Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2094

Search results for: Cross ABC Method

2094 An Improved Tie Force Method for Progressive Collapse Resistance of Precast Concrete Cross Wall Structures

Authors: M. Tohidi, J. Yang, C. Baniotopoulos

Abstract:

Progressive collapse of buildings typically occurs  when abnormal loading conditions cause local damages, which leads  to a chain reaction of failure and ultimately catastrophic collapse. The  tie force (TF) method is one of the main design approaches for  progressive collapse. As the TF method is a simplified method, further  investigations on the reliability of the method is necessary. This study  aims to develop an improved TF method to design the cross wall  structures for progressive collapse. To this end, the pullout behavior of  strands in grout was firstly analyzed; and then, by considering the tie  force-slip relationship in the friction stage together with the catenary  action mechanism, a comprehensive analytical method was developed.  The reliability of this approach is verified by the experimental results  of concrete block pullout tests and full scale floor-to-floor joints tests  undertaken by Portland Cement Association (PCA). Discrepancies in  the tie force between the analytical results and codified specifications  have suggested the deficiency of TF method, hence an improved  model based on the analytical results has been proposed to address this  concern.

 

Keywords: Cross wall, progressive collapse, ties force method, catenary, analytical.

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2093 Risk Management and Security Practice in Customs Supply Chain: Application of Cross ABC Method to the Moroccan Customs

Authors: Lamia Hammadi, Abdellah Ait Ouhman, Aomar Ibourk

Abstract:

It is widely assumed that the case of Customs Supply Chain is classified as a complex system, due to not only the variety and large number of actors, but also their complex structural links, and the interactions between these actors, that’s why this system is subject to various types of Risks. The economic, political and social impacts of those risks are highly detrimental to countries, businesses and the public, for this reason, Risk management in the customs supply chain is becoming a crucial issue to ensure the sustainability, security and safety. The main characteristic of customs risk management approach is determining which goods and means of transport should be examined? To what extend? And where future compliance resources should be directed? The purposes of this article are, firstly to deal with the concept of customs supply chain, secondly present our risk management approach based on Cross Activity Based Costing (ABC) Method as an interactive tool to support decision making in customs risk management. Finally, analysis of case study of Moroccan customs to putting theory into practice and will thus draw together the various elements of a structured and efficient risk management approach.

Keywords: Cross ABC Method, Customs Supply Chain, Risk, Risk Management.

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2092 A Study of Cross Border Student in Hong Kong: The New Phenomenon of Cross Border Students which arise from Cross Border Birth

Authors: Nancy, Ling Sze Leung

Abstract:

The number of cross-border student between Hong Kong and mainland China is increasing due to an increase of cross-border marriage between Hong Kong and mainland China. Since the education system is different to the mainland China, the statue Since all the children who have the right of abode in Hong Kong entitle to have free education in Hong Kong, many of the cross-border family prefer to send the children back to Hong Kong for their education.

Keywords: Birthright citizenship, Cross border birth, Cross border student, Hong Kong

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2091 On the Exact Solution of Non-Uniform Torsion for Beams with Asymmetric Cross-Section

Authors: A.Campanile, M. Mandarino, V. Piscopo

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of non-uniform torsion in thin-walled elastic beams with asymmetric cross-section, removing the basic concept of a fixed center of twist, necessary in the Vlasov-s and Benscoter-s theories to obtain a warping stress field equivalent to zero. In this new torsion/flexure theory, despite of the classical ones, the warping function will punctually satisfy the first indefinite equilibrium equation along the beam axis and it wont- be necessary to introduce the classical congruence condition, to take into account the effect of the beam restraints. The solution, based on the Fourier development of the displacement field, is obtained assuming that the applied external torque is constant along the beam axis and on both beam ends the unit twist angle and the warping axial displacement functions are totally restrained. Finally, in order to verify the feasibility of the proposed method and to compare it with the classical theories, two applications are carried out. The first one, relative to an open profile, is necessary to test the numerical method adopted to find the solution; the second one, instead, is relative to a simplified containership section, considered as full restrained in correspondence of two adjacent transverse bulkheads.

Keywords: Non-uniform torsion, Asymmetric cross-section, Fourier series, Helmholtz equation, FE method.

