The Optimized method, using the whole surface for support points, provided the best results. The results support the objective of the study. It also seems that the support optimization method can dramatically improve the robustness of dental crown treatments.
Keywords: Bio-medicine, Dentistry, Mass-customization, Optimization and Robust design.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1485
58 Wavelet based Image Registration Technique for Matching Dental x-rays
Authors: P. Ramprasad, H. C. Nagaraj, M. K. Parasuram
Abstract:Image registration plays an important role in the diagnosis of dental pathologies such as dental caries, alveolar bone loss and periapical lesions etc. This paper presents a new wavelet based algorithm for registering noisy and poor contrast dental x-rays. Proposed algorithm has two stages. First stage is a preprocessing stage, removes the noise from the x-ray images. Gaussian filter has been used. Second stage is a geometric transformation stage. Proposed work uses two levels of affine transformation. Wavelet coefficients are correlated instead of gray values. Algorithm has been applied on number of pre and post RCT (Root canal treatment) periapical radiographs. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Correlation coefficients (CC) are used for quantitative evaluation. Proposed technique outperforms conventional Multiresolution strategy based image registration technique and manual registration technique.
Keywords: Diagnostic imaging, geometric transformation, image registration, multiresolution.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1649
57 Performance of Compound Enhancement Algorithms on Dental Radiograph Images
Authors: S.A.Ahmad, M.N.Taib, N.E.A.Khalid, R.Ahmad, H.Taib
Abstract:The purpose of this research is to compare the original intra-oral digital dental radiograph images with images that are enhanced using a combination of image processing algorithms. Intraoral digital dental radiograph images are often noisy, blur edges and low in contrast. A combination of sharpening and enhancement method are used to overcome these problems. Three types of proposed compound algorithms used are Sharp Adaptive Histogram Equalization (SAHE), Sharp Median Adaptive Histogram Equalization (SMAHE) and Sharp Contrast adaptive histogram equalization (SCLAHE). This paper presents an initial study of the perception of six dentists on the details of abnormal pathologies and improvement of image quality in ten intra-oral radiographs. The research focus on the detection of only three types of pathology which is periapical radiolucency, widen periodontal ligament space and loss of lamina dura. The overall result shows that SCLAHE-s slightly improve the appearance of dental abnormalities- over the original image and also outperform the other two proposed compound algorithms.
Keywords: intra-oral dental radiograph, histogram equalization, sharpening, CLAHE.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1650
56 Laser Welded Ni-Cr Dental Alloys Inspection
Authors: Porojan S., Sandu L., Topală F.
Abstract:Minor problems arising from optimizations by welding of fixed prostheses frameworks can be identified by macroscopic and microscopic visual inspection. The purpose of this study was to highlight the visible discontinuities present in the laser welds of dental Ni-Cr alloys. Ni-Cr base metal alloys designated for fixed prostheses manufacture were selected for the experiments. Using cast plates, preliminary tests were conducted by laser welding. Macroscopic visual inspection was done carefully to assess the defects of the welding rib. Electron microscopy images allowed visualization of small discontinuities, which escapes visual inspection. Making comparison to Ni-Cr alloys taken in the experiment and laser welded, after visual analysis, the best welds appear for Heraenium NA alloy.
Keywords: macroscopic visual inspection, electron microscopyimages, Ni-Cr dental alloys, laser welding.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1413
55 New Models of Financial Management Put into Effect in Dental Practices in Romania –Empirical Study
Authors: Dutescu Adriana, Amariei Corneliu, Sahlian Daniela, Stanila Aurelian, Stanila Oana
Abstract:20 years of dentistry was a period of transition from communist to market economy but Romanian doctors have insufficient management knowledge. Recently, the need for modern management has increased due to technologies and superior materials appearance, as patient-s demands. Research goal is to increase efficiency by evaluating dental medical office cost categories in real pricing procedures. Empirical research is based on guided study that includes information about the association between categories of cost perception and therapeutic procedures commonly used in dental offices. Due to the obtained results to identify all the labours that make up a settled procedure costs were determined for each procedure. Financial evaluation software was created with the main functions: introducing and maintaining patient records, treatment and appointments made, procedures cost and monitoring office productivity. We believe that the study results can significantly improve the financial management of dental offices, increasing the effectiveness and quality of services.
