Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1671

Search results for: Danger Ideation Reduction Therapy

1431 A 16Kb 10T-SRAM with 4x Read-Power Reduction

Authors: Pardeep Singh, Sanjay Sharma, Parvinder S. Sandhu

Abstract:

This work aims to reduce the read power consumption as well as to enhance the stability of the SRAM cell during the read operation. A new 10-transisor cell is proposed with a new read scheme to minimize the power consumption within the memory core. It has separate read and write ports, thus cell read stability is significantly improved. A 16Kb SRAM macro operating at 1V supply voltage is demonstrated in 65 nm CMOS process. Its read power consumption is reduced to 24% of the conventional design. The new cell also has lower leakage current due to its special bit-line pre-charge scheme. As a result, it is suitable for low-power mobile applications where power supply is restricted by the battery.

Keywords: A 16Kb 10T-SRAM, 4x Read-Power Reduction

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1430 Assessing Storage of Stability and Mercury Reduction of Freeze-Dried Pseudomonas putida within Different Types of Lyoprotectant

Authors: A. A. M. Azoddein, Y. Nuratri, A. B. Bustary, F. A. M. Azli, S. C. Sayuti

Abstract:

Pseudomonas putida is a potential strain in biological treatment to remove mercury contained in the effluent of petrochemical industry due to its mercury reductase enzyme that able to reduce ionic mercury to elementary mercury. Freeze-dried P. putida allows easy, inexpensive shipping, handling and high stability of the product. This study was aimed to freeze dry P. putida cells with addition of lyoprotectant. Lyoprotectant was added into the cells suspension prior to freezing. Dried P. putida obtained was then mixed with synthetic mercury. Viability of recovery P. putida after freeze dry was significantly influenced by the type of lyoprotectant. Among the lyoprotectants, tween 80/ sucrose was found to be the best lyoprotectant. Sucrose able to recover more than 78% (6.2E+09 CFU/ml) of the original cells (7.90E+09CFU/ml) after freeze dry and able to retain 5.40E+05 viable cells after 4 weeks storage in 4oC without vacuum. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) pre-treated freeze dry cells and broth pre-treated freeze dry cells after freeze-dry recovered more than 64% (5.0 E+09CFU/ml) and >0.1% (5.60E+07CFU/ml). Freeze-dried P. putida cells in PEG and broth cannot survive after 4 weeks storage. Freeze dry also does not really change the pattern of growth P. putida but extension of lag time was found 1 hour after 3 weeks of storage. Additional time was required for freeze-dried P. putida cells to recover before introduce freeze-dried cells to more complicated condition such as mercury solution. The maximum mercury reduction of PEG pre-treated freeze-dried cells after freeze dry and after storage 3 weeks was 56.78% and 17.91%. The maximum of mercury reduction of tween 80/sucrose pre-treated freeze-dried cells after freeze dry and after storage 3 weeks were 26.35% and 25.03%. Freeze dried P. putida was found to have lower mercury reduction compare to the fresh P. putida that has been growth in agar. Result from this study may be beneficial and useful as initial reference before commercialize freeze-dried P. putida.

Keywords: Pseudomonas putida, freeze-dry, PEG, Tween80/Sucrose, mercury, cell viability.

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1429 The Effect of Choke on the Efficiency of Coaxial Antenna for Percutaneous Microwave Coagulation Therapy for Hepatic Tumor

Authors: Surita Maini

Abstract:

There are many perceived advantages of microwave ablation have driven researchers to develop innovative antennas to effectively treat deep-seated, non-resectable hepatic tumors. In this paper a coaxial antenna with a miniaturized sleeve choke has been discussed for microwave interstitial ablation therapy, in order to reduce backward heating effects irrespective of the insertion depth into the tissue. Two dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to simulate and measure the results of miniaturized sleeve choke antenna. This paper emphasizes the importance of factors that can affect simulation accuracy, which include mesh resolution, surface heating and reflection coefficient. Quarter wavelength choke effectiveness has been discussed by comparing it with the unchoked antenna with same dimensions.

Keywords: Microwave ablation, tumor, Finite Element Method, Coaxial slot antenna, Coaxial dipole antenna.