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2090 On the Exact Solution of Non-Uniform Torsion for Beams with Axial Symmetric Cross-Section

Authors: A.Campanile, M. Mandarino, V. Piscopo, A. Pranzitelli

Abstract:

In the traditional theory of non-uniform torsion the axial displacement field is expressed as the product of the unit twist angle and the warping function. The first one, variable along the beam axis, is obtained by a global congruence condition; the second one, instead, defined over the cross-section, is determined by solving a Neumann problem associated to the Laplace equation, as well as for the uniform torsion problem. So, as in the classical theory the warping function doesn-t punctually satisfy the first indefinite equilibrium equation, the principal aim of this work is to develop a new theory for non-uniform torsion of beams with axial symmetric cross-section, fully restrained on both ends and loaded by a constant torque, that permits to punctually satisfy the previous equation, by means of a trigonometric expansion of the axial displacement and unit twist angle functions. Furthermore, as the classical theory is generally applied with good results to the global and local analysis of ship structures, two beams having the first one an open profile, the second one a closed section, have been analyzed, in order to compare the two theories.

Keywords: Non-uniform torsion, Axial symmetric cross-section, Fourier series, Helmholtz equation, FE method.

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2089 A Novel Computer Vision Method for Evaluating Deformations of Fibers Cross Section in False Twist Textured Yarns

Authors: Dariush Semnani, Mehdi Ahangareianabhari, Hossein Ghayoor

Abstract:

In recent five decades, textured yarns of polyester fiber produced by false twist method are the most important and mass-produced manmade fibers. There are many parameters of cross section which affect the physical and mechanical properties of textured yarns. These parameters are surface area, perimeter, equivalent diameter, large diameter, small diameter, convexity, stiffness, eccentricity, and hydraulic diameter. These parameters were evaluated by digital image processing techniques. To find trends between production criteria and evaluated parameters of cross section, three criteria of production line have been adjusted and different types of yarns were produced. These criteria are temperature, drafting ratio, and D/Y ratio. Finally the relations between production criteria and cross section parameters were considered. The results showed that the presented technique can recognize and measure the parameters of fiber cross section in acceptable accuracy. Also, the optimum condition of adjustments has been estimated from results of image analysis evaluation.

Keywords: Computer Vision, Cross Section Analysis, Fibers Deformation, Textured Yarn

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2088 Effect of Anion and Amino Functional Group on Resin for Lipase Immobilization with Adsorption-Cross Linking Method

Authors: Heri Hermansyah, Annisa Kurnia, A. Vania Anisya, Adi Surjosatyo, Yopi Sunarya, Rita Arbianti, Tania Surya Utami

Abstract:

Lipase is one of biocatalyst which is applied commercially for the process in industries, such as bioenergy, food, and pharmaceutical industry. Nowadays, biocatalysts are preferred in industries because they work in mild condition, high specificity, and reduce energy consumption (high pressure and temperature). But, the usage of lipase for industry scale is limited by economic reason due to the high price of lipase and difficulty of the separation system. Immobilization of lipase is one of the solutions to maintain the activity of lipase and reduce separation system in the process. Therefore, we conduct a study about lipase immobilization with the adsorption-cross linking method using glutaraldehyde because this method produces high enzyme loading and stability. Lipase is immobilized on different kind of resin with the various functional group. Highest enzyme loading (76.69%) was achieved by lipase immobilized on anion macroporous which have anion functional group (OH). However, highest activity (24,69 U/g support) through olive oil emulsion method was achieved by lipase immobilized on anion macroporous-chitosan which have amino (NH2) and anion (OH-) functional group. In addition, it also success to produce biodiesel until reach yield 50,6% through interesterification reaction and after 4 cycles stable 63.9% relative with initial yield. While for Aspergillus, niger lipase immobilized on anion macroporous-kitosan have unit activity 22,84 U/g resin and yield biodiesel higher than commercial lipase (69,1%) and after 4 cycles stable reach 70.6% relative from initial yield. This shows that optimum functional group on support for immobilization with adsorption-cross linking is the support that contains amino (NH2) and anion (OH-) functional group because they can react with glutaraldehyde and binding with enzyme prevent desorption of lipase from support through binding lipase with a functional group on support.