Keywords: costs, financial methods, management.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1343
54 Optimization of the Dental Direct Digital Imaging by Applying the Self-Recognition Technology
Authors: Mina Dabirinezhad, Mohsen Bayat Pour, Amin Dabirinejad
This paper is intended to introduce the technology to solve some of the deficiencies of the direct digital radiology. Nowadays, digital radiology is the latest progression in dental imaging, which has become an essential part of dentistry. There are two main parts of the direct digital radiology comprised of an intraoral X-ray machine and a sensor (digital image receptor). The dentists and the dental nurses experience afflictions during the taking image process by the direct digital X-ray machine. For instance, sometimes they need to readjust the sensor in the mouth of the patient to take the X-ray image again due to the low quality of that. Another problem is, the position of the sensor may move in the mouth of the patient and it triggers off an inappropriate image for the dentists. It means that it is a time-consuming process for dentists or dental nurses. On the other hand, taking several the X-ray images brings some problems for the patient such as being harmful to their health and feeling pain in their mouth due to the pressure of the sensor to the jaw. The author provides a technology to solve the above-mentioned issues that is called “Self-Recognition Direct Digital Radiology” (SDDR). This technology is based on the principle that the intraoral X-ray machine is capable to diagnose the location of the sensor in the mouth of the patient automatically. In addition, to solve the aforementioned problems, SDDR technology brings out fewer environmental impacts in comparison to the previous version.
Keywords: Dental direct digital imaging, digital image receptor, digital x-ray machine, and environmental impacts.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 427
53 Dental Students’ Attitude towards Problem-Based Learning before and after Implementing 3D Electronic Dental Models
Authors: Hai Ming Wong, Kuen Wai Ma, Lavender Yu Xin Yang, Yanqi Yang
Objectives: In recent years, the Faculty of Dentistry of the University of Hong Kong have extended the implementation of 3D electronic models (e-models) into problem-based learning (PBL) of the Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) curriculum, aiming at mutual enhancement of PBL teaching quality and the students’ skills in using e-models. This study focuses on the effectiveness of e-models serving as a tool to enhance the students’ skills and competences in PBL. Methods: The questionnaire surveys are conducted to measure 50 fourth-year BDS students’ attitude change between beginning and end of blended PBL tutorials. The response rate of this survey is 100%. Results: The results of this study show the students’ agreement on enhancement of their learning experience after e-model implementation and their expectation to have more blended PBL courses in the future. The potential of e-models in cultivating students’ self-learning skills reduces their dependence on others, while improving their communication skills to argue about pros and cons of different treatment options. The students’ independent thinking ability and problem solving skills are promoted by e-model implementation, resulting in better decision making in treatment planning. Conclusion: It is important for future dental education curriculum planning to cope with the students’ needs, and offer support in the form of software, hardware and facilitators’ assistance for better e-model implementation.
Keywords: Problem-Based learning, curriculum, dental education, 3-D electronic models.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4897
52 Rebuilding the Dental Hygiene Habits of the Hospitalized Patients with Schizophrenia
Authors: Chia-Jou Hsieh, Feng-Chuan Pan
Abstract:Oral health is particular important to the hospitalized patients with chronic schizophrenia for an extreme high potential of the respiratory infections. Due to the degeneration of physical capability, patients of this kind typically fall dependent in the activity of daily living (ADL). A very high percentage of patients had dental problems of which mostly could be easily avoid by easy regular tooth brushing. Purpose of the project is to develop a mechanism in helping the schizophrenia patients in rebuilding a tooth-cleaning habit. The project observed and evaluated the tooth-cleaning behavior of 100 male patients in a psychiatric hospital, and found the majority of them ignored such an activity in a three-month period of time. In the meantime, the primary care-givers were not aware or not convinced the importance of such a need of dental hygiene, and thus few if any tooth cleaning training or knowledge on dental hygiene were given to the patients. The project then developed a program based on the numerous observations and discussions. The improvement program included patients- group education, care-givers- training, and a tool-kit for tooth-brush holding was erected. The project launched with some incentive package. The outcomes were encouraging with 87% of the patients had rebuilt their tooth-brushing habits against previous 22%, and the tooth cleaning kits were 100% kept against 22% in the past. This project had significantly improved the oral health of the patients. The project, included the procedure and the tool-kit holder specific for this purpose, was a good examples for psychiatric hospitals.
