Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 60

Search results for: Coulomb impurity

60 Magnetic Field Effects on Parabolic Graphene Quantum Dots with Topological Defects

Authors: Defne Akay, Bekir S. Kandemir

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the low-lying energy levels of the two-dimensional parabolic graphene quantum dots (GQDs) in the presence of topological defects with long range Coulomb impurity and subjected to an external uniform magnetic field. The low-lying energy levels of the system are obtained within the framework of the perturbation theory. We theoretically demonstrate that a valley splitting can be controlled by geometrical