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1428 Heat Flux Reduction Research in Hypersonic Flow with Opposing Jet

Authors: Yisheng Rong, Jian Sun, Weiqiang Liu, Renjun Zhan

Abstract:

A CFD study on heat flux reduction in hypersonic flow with opposing jet has been conducted. Flowfield parameters, reattachment point position, surface pressure distributions and heat flux distributions are obtained and validated with experiments. The physical mechanism of heat reduction has been analyzed. When the opposing jet blows, the freestream is blocked off, flows to the edges and not interacts with the surface to form aerodynamic heating. At the same time, the jet flows back to form cool recirculation region, which reduces the difference in temperature between the surface and the nearby gas, and then reduces the heat flux. As the pressure ratio increases, the interface between jet and freestream is gradually pushed away from the surface. Larger the total pressure ratio is, lower the heat flux is. To study the effect of the intensity of opposing jet more reasonably, a new parameter RPA has been introduced by combining the flux and the total pressure ratio. The study shows that the same shock wave position and total heat load can be obtained with the same RPA with different fluxes and the total pressures, which means the new parameter could stand for the intensity of opposing jet and could be used to analyze the influence of opposing jet on flow field and aerodynamic heating.

Keywords: opposing jet, aerodynamic heating, total pressure ratio, thermal protection system

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1427 Symmetries, Conservation Laws and Reduction of Wave and Gordon-type Equations on Riemannian Manifolds

Authors: Sameerah Jamal, Abdul Hamid Kara, Ashfaque H. Bokhari

Abstract:

Equations on curved manifolds display interesting properties in a number of ways. In particular, the symmetries and, therefore, the conservation laws reduce depending on how curved the manifold is. Of particular interest are the wave and Gordon-type equations; we study the symmetry properties and conservation laws of these equations on the Milne and Bianchi type III metrics. Properties of reduction procedures via symmetries, variational structures and conservation laws are more involved than on the well known flat (Minkowski) manifold.

Keywords: Bianchi metric, conservation laws, Milne metric, symmetries.

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1426 Advanced Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization for Congestion and Power Loss Reduction in Distribution Networks with High Distributed Generation Penetration through Network Reconfiguration

Authors: C. Iraklis, G. Evmiridis, A. Iraklis

Abstract:

Renewable energy sources and distributed power generation units already have an important role in electrical power generation. A mixture of different technologies penetrating the electrical grid, adds complexity in the management of distribution networks. High penetration of distributed power generation units creates node over-voltages, huge power losses, unreliable power management, reverse power flow and congestion. This paper presents an optimization algorithm capable of reducing congestion and power losses, both described as a function of weighted sum. Two factors that describe congestion are being proposed. An upgraded selective particle swarm optimization algorithm (SPSO) is used as a solution tool focusing on the technique of network reconfiguration. The upgraded SPSO algorithm is achieved with the addition of a heuristic algorithm specializing in reduction of power losses, with several scenarios being tested. Results show significant improvement in minimization of losses and congestion while achieving very small calculation times.

Keywords: Congestion, distribution networks, loss reduction, particle swarm optimization, smart grid.

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1425 The Anti-Noise System for Rail Brakes on Hump Yards

Authors: Brigita Altenbaher

Abstract:

The friction between two metal surfaces results in a high frequency noise (squealing) which also occurs during the braking of wagons with rail brakes in the process of shunting at a marshalling yard with a hump. At that point the noise level may exceed 130dB, which is extremely unpleasant for workers and inhabitants. In our research we developed a new composite material which does not change braking properties, is capable of taking extremely high pressure loads, reduces noise and is environmentally friendly. The noise reduction results had been very good and had shown a decrease of the high frequency noise almost completely (by 99%) at its source. With our technology we had also reduced general noise by more than 30dBA.

Keywords: Composite heavily fluid compound, hump yard, noise reduction, rail brakes.

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1424 Numerical Investigation of Hot Oil Velocity Effect on Force Heat Convection and Impact of Wind Velocity on Convection Heat Transfer in Receiver Tube of Parabolic Trough Collector System

Authors: O. Afshar

Abstract:

A solar receiver is designed for operation under extremely uneven heat flux distribution, cyclic weather, and cloud transient cycle conditions, which can include large thermal stress and even receiver failure. In this study, the effect of different oil velocity on convection coefficient factor and impact of wind velocity on local Nusselt number by Finite Volume Method will be analyzed. This study is organized to give an overview of the numerical modeling using a MATLAB software, as an accurate, time efficient and economical way of analyzing the heat transfer trends over stationary receiver tube for different Reynolds number. The results reveal when oil velocity is below 0.33m/s, the value of convection coefficient is negligible at low temperature. The numerical graphs indicate that when oil velocity increases up to 1.2 m/s, heat convection coefficient increases significantly. In fact, a reduction in oil velocity causes a reduction in heat conduction through the glass envelope. In addition, the different local Nusselt number is reduced when the wind blows toward the concave side of the collector and it has a significant effect on heat losses reduction through the glass envelope.