Keywords: Schizophrenia, dental hygiene, tool-kit holder, health educationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1686
51 The Appropriateness of Antibiotic Prescribing within Dundee Dental Hospital
Authors: Salma Ainine, Colin Ritchie, Tracey McFee
Abstract:Background: The societal impact of antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern. The increase in incidence of resistant bacteria can ultimately be fatal. Objective: To analyse the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in Dundee Dental Hospital, ultimately improving the safety and quality of patient care. Methods: Two examiners independently crosschecked approximately fifty consecutive prescriptions, and corresponding patient case notes, for three data collection cycles between August 2014 – September 2015. The Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Program (SDCEP) Drug Prescribing for Dentistry guidelines was the standard utilised. The criteria: clinical justification, regime justification and review arrangements was measured, and compared to the standard. Results: Cycle one revealed 42% of antibiotic prescriptions were appropriate. Interventions included: multiple staff meetings, introduction of a checklist attached to the prescription pack, and production of patient leaflets explaining indications for antibiotics. Cycle two and three revealed 44%, and 30% compliance, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the audit have yet to meet target standards set out in prescribing guidelines. However, steps are being taken and change has occurred on a cultural level.
Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, antibiotic stewardship, dental infection and hygiene standards.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1756
50 Strengthening and Toughening of Dental Porcelain by the Inclusion of an Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Reinforcing Phase
Authors: Bruno Henriques, Rafaela Santos, Mihaela Buciumeanu, Júlio Matias de Souza, Filipe Silva, Rubens Nascimento, Márcio Fredel
Dental porcelain composites reinforced and toughened by 20 wt.% tetragonal zirconia (3Y-TZP) were processed by hot pressing at 1000°C. Two types of particles were tested: yttriastabilized zirconia (ZrO2–3%Y2O3) agglomerates and pre-sintered yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2–3%Y2O3) particles. The composites as well as the reinforcing particles were analyzed by the means of optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The mechanical properties were obtained by the transverse rupture strength test. Wear tests were also performed on the composites and monolithic porcelain. The best mechanical results were displayed by the porcelain reinforced with the pre-sintered ZrO2–3%Y2O3 agglomerates.
Keywords: Composite, dental restoration, porcelain, strengthening, toughening, wear, zirconia.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1999
49 Microscopic Analysis of Welded Dental Alloys
Authors: S. Porojan, L. Sandu, F. Topalâ
Abstract:Microplasma welding is a less expensive alternative to laser welding in dental technology. The aim of the study was to highlight discontinuities present in the microplasma welded joints of dental base metal alloys by visual analysis. Five base metal alloys designated for fixed prostheses manufacture were selected for the experiments. Using these plates, preliminary tests were conducted by microplasma welding in butt joint configuration, without filler material, bilaterally and with filler material, proper for each base metal. Macroscopic visual inspection was performed to assess carefully the irregularities in the welds. Electron microscopy allowed detection of discontinuities that are not visible to the eye and revealing details regarding location, trajectory, morphology and size of discontinuities. Supplementing visual control with microscopic analysis allows to detect small discontinuities, which escapes the macroscopic control and to make a detailed study of the weld.
Keywords: base metal alloys, fixed prosthodontics, microplasmawelding, visual inspectionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1787
48 The High Strength Biocompatible Wires of Commercially Pure Titanium
Abstract:COMTES FHT has been active in a field of research and development of high-strength wires for quite some time. The main material was pure titanium. The primary goal of this effort is to develop a continuous production process for ultrafine and nanostructured materials with the aid of severe plastic deformation (SPD). This article outlines mechanical and microstructural properties of the materials and the options available for testing the components made of these materials. Ti Grade 2 and Grade 4 wires are the key products of interest. Ti Grade 2 with ultrafine to nano-sized grain shows ultimate strength of up to 1050 MPa. Ti Grade 4 reaches ultimate strengths of up to 1250 MPa. These values are twice or three times as higher as those found in the unprocessed material. For those fields of medicine where implantable metallic materials are used, bulk ultrafine to nanostructured titanium is available. It is manufactured by SPD techniques. These processes leave the chemical properties of the initial material unchanged but markedly improve its final mechanical properties, in particular, the strength. Ultrafine to nanostructured titanium retains all the significant and, from the biological viewpoint, desirable properties that are important for its use in medicine, i.e. those properties which made pure titanium the preferred material also for dental implants.