Keywords: Adsorption-Cross linking, lipase, resin, immobilization.

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2087 Analysis and Simulation of TM Fields in Waveguides with Arbitrary Cross-Section Shapes by Means of Evolutionary Equations of Time-Domain Electromagnetic Theory

Authors: Ömer Aktaş, Olga A. Suvorova, Oleg Tretyakov

Abstract:

The boundary value problem on non-canonical and arbitrary shaped contour is solved with a numerically effective method called Analytical Regularization Method (ARM) to calculate propagation parameters. As a result of regularization, the equation of first kind is reduced to the infinite system of the linear algebraic equations of the second kind in the space of L2. This equation can be solved numerically for desired accuracy by using truncation method. The parameters as cut-off wavenumber and cut-off frequency are used in waveguide evolutionary equations of electromagnetic theory in time-domain to illustrate the real-valued TM fields with lossy and lossless media.

Keywords: Arbitrary cross section waveguide, analytical regularization method, evolutionary equations of electromagnetic theory of time-domain, TM field.

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2086 A Prediction Method for Large-Size Event Occurrences in the Sandpile Model

Authors: S. Channgam, A. Sae-Tang, T. Termsaithong

Abstract:

In this research, the occurrences of large size events in various system sizes of the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model are considered. The system sizes (square lattice) of model considered here are 25×25, 50×50, 75×75 and 100×100. The cross-correlation between the ratio of sites containing 3 grain time series and the large size event time series for these 4 system sizes are also analyzed. Moreover, a prediction method of the large-size event for the 50×50 system size is also introduced. Lastly, it can be shown that this prediction method provides a slightly higher efficiency than random predictions.

Keywords: Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model, avalanches, cross-correlation, prediction method.

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2085 Three-dimensional Finite Element Analysis of the Front Cross Member of the Peugeot 405

Authors: Kh.Farhangdoust, H.Kamankesh

Abstract:

Undoubtedly, chassis is one of the most important parts of a vehicle. Chassis that today are produced for vehicles are made up of four parts. These parts are jointed together by screwing. Transverse parts are called cross member. This study reviews the stress generated by cyclic laboratory loads in front cross member of Peugeot 405. In this paper the finite element method is used to simulate the welding process and to determine the physical response of the spot-welded joints. Analysis is done by the Abaqus software. The Stresses generated in cross member structure are generally classified into two groups: The stresses remained in form of residual stresses after welding process and the mechanical stress generated by cyclic load. Accordingly the total stress must be obtained by determining residual stress and mechanical stress separately and then sum them according to the superposition principle. In order to improve accuracy, material properties including physical, thermal and mechanical properties were supposed to be temperature-dependent. Simulation shows that maximum Von Misses stresses are located at special points. The model results are then compared to the experimental results which are reported by producing factory and good agreement is observed.

Keywords: Chassis, cross member, residual stress, resistancespot weld.

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2084 Evaluation of Total Cross Section of Photo-Ionization of Helium in Weak Field on Base of Trajectory Method

Authors: Alexander B. Bichkov, Valery V. Smirnov

Abstract:

Total cross section of helium atom photo-ionization by weak short pulse is calculated using the variant of trajectory method, developed in our earlier work. The method enables simple estimation of total ionization probability (or cross section) without integration of differential one.

Keywords: Evaluation of Photo-Ionization, Helium, Trajectory Method

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2083 On Method of Fundamental Solution for Nondestructive Testing

Authors: Jieer Wu, Zheshu Ma

Abstract:

Nondestructive testing in engineering is an inverse Cauchy problem for Laplace equation. In this paper the problem of nondestructive testing is expressed by a Laplace-s equation with third-kind boundary conditions. In order to find unknown values on the boundary, the method of fundamental solution is introduced and realized. Because of the ill-posedness of studied problems, the TSVD regularization technique in combination with L-curve criteria and Generalized Cross Validation criteria is employed. Numerical results are shown that the TSVD method combined with L-curve criteria is more efficient than the TSVD method combined with GCV criteria. The abstract goes here.

Keywords: ill-posed, TSVD, Laplace's equation, inverse problem, L-curve, Generalized Cross Validation.