Keywords: Receiver tube, heat convection, heat conduction, Nusselt number.

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1423 Evaluation of the Discoloration of Methyl Orange Using Black Sand as Semiconductor through Photocatalytic Oxidation and Reduction

Authors: P. Acosta-Santamaría, A. Ibatá-Soto, A. López-Vásquez

Abstract:

Organic compounds in wastewaters coming from textile and pharmaceutical industry generated multiple harmful effects on the environment and the human health. One of them is the methyl orange (MeO), an azoic dye considered to be a recalcitrant compound. The heterogeneous photocatalysis emerges as an alternative for treating this type of hazardous compounds, through the generation of OH radicals using radiation and a semiconductor oxide. According to the author’s knowledge, catalysts such as TiO2 doped with metals show high efficiency in degrading MeO; however, this presents economic limitations on industrial scale. Black sand can be considered as a naturally doped catalyst because in its structure is common to find compounds such as titanium, iron and aluminum oxides, also elements such as zircon, cadmium, manganese, etc. This study reports the photocatalytic activity of the mineral black sand used as semiconductor in the discoloration of MeO by oxidation and reduction photocatalytic techniques. For this, magnetic composites from the mineral were prepared (RM, M1, M2 and NM) and their activity were tested through MeO discoloration while TiO2 was used as reference. For the fractions, chemical, morphological and structural characterizations were performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. M2 fraction showed higher MeO discoloration (93%) in oxidation conditions at pH 2 and it could be due to the presence of ferric oxides. However, the best result to reduction process was using M1 fraction (20%) at pH 2, which contains a higher titanium percentage. In the first process, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used as electron donor agent. According to the results, black sand mineral can be used as natural semiconductor in photocatalytic process. It could be considered as a photocatalyst precursor in such processes, due to its low cost and easy access.

Keywords: Black sand mineral, methyl orange, oxidation, photocatalysis, reduction.

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1422 Assessment of Photodynamic Therapy for Staphylococcus Aureus Infected Wounds using Diffuse Reflectance Spectrometry

Authors: M.A. Calin, D. Voicu, M.R. Calin, D. Savastru, D. Manea

Abstract:

In this paper we evaluated the efficacy of photodynamic treatment of infected wounds on pig animal model by diffuse reflectance spectrometry. The study was conducted on fifteen wounds contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that were incubated for 30 min with methylene blue solution (c = 3.3 x 10-3 M) and exposed to laser radiations (λ = 670 nm, P = 15 mW) for 15 min. The efficiency of photodynamic inactivation of bacteria was evaluated by microbiological exams and diffuse reflectance spectrometry. The results of the microbiological exams showed that the bacterial concentration has decreased from 6.93±0.138 logCFU/ml to 3.12±0.108 logCFU/ml. The spectral examination showed that the diffuse reflectance of wounds contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus has decreased from 5.06±0.036 % to 3.36±0.025 %. In conclusion, photodynamic therapy is an effective method for the treatment of infected wounds and there is a correlation between the CFU count and diffuse reflectance.

Keywords: photodynamic inactivation, bacteria, pigs, wounds

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1421 Face Recognition using a Kernelization of Graph Embedding

Authors: Pang Ying Han, Hiew Fu San, Ooi Shih Yin

Abstract:

Linearization of graph embedding has been emerged as an effective dimensionality reduction technique in pattern recognition. However, it may not be optimal for nonlinearly distributed real world data, such as face, due to its linear nature. So, a kernelization of graph embedding is proposed as a dimensionality reduction technique in face recognition. In order to further boost the recognition capability of the proposed technique, the Fisher-s criterion is opted in the objective function for better data discrimination. The proposed technique is able to characterize the underlying intra-class structure as well as the inter-class separability. Experimental results on FRGC database validate the effectiveness of the proposed technique as a feature descriptor.

Keywords: Face recognition, Fisher discriminant, graph embedding, kernelization.