Keywords: CONFORM SPD, ECAP, titanium, rotary swaging.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 843
47 Preparation and Fabrication of Lithium Disilicate Glass Ceramic as Dental Crowns via Hot Pressing Method
Authors: A. Srion, W. Thepsuwan, N. Monmaturapoj
Two Lithium Disilicate (LD) glass ceramics based on SiO2-Li2O-K2O-Al2O3 system were prepared through a glass melting method. The glass rods were then fabricated into dental crowns via a hot pressing at 900˚C and 850˚C in order to study the effect of the pressing temperatures on the phase formation and microstructure of the glasses. Different samples of as cast glass and heat treated samples (600˚C and 700˚C) were used to press for investigating the effect of an initial microstructure on the hot pressing technique. Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed to determine the phase formation and microstructure of the samples, respectively. XRD results show that the main crystalline structure was Li2Si2O5 by having Li3PO4, Li0.6Al0.6Si2O6, Li2SiO3, Ca5 (PO4)3F and SiO2 as minor phases. Glass compositions with different heat treatment temperatures exhibited a difference phase formations but have less effect during pressing. SEM micrographs showed the microstructure of Li2Si2O5 as lath-like shape in all glasses. With increasing the initial heat treatment temperature, the longer the lath-like crystals of lithium disilicate were increased especially when using glass heat treatment at 700˚C followed by pressing at 900˚C. This could be suggested that LD1 heat treatment at 700˚C which pressing at 900˚C presented the best formation by the hot pressing and compiled microstructure.
Keywords: Lithium disilicate, Hot pressing, Dental crown, Microstructure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3418
46 Rheological Characterisation of Collagen Gels from Marine Resources of Black Sea and Chlohexidine Salt for using in Dental Medicine
Authors: Sirbu R., Negreanu-Pirjol T., Leca M., Bechir A., Maris M., Maris D.
Abstract:In the paper we presented the possibility of application collagen gels with active principle-s from marine algae extract and chlorhexidine salt in dental medicine. The hydro-alcoholic extracts from marine algae have been used as they have been obtained. The extracts from marine algae and chlorhexidine salt (digluconate) are incorporated in type I non-denatured fibrillar collagen matrixes. In order to obtain therapeutic effects at nanostructure level, it is important to know the rheological characteristics of the relevant mixtures of collagen gels and extracts from marine algae selected for use. In this survey we have studied mixtures made of non-denatured fibrillar collagen hydro-gels where different concentrations of marine algae have been incorporated. Based on the data obtained for the shearing tensions, we have traced the rheograms – the diagrams for shearing tensions depending on the shearing speed values – from which we have calculated the apparent viscosities as ratios between shearing tension and speed values, which have been figured in relation to the shearing speed values, with a view to levelling dependency.
Keywords: rheological properties, fibrillar collagen hydro-gel, marine algae, chlorhexidine salt, dental medicineProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1897
45 Reproduction Performance of Etawah Cross Bred Goats in Estrus Synchronization by Controlled Internal Drug Release Implant and Pgf2α Continued by Artificial Insemination
Authors: Diah Tri Widayati, Aris Junaidi, Kresno Suharto, Amelia Oktaviani, Wahyuningsih
Abstract:The estrus female Etawah cross bred goats were synchronized estrus by controlled internal drug release (CIDR) implants for 10 days combined with PGF2α injection, and continued by artificial insemination (AI) within the hours of 24 period. Vaginal epithelium was taken to determine estrus cycle of the goats without estrus synchronization. The estrus responds (the puffy of vulva and vaginal pH) and percentage of pregnancy were investigated. The data were analyzed descriptively and Independent Sample T-Test. The results showed that the puffy of vulva and vaginal pH were significantly different in synchronized estrus goats and control goats (2.18 ± 0.33 cm vs. 1.20 ± 0.16 cm and 8.55 ± 0.63 vs. 8.22 ± 0.22). Percentage of pregnancy was higher in synchronized estrus goats (73.33%) than in control (53.3%). Estrus synchronization by using CIDR implants and PGF2, continued by AI was effective to improve reproduction performance of Etawah cross bred goats.
Keywords: Artificial insemination, Estrus synchronization, Etawah cross bred goat, Reproduction performance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4874
44 MR-Implantology: Exploring the Use for Mixed Reality in Dentistry Education
Authors: Areej R. Banjar, Abraham G. Campbell
The use of Mixed Reality (MR) in teaching and training is growing popular and can improve students’ ability to perform technical procedures. This paper outlines the creation of an interactive educational MR 3D application that aims to improve the quality of instruction for dentistry students. This application is called ”MR-Implantology” and aims to teach and train dentistry students on single dental implant placement. MR-Implantology uses cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images as the source for 3D dental models that dentistry students will be able to freely manipulate within a 3D MR world to aid their learning process.
Keywords: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography, dentistry education, implantology, Mixed Reality, MR.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 146