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2082 Studying Mistaken Theory of Calendar Function of Iran-s Cross-Vaults

Authors: Ali Salehipour

Abstract:

After presenting the theory of calendar function of Iran-s cross-vaults especially “Niasar" cross-vault in recent years, there has been lots of doubts and uncertainty about this theory by astrologists and archaeologists. According to this theory “Niasar cross-vault and other cross-vaults of Iran has calendar function and are constructed in a way that sunrise and sunset can be seen from one of its openings in the beginning and middle of each season of year". But, mentioning historical documentaries we conclude here that the theory of calendar function of Iran-s cross-vaults does not have any strong basis and individual cross-vaults had only religious function in Iran.

Keywords: cross-vault, fire temple, Calendar function, Sassanid period

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2081 A Gnutella-based P2P System Using Cross-Layer Design for MANET

Authors: Ho-Hyun Park, Woosik Kim, Miae Woo

Abstract:

It is expected that ubiquitous era will come soon. A ubiquitous environment has features like peer-to-peer and nomadic environments. Such features can be represented by peer-to-peer systems and mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs). The features of P2P systems and MANETs are similar, appealing for implementing P2P systems in MANET environment. It has been shown that, however, the performance of the P2P systems designed for wired networks do not perform satisfactorily in mobile ad-hoc environment. Subsequently, this paper proposes a method to improve P2P performance using cross-layer design and the goodness of a node as a peer. The proposed method uses routing metric as well as P2P metric to choose favorable peers to connect. It also utilizes proactive approach for distributing peer information. According to the simulation results, the proposed method provides higher query success rate, shorter query response time and less energy consumption by constructing an efficient overlay network.

Keywords: Ad-hoc Networks, Cross-layer, Peer-to-Peer, Performance Analysis.

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2080 Experimental Study of Specific Cross Beam Types Appropriate for Modular Bridges

Authors: Seung-Kyung Kye, Young-Hyo Son, Jin-Woong Choi, Dooyong Cho, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

Recently in the field of bridges that are newly built or repaired, fast construction is required more than ever. For these reasons, precast prefabricated bridge that enables rapid construction is actively discussed and studied today. In South Korea, it is called modular bridge. Cross beam is an integral component of modular bridge. It functions for load distribution, reduction of bending moment, resistance of horizontal strength on lateral upper structure. In this study, the structural characteristics of domestic and foreign cross beam types were compared. Based on this, alternative cross beam connection types suitable for modular bridge were selected. And bulb-T girder specimens were fabricated with each type of connection. The behavior of each specimen was analyzed under static loading, and cross beam connection type which is expected to be best suited to modular bridge proposed.

Keywords: Bulb-T girder, Cross beam, Modular bridge.

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2079 Design and Performance Analysis of One Dimensional Zero Cross-Correlation Coding Technique for a Fixed Wavelength Hopping SAC-OCDMA

Authors: Satyasen Panda, Urmila Bhanja

Abstract:

This paper presents a SAC-OCDMA code with zero cross correlation property to minimize the Multiple Access Interface (MAI) as New Zero Cross Correlation code (NZCC), which is found to be more scalable compared to the other existing SAC-OCDMA codes. This NZCC code is constructed using address segment and data segment. In this work, the proposed NZCC code is implemented in an optical system using the Opti-System software for the spectral amplitude coded optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA) scheme. The main contribution of the proposed NZCC code is the zero cross correlation, which reduces both the MAI and PIIN noises. The proposed NZCC code reveals properties of minimum cross-correlation, flexibility in selecting the code parameters and supports a large number of users, combined with high data rate and longer fiber length. Simulation results reveal that the optical code division multiple access system based on the proposed NZCC code accommodates maximum number of simultaneous users with higher data rate transmission, lower Bit Error Rates (BER) and longer travelling distance without any signal quality degradation, as compared to the former existing SAC-OCDMA codes.

Keywords: Cross Correlation, Optical Code Division Multiple Access, Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access, Multiple Access Interference, Phase Induced Intensity Noise, New Zero Cross Correlation code.