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1420 SLM Using Riemann Sequence Combined with DCT Transform for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Communication Systems

Authors: Pepin Magnangana Zoko Goyoro, Ibrahim James Moumouni, Sroy Abouty

Abstract:

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is an efficient method of data transmission for high speed communication systems. However, the main drawback of OFDM systems is that, it suffers from the problem of high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) which causes inefficient use of the High Power Amplifier and could limit transmission efficiency. OFDM consist of large number of independent subcarriers, as a result of which the amplitude of such a signal can have high peak values. In this paper, we propose an effective reduction scheme that combines DCT and SLM techniques. The scheme is composed of the DCT followed by the SLM using the Riemann matrix to obtain phase sequences for the SLM technique. The simulation results show PAPR can be greatly reduced by applying the proposed scheme. In comparison with OFDM, while OFDM had high values of PAPR –about 10.4dB our proposed method achieved about 4.7dB reduction of the PAPR with low complexities computation. This approach also avoids randomness in phase sequence selection, which makes it simpler to decode at the receiver. As an added benefit, the matrices can be generated at the receiver end to obtain the data signal and hence it is not required to transmit side information (SI).

Keywords: DCT transform, OFDM, PAPR, Riemann matrix, SLM.

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1419 Phosphorus Reduction in Plain and Fully Formulated Oils Using Fluorinated Additives

Authors: Gabi N. Nehme

Abstract:

The reduction of phosphorus and sulfur in engine oil are the main topics of this paper. Very reproducible boundary lubrication tests were conducted as part of Design of Experiment software (DOE) to study the behavior of fluorinated catalyst iron fluoride (FeF3), and polutetrafluoroethylene or Teflon (PTFE) in developing environmentally friendly (reduced P and S) anti-wear additives for future engine oil formulations. Multi-component Chevron fully formulated oil (GF3) and Chevron plain oil were used with the addition of PTFE and catalyst to characterize and analyze their performance. Lower phosphorus blends were the goal of the model solution. Experiments indicated that new sub-micron FeF3 catalyst played an important role in preventing breakdown of the tribofilm.

Keywords: Wear, SEM, EDS, friction, lubricants.

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1418 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Loaded Gel, Sponge Collagen to Enhance the Delivery Ability to Skin

Authors: Yi-Ping Fang, Hsien-Ting Cheng

Abstract:

Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is an alternative therapy for treating superficial cancer, especially for skin or oral cancer. ALA, a precursor of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), is present as zwitterions and hydrophilic property which make the low permeability through the cell membrane. Collagen is a traditional carrier; its molecular composed various amino acids which bear positive charge and negative charge. In order to utilize the ion-pairs with ALA and collagen, the study employed various pH values adjusting the net charge. The aim of this study was to compare a series collagen form, including solution, gel and sponge to investigate the topical delivery behavior of ALA. The in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) study demonstrated that PpIX generation ability was different pattern after apply for 6 h. Gel type could generate high PpIX, and archived more deep of skin depth.

Keywords: 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), Collagen, Ion-pairs, Penetration behavior

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1417 A Classical Method of Optimizing Manufacturing Systems Using a Number of Industrial Engineering Techniques

Authors: John M. Ikome, Martha E. Ikome, Therese Van Wyk

Abstract:

Productivity optimization of a company can significantly increase the company’s output and productivity which can be in the form of corrective actions of ineffective activities, process simplification, and reduction of variations, responsiveness, and reduction of set-up-time which are all under the classification of waste within the manufacturing environment. Deriving a means to eliminate a number of these issues has a key importance for manufacturing organization. This paper focused on a number of industrial engineering techniques which include a cause and effect diagram, to identify and optimize the method or systems being used. Based on our results, it shows that there are a number of variations within the production processes that can significantly disrupt the expected output.

Keywords: Optimization, fishbone diagram, productivity.

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1416 Certain Data Dimension Reduction Techniques for application with ANN based MCS for Study of High Energy Shower

Authors: Gitanjali Devi, Kandarpa Kumar Sarma, Pranayee Datta, Anjana Kakoti Mahanta

Abstract:

Cosmic showers, from their places of origin in space, after entering earth generate secondary particles called Extensive Air Shower (EAS). Detection and analysis of EAS and similar High Energy Particle Showers involve a plethora of experimental setups with certain constraints for which soft-computational tools like Artificial Neural Network (ANN)s can be adopted. The optimality of ANN classifiers can be enhanced further by the use of Multiple Classifier System (MCS) and certain data - dimension reduction techniques. This work describes the performance of certain data dimension reduction techniques like Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Self Organizing Map (SOM) approximators for application with an MCS formed using Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP), Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) and Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN). The data inputs are obtained from an array of detectors placed in a circular arrangement resembling a practical detector grid which have a higher dimension and greater correlation among themselves. The PCA, ICA and SOM blocks reduce the correlation and generate a form suitable for real time practical applications for prediction of primary energy and location of EAS from density values captured using detectors in a circular grid.

Keywords: EAS, Shower, Core, ANN, Location.

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1415 HIV Treatment Planning on a case-by-CASE Basis

Authors: Marios M. Hadjiandreou, Raul Conejeros, Ian Wilson

Abstract:

This study presents a mathematical modeling approach to the planning of HIV therapies on an individual basis. The model replicates clinical data from typical-progressors to AIDS for all stages of the disease with good agreement. Clinical data from rapid-progressors and long-term non-progressors is also matched by estimation of immune system parameters only. The ability of the model to reproduce these phenomena validates the formulation, a fact which is exploited in the investigation of effective therapies. The therapy investigation suggests that, unlike continuous therapy, structured treatment interruptions (STIs) are able to control the increase in both the drug-sensitive and drug-resistant virus population and, hence, prevent the ultimate progression from HIV to AIDS. The optimization results further suggest that even patients characterised by the same progression type can respond very differently to the same treatment and that the latter should be designed on a case-by-case basis. Such a methodology is presented here.

Keywords: AIDS, chemotherapy, mathematical modeling, optimal control, progression.

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1414 In vitro and in vivo Anticancer Activity of Nanosize Zinc Oxide Composites of Doxorubicin

Authors: E. R. Arakelova, S. G. Grigoryan, F. G. Arsenyan, N. S. Babayan, R. M. Grigoryan, N. K. Sarkisyan

Abstract:

The nanotechnology offers some exciting possibilities in cancer treatment, including the possibility of destroying tumors with minimal damage to healthy tissue and organs by targeted drug delivery systems. Considerable achievements in investigations aimed at the use of ZnO nanoparticles and nanocontainers in diagnostics and antitumor therapy were described. However, there are substantial obstacles to the purposes to be achieved by the use of zinc oxide nanosize materials in antitumor therapy. Among the serious problems are the techniques of obtaining ZnO nanosize materials. The article presents a new vector delivery system for the known antitumor drug, doxorubicin in the form of polymeric (PEO, starch-NaCMC) hydrogels, in which nanosize ZnO film of a certain thickness are deposited directly on the drug surface on glass substrate by DC-magnetron sputtering of a zinc target. Anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo of those nanosize zinc oxide composites is shown.

Keywords: Anticancer activity, cancer specificity, doxorubicin, zinc oxide.

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1413 Mechanical Simulation with Electrical and Dimensional Tests for AISHa Containment Chamber

Authors: F. Noto, G. Costa, L. Celona, F. Chines, G. Ciavola, G. Cuttone, S. Gammino, O. Leonardi, S. Marletta, G. Torrisi

Abstract:

At Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud (INFN-LNS), a broad experience in the design, construction and commissioning of ECR and microwave ion sources is available. The AISHa ion source has been designed by taking into account the typical requirements of hospital-based facilities, where the minimization of the mean time between failures (MTBF) is a key point together with the maintenance operations, which should be fast and easy. It is intended to be a multipurpose device, operating at 18 GHz, in order to achieve higher plasma densities. It should provide enough versatility for future needs of the hadron therapy, including the ability to run at larger microwave power to produce different species and highly charged ion beams. The source is potentially interesting for any hadron therapy facility using heavy ions. In this paper, we analyzed the dimensional test and electrical test about an innovative solution for the containment chamber that allows us to solve our isolation and structural problems.

Keywords: FEM Analysis, ECR ion source, dielectrical measurement.

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1412 Biologically Inspired Controller for the Autonomous Navigation of a Mobile Robot in an Evasion Task

Authors: Dejanira Araiza-Illan, Tony J. Dodd

Abstract:

A novel biologically inspired controller for the autonomous navigation of a mobile robot in an evasion task is proposed. The controller takes advantage of the environment by calculating a measure of danger and subsequently choosing the parameters of a reinforcement learning based decision process. Two different reinforcement learning algorithms were used: Qlearning and Sarsa (λ). Simulations show that selecting dynamic parameters reduce the time while executing the decision making process, so the robot can obtain a policy to succeed in an escaping task in a realistic time.