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2078 Cross-Industry Innovations–Systematic Identification of Ideas for Radical Problem Solving

Authors: Niklas Echterhoff, Benjamin Amshoff, Jürgen Gausemeier

Abstract:

Creativity is often based on an unorthodox recombination of knowledge; in fact: 80% of all innovations use given knowledge and put it into a new combination. Cross-industry innovations follow this way of thinking and bring together problems and solution ideas from different industries. Therefore analogies and search strategies have to be developed. Taking this path, the questions where to search, what to search and how to search have to be answered. Afterwards, the gathered information can be used within a planned search process. Identified solution ideas have to be assessed and analyzed in detail for the success promising adaption planning.

Keywords: analogy building, cross-industry innovations, knowledge transfer, solution adaption.

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2077 New Scheme in Determining nth Order Diagrams for Cross Multiplication Method via Combinatorial Approach

Authors: Sharmila Karim, Haslinda Ibrahim, Zurni Omar

Abstract:

In this paper, a new recursive strategy is proposed for determining $\frac{(n-1)!}{2}$ of $n$th order diagrams. The generalization of $n$th diagram for cross multiplication method were proposed by Pavlovic and Bankier but the specific rule of determining $\frac{(n-1)!}{2}$ of the $n$th order diagrams for square matrix is yet to be discovered. Thus using combinatorial approach, $\frac{(n-1)!}{2}$ of the $n$th order diagrams will be presented as $\frac{(n-1)!}{2}$ starter sets. These starter sets will be generated based on exchanging one element. The advantages of this new strategy are the discarding process was eliminated and the sign of starter set is alternated to each others.

Keywords: starter sets, permutation, exchanging one element, determinant

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2076 FPGA Based Parallel Architecture for the Computation of Third-Order Cross Moments

Authors: Syed Manzoor Qasim, Shuja Abbasi, Saleh Alshebeili, Bandar Almashary, Ateeq Ahmad Khan

Abstract:

Higher-order Statistics (HOS), also known as cumulants, cross moments and their frequency domain counterparts, known as poly spectra have emerged as a powerful signal processing tool for the synthesis and analysis of signals and systems. Algorithms used for the computation of cross moments are computationally intensive and require high computational speed for real-time applications. For efficiency and high speed, it is often advantageous to realize computation intensive algorithms in hardware. A promising solution that combines high flexibility together with the speed of a traditional hardware is Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). In this paper, we present FPGA-based parallel architecture for the computation of third-order cross moments. The proposed design is coded in Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) and functionally verified by implementing it on Xilinx Spartan-3 XC3S2000FG900-4 FPGA. Implementation results are presented and it shows that the proposed design can operate at a maximum frequency of 86.618 MHz.

Keywords: Cross moments, Cumulants, FPGA, Hardware Implementation.

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2075 New Effect of Duct Cross Sectional Shape on the Nanofluid Flow Heat Transfer

Authors: Mohammad R. Salimpour, Amir Dehshiri

Abstract:

In the present article, we investigate experimental laminar forced convective heat transfer specifications of TiO2/water nanofluids through conduits with different cross sections. we check the effects of different parameters such as cross sectional shape, Reynolds number and concentration of nanoparticles in stable suspension on increasing convective heat transfer by designing and assembling of an experimental apparatus. The results demonstrate adding a little amount of nanoparticles to the base fluid, improves heat transfer behavior in conduits. Moreover, conduit with circular cross-section has better performance compared to the square and triangular cross sections. However, conduits with square and triangular cross sections have more relative heat transfer enchantment than conduit with circular cross section.

Keywords: Nanofluid, cross-sectional shape, TiO2, convection.

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2074 Efficient Tuning Parameter Selection by Cross-Validated Score in High Dimensional Models

Authors: Yoonsuh Jung

Abstract:

As DNA microarray data contain relatively small sample size compared to the number of genes, high dimensional models are often employed. In high dimensional models, the selection of tuning parameter (or, penalty parameter) is often one of the crucial parts of the modeling. Cross-validation is one of the most common methods for the tuning parameter selection, which selects a parameter value with the smallest cross-validated score. However, selecting a single value as an ‘optimal’ value for the parameter can be very unstable due to the sampling variation since the sample sizes of microarray data are often small. Our approach is to choose multiple candidates of tuning parameter first, then average the candidates with different weights depending on their performance. The additional step of estimating the weights and averaging the candidates rarely increase the computational cost, while it can considerably improve the traditional cross-validation. We show that the selected value from the suggested methods often lead to stable parameter selection as well as improved detection of significant genetic variables compared to the tradition cross-validation via real data and simulated data sets.