Keywords: Autonomous navigation, mobile robots, reinforcement learning.

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1411 Double Reduction of Ada-ECATNet Representation using Rewriting Logic

Authors: Noura Boudiaf, Allaoua Chaoui

Abstract:

One major difficulty that faces developers of concurrent and distributed software is analysis for concurrency based faults like deadlocks. Petri nets are used extensively in the verification of correctness of concurrent programs. ECATNets [2] are a category of algebraic Petri nets based on a sound combination of algebraic abstract types and high-level Petri nets. ECATNets have 'sound' and 'complete' semantics because of their integration in rewriting logic [12] and its programming language Maude [13]. Rewriting logic is considered as one of very powerful logics in terms of description, verification and programming of concurrent systems. We proposed in [4] a method for translating Ada-95 tasking programs to ECATNets formalism (Ada-ECATNet). In this paper, we show that ECATNets formalism provides a more compact translation for Ada programs compared to the other approaches based on simple Petri nets or Colored Petri nets (CPNs). Such translation doesn-t reduce only the size of program, but reduces also the number of program states. We show also, how this compact Ada-ECATNet may be reduced again by applying reduction rules on it. This double reduction of Ada-ECATNet permits a considerable minimization of the memory space and run time of corresponding Maude program.

Keywords: Ada tasking, ECATNets, Algebraic Petri Nets, Compact Representation, Analysis, Rewriting Logic, Maude.

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1410 Applying a Noise Reduction Method to Reveal Chaos in the River Flow Time Series

Authors: Mohammad H. Fattahi

Abstract:

Chaotic analysis has been performed on the river flow time series before and after applying the wavelet based de-noising techniques in order to investigate the noise content effects on chaotic nature of flow series. In this study, 38 years of monthly runoff data of three gauging stations were used. Gauging stations were located in Ghar-e-Aghaj river basin, Fars province, Iran. Noise level of time series was estimated with the aid of Gaussian kernel algorithm. This step was found to be crucial in preventing removal of the vital data such as memory, correlation and trend from the time series in addition to the noise during de-noising process.

Keywords: Chaotic behavior, wavelet, noise reduction, river flow.

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1409 Adaptive Kernel Filtering Used in Video Processing

Authors: Rasmus Engholm, Eva B. Vedel Jensen, Henrik Karstoft

Abstract:

In this paper we present a noise reduction filter for video processing. It is based on the recently proposed two dimensional steering kernel, extended to three dimensions and further augmented to suit the spatial-temporal domain of video processing. Two alternative filters are proposed - the time symmetric kernel and the time asymmetric kernel. The first reduces the noise on single sequences, but to handle the problems at scene shift the asymmetric kernel is introduced. The performance of both are tested on simulated data and on a real video sequence together with the existing steering kernel. The proposed kernels improves the Rooted Mean Squared Error (RMSE) compared to the original steering kernel method on video material.

Keywords: Adaptive image filtering, noise reduction, kernel methods, video processing.

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1408 Pose-Dependency of Machine Tool Structures: Appearance, Consequences, and Challenges for Lightweight Large-Scale Machines

Authors: S. Apprich, F. Wulle, A. Lechler, A. Pott, A. Verl

Abstract:

Large-scale machine tools for the manufacturing of large work pieces, e.g. blades, casings or gears for wind turbines, feature pose-dependent dynamic behavior. Small structural damping coefficients lead to long decay times for structural vibrations that have negative impacts on the production process. Typically, these vibrations are handled by increasing the stiffness of the structure by adding mass. This is counterproductive to the needs of sustainable manufacturing as it leads to higher resource consumption both in material and in energy. Recent research activities have led to higher resource efficiency by radical mass reduction that is based on controlintegrated active vibration avoidance and damping methods. These control methods depend on information describing the dynamic behavior of the controlled machine tools in order to tune the avoidance or reduction method parameters according to the current state of the machine. This paper presents the appearance, consequences and challenges of the pose-dependent dynamic behavior of lightweight large-scale machine tool structures in production. It starts with the theoretical introduction of the challenges of lightweight machine tool structures resulting from reduced stiffness. The statement of the pose-dependent dynamic behavior is corroborated by the results of the experimental modal analysis of a lightweight test structure. Afterwards, the consequences of the pose-dependent dynamic behavior of lightweight machine tool structures for the use of active control and vibration reduction methods are explained. Based on the state of the art of pose-dependent dynamic machine tool models and the modal investigation of an FE-model of the lightweight test structure, the criteria for a pose-dependent model for use in vibration reduction are derived. The description of the approach for a general posedependent model of the dynamic behavior of large lightweight machine tools that provides the necessary input to the aforementioned vibration avoidance and reduction methods to properly tackle machine vibrations is the outlook of the paper.

Keywords: Dynamic behavior, lightweight, machine tool, pose-dependency.

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1407 Evolutionary Techniques for Model Order Reduction of Large Scale Linear Systems

Authors: S. Panda, J. S. Yadav, N. P. Patidar, C. Ardil

Abstract:

Recently, genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique have attracted considerable attention among various modern heuristic optimization techniques. The GA has been popular in academia and the industry mainly because of its intuitiveness, ease of implementation, and the ability to effectively solve highly non-linear, mixed integer optimization problems that are typical of complex engineering systems. PSO technique is a relatively recent heuristic search method whose mechanics are inspired by the swarming or collaborative behavior of biological populations. In this paper both PSO and GA optimization are employed for finding stable reduced order models of single-input- single-output large-scale linear systems. Both the techniques guarantee stability of reduced order model if the original high order model is stable. PSO method is based on the minimization of the Integral Squared Error (ISE) between the transient responses of original higher order model and the reduced order model pertaining to a unit step input. Both the methods are illustrated through numerical example from literature and the results are compared with recently published conventional model reduction technique.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, Order Reduction, Stability, Transfer Function, Integral Squared Error.

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1406 Interactive Planning of Suburban Apartment Buildings

Authors: J. Koiso-Kanttila, A. Soikkeli, A. Aapaoja

Abstract:

Construction in Finland is focusing increasingly on renovation instead of conventional new construction, and this trend will continue to grow in the coming years and decades. Renovation of the large number of suburban residential apartment buildings built in the 1960s and 1970s poses a particular challenge. However, renovation projects are demanding for the residents of these buildings, since they usually are uninitiated in construction issues. On the other hand, renovation projects generally apply the operating models of new construction. Nevertheless, the residents of an existing residential apartment building are some of the best experts on the site. Thus, in this research project we applied a relational model in developing and testing at case sites a planning process that employs interactive planning methods. Current residents, housing company managers, the city zoning manager, the contractor’s and prefab element supplier’s representatives, professional designers and researchers all took part in the planning. The entire interactive planning process progressed phase by phase as the participants’ and designers’ concerted discussion and ideation process, so that the end result was a renovation plan desired by the residents.

Keywords: Apartment building renovation, interactive planning, project alliance, user-orientedness.

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1405 Integrated Modeling Approach for Energy Planning and Climate Change Mitigation Assessment in the State of Florida

Authors: Kuntal Thakkar, Chaouki Ghenai, Ahmed Hachicha

Abstract:

An integrated modeling approach was used in this study for energy planning and climate change mitigation assessment. The main objective of this study was to develop various green-house gas (GHG) mitigations scenarios in the energy demand and supply sectors for the state of Florida. The Long range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model was used in this study to examine the energy alternative and GHG emissions reduction scenarios for short and long term (2010-2050). One of the energy analysis and GHG mitigation scenarios was developed by taking into account the available renewable energy resources potential for power generation in the state of Florida. This will help to compare and analyze the GHG reduction measure against “Business As Usual” and ‘State of Florida Policy” scenarios. Two master scenarios: “Electrification” and “Energy efficiency and Lifestyle” were developed through combination of various mitigation scenarios: technological changes and energy efficiency and conservation. The results show a net reduction of the energy demand and GHG emissions by adopting these two energy scenarios compared to the business as usual.

Keywords: Integrated modeling, energy planning, climate change mitigation assessment, greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy, energy efficiency.