Keywords: Cross Validation, Parameter Averaging, Parameter Selection, Regularization Parameter Search.

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2073 Cross-Industry Innovations – Systematic Identification and Adaption

Authors: Niklas Echterhoff, Benjamin Amshoff, Jürgen Gausemeier

Abstract:

Due to today-s fierce competition, companies have to be proactive creators of the future by effectively developing innovations. Especially radical innovations allow high profit margins – but they also entail high risks. One possibility to realize radical innovations and reduce the risk of failure is cross-industry innovation (CII). CII brings together problems and solution ideas from different industries. However, there is a lack of systematic ways towards CII. Bridging this gap, the present paper provides a systematic approach towards planned CII. Starting with the analysis of potentials, the definition of promising search strategies is crucial. Subsequently, identified solution ideas need to be assessed. For the most promising ones, the adaption process has to be systematically planned – regarding the risk affinity of a company. The introduced method is explained on a project from the furniture industry.

Keywords: Analogy building, cross-industry innovations, knowledge transfer, solution adaption.

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2072 Cross-cultural Analysis of the Strategy of Tolerance in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: N. K. Satybaldina, A. G. Karabayeva, Z. N. Ismagambetova

Abstract:

The modern Kazakh society is characterized by strengthen cross-cultural communication, the emergence of new powerful subcultures, accelerated change in social systems and values. The socio-political reforms in all fields have changed the quality of social relationships and spiritual life.Cross-cultural approach involves the analysis of different types of behavior and communication, including the manifestation of the conflict, and the formation of marginal destructive stereotypes.

Keywords: Attitudes, Ethnic, Communication, Cross-cultural, Multiethnic, Multicultural, Society, Stereotype, Strategy, Tolerance

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2071 The Therapist's Self Disclosure in Cross- Cultural Treatment

Authors: Ruth Lijtmaer, Roy Moodley, Shafik Sunderani

Abstract:

The argument that self-disclosure will change the psychoanalytic process into a socio-cultural niche distorting the therapeutic alliance and compromise therapeutic effectiveness is still the widely held belief amongst many psychotherapists. This paper considers the issues surrounding culture, disclosure and concealment since they remain largely untheorized and clinically problematic. The first part of the paper will critically examine the theory and practice of psychoanalysis across cultures, and explore the reasons for culturally diverse patients to conceal rather than disclose their feelings and thoughts in the transference. This is followed by a discussion on how immigrant analysts- anonymity is difficult to maintain since diverse nationalities, language and accents provide clues to the therapist-s and patient-s origins. Through personal clinical examples of one the author-s (who is an immigrant) the paper analyses the transference-countertransference paradigm and how it reflects in the analyst-s self-revelation.

Keywords: Self-disclosure, cross-cultural, transferencecountertransference, immigrant therapist.

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2070 Coherent and Incoherent Scattering Cross Sections for Elements with 13

Authors: Panakkada Latha, K. K. Abdullah, M. P. Unnikrishnan, K. M. Varier, B. R. S. Babu

Abstract:

Coherent and incoherent scattering cross section measurements have been carried out using a HPGe detector on elements in the range of Z = 13 - 50 using 241Am gamma rays. The cross sections have been derived by comparing the net count rate obtained from the Compton peak of aluminium with the corresponding peak of the target. The measured cross sections for the coherent and incoherent processes are compared with theoretical values and earlier reported values. Our results are in agreement with the theoretical values.

Keywords: Cross section, coherent scattering, incoherent scattering, 241Am.