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1404 Soil-Cement Floor Produced with Alum Water Treatment Residues

Authors: Flavio Araujo, Paulo Scalize, Julio Lima, Natalia Vieira, Antonio Albuquerque, Isabela Santos

Abstract:

From a concern regarding the environmental impacts caused by the disposal of residues generated in Water Treatment Plants (WTP's), alternatives ways have been studied to use these residues as raw material for manufacture of building materials, avoiding their discharge on water streams, disposal on sanitary landfills or incineration. This paper aims to present the results of a research work, which is using WTR for replacing the soil content in the manufacturing of soil-cement floor with proportions of 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The samples tests showed a reduction mechanical strength in so far as has increased the amount of waste. The water absorption was below the maximum of 6% required by the standard. The application of WTR contributes to the reduction of the environmental damage in the water treatment industry.

Keywords: Residue, soil-cement floor, sustainable, WTP.

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1403 Effects of the Coagulation Bath and Reduction Process on SO2 Adsorption Capacity of Graphene Oxide Fiber

Authors: Özge Alptoğa, Nuray Uçar, Nilgün Karatepe Yavuz, Ayşen Önen

Abstract:

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a very toxic air pollutant gas and it causes the greenhouse effect, photochemical smog, and acid rain, which threaten human health severely. Thus, the capture of SO2 gas is very important for the environment. Graphene which is two-dimensional material has excellent mechanical, chemical, thermal properties, and many application areas such as energy storage devices, gas adsorption, sensing devices, and optical electronics. Further, graphene oxide (GO) is examined as a good adsorbent because of its important features such as functional groups (epoxy, carboxyl and hydroxyl) on the surface and layered structure. The SO2 adsorption properties of the fibers are usually investigated on carbon fibers. In this study, potential adsorption capacity of GO fibers was researched. GO dispersion was first obtained with Hummers’ method from graphite, and then GO fibers were obtained via wet spinning process. These fibers were converted into a disc shape, dried, and then subjected to SO2 gas adsorption test. The SO2 gas adsorption capacity of GO fiber discs was investigated in the fields of utilization of different coagulation baths and reduction by hydrazine hydrate. As coagulation baths, single and triple baths were used. In single bath, only ethanol and CaCl2 (calcium chloride) salt were added. In triple bath, each bath has a different concentration of water/ethanol and CaCl2 salt, and the disc obtained from triple bath has been called as reference disk. The fibers which were produced with single bath were flexible and rough, and the analyses show that they had higher SO2 adsorption capacity than triple bath fibers (reference disk). However, the reduction process did not increase the adsorption capacity, because the SEM images showed that the layers and uniform structure in the fiber form were damaged, and reduction decreased the functional groups which SO2 will be attached. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyzes were performed on the fibers and discs, and the effects on the results were interpreted. In the future applications of the study, it is aimed that subjects such as pH and additives will be examined.

Keywords: Coagulation bath, graphene oxide fiber, reduction, SO2 gas adsorption.

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1402 An Evaluation of Solubility of Wax and Asphaltene in Crude Oil for Improved Flow Properties Using a Copolymer Solubilized in Organic Solvent with an Aromatic Hydrocarbon

Authors: S. M. Anisuzzaman, Sariah Abang, Awang Bono, D. Krishnaiah, N. M. Ismail, G. B. Sandrison

Abstract:

Wax and asphaltene are high molecular weighted compounds that contribute to the stability of crude oil at a dispersed state. Transportation of crude oil along pipelines from the oil rig to the refineries causes fluctuation of temperature which will lead to the coagulation of wax and flocculation of asphaltenes. This paper focuses on the prevention of wax and asphaltene precipitate deposition on the inner surface of the pipelines by using a wax inhibitor and an asphaltene dispersant. The novelty of this prevention method is the combination of three substances; a wax inhibitor dissolved in a wax inhibitor solvent and an asphaltene solvent, namely, ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer dissolved in methylcyclohexane (MCH) and toluene (TOL) to inhibit the precipitation and deposition of wax and asphaltene. The objective of this paper was to optimize the percentage composition of each component in this inhibitor which can maximize the viscosity reduction of crude oil. The optimization was divided into two stages which are the laboratory experimental stage in which the viscosity of crude oil samples containing inhibitor of different component compositions is tested at decreasing temperatures and the data optimization stage using response surface methodology (RSM) to design an optimizing model. The results of experiment proved that the combination of 50% EVA + 25% MCH + 25% TOL gave a maximum viscosity reduction of 67% while the RSM model proved that the combination of 57% EVA + 20.5% MCH + 22.5% TOL gave a maximum viscosity reduction of up to 61%.

Keywords: Asphaltene, ethylene-vinyl acetate, methylcyclohexane, toluene, wax.

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