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2069 Unsteady Flow of an Incompressible Viscous Electrically Conducting Fluid in Tube of Elliptical Cross Section under the Influence of Magnetic Field

Authors: Sanjay Baburao Kulkarni

Abstract:

Exact solution of an unsteady flow of elastico-viscous electrically conducting fluid through a porous media in a tube of elliptical cross section under the influence of constant pressure gradient and magnetic field has been obtained in this paper. Initially, the flow is generated by a constant pressure gradient. After attaining the steady state, the pressure gradient is suddenly withdrawn and the resulting fluid motion in a tube of elliptical cross section by taking into account of the transverse magnetic field and porosity factor of the bounding surface is investigated. The problem is solved in twostages the first stage is a steady motion in tube under the influence of a constant pressure gradient, the second stage concern with an unsteady motion. The problem is solved employing separation of variables technique. The results are expressed in terms of a nondimensional porosity parameter (K), magnetic parameter (m) and elastico-viscosity parameter (β), which depends on the Non- Newtonian coefficient. The flow parameters are found to be identical with that of Newtonian case as elastic-viscosity parameter and magnetic parameter tends to zero and porosity tends to infinity. It is seen that the effect of elastico-viscosity parameter, magnetic parameter and the porosity parameter of the bounding surface has significant effect on the velocity parameter.

Keywords: Elastico-viscous fluid, Elliptic cross-section, Porous media, Second order fluids.

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2068 A Cross-Layer Approach for Cooperative MIMO Multi-hop Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Jain-Shing Liu

Abstract:

In this work, we study the problem of determining the minimum scheduling length that can satisfy end-to-end (ETE) traffic demand in scheduling-based multihop WSNs with cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission scheme. Specifically, we present a cross-layer formulation for the joint routing, scheduling and stream control problem by incorporating various power and rate adaptation schemes, and taking into account an antenna beam pattern model and the signal-to-interference-and-noise (SINR) constraint at the receiver. In the context, we also propose column generation (CG) solutions to get rid of the complexity requiring the enumeration of all possible sets of scheduling links.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Cross-Layer Design, CooperativeMIMO System, Column Generation.

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2067 Time-Delay Estimation Using Cross-ΨB-Energy Operator

Authors: Z. Saidi, A.O. Boudraa, J.C. Cexus, S. Bourennane

Abstract:

In this paper, a new time-delay estimation technique based on the cross IB-energy operator [5] is introduced. This quadratic energy detector measures how much a signal is present in another one. The location of the peak of the energy operator, corresponding to the maximum of interaction between the two signals, is the estimate of the delay. The method is a fully data-driven approach. The discrete version of the continuous-time form of the cross IBenergy operator, for its implementation, is presented. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated on real underwater acoustic signals arriving from targets and the results compared to the cross-correlation method.

Keywords: Teager-Kaiser energy operator, Cross-energyoperator, Time-Delay, Underwater acoustic signals.

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2066 On Cross-Ratio in some Moufang-Klingenberg Planes

Authors: Atilla Akpinar, Basri Celik

Abstract:

In this paper we are interested in Moufang-Klingenberg planesM(A) defined over a local alternative ring A of dual numbers. We show that a collineation of M(A) preserve cross-ratio. Also, we obtain some results about harmonic points.

Keywords: Moufang-Klingenberg planes, local alternative ring, projective collineation, cross-ratio, harmonic points.

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2065 Flutter Analysis of Slender Beams with Variable Cross Sections Based on Integral Equation Formulation

Authors: Z. El Felsoufi, L. Azrar

Abstract:

This paper studies a mathematical model based on the integral equations for dynamic analyzes numerical investigations of a non-uniform or multi-material composite beam. The beam is subjected to a sub-tangential follower force and elastic foundation. The boundary conditions are represented by generalized parameterized fixations by the linear and rotary springs. A mathematical formula based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is presented for beams with variable cross-sections. The non-uniform section introduces non-uniformity in the rigidity and inertia of beams and consequently, more complicated equilibrium who governs the equation. Using the boundary element method and radial basis functions, the equation of motion is reduced to an algebro-differential system related to internal and boundary unknowns. A generalized formula for the deflection, the slope, the moment and the shear force are presented. The free vibration of non-uniform loaded beams is formulated in a compact matrix form and all needed matrices are explicitly given. The dynamic stability analysis of slender beam is illustrated numerically based on the coalescence criterion. A realistic case related to an industrial chimney is investigated.

Keywords: Chimney, BEM and integral equation formulation, non uniform cross section, vibration and Flutter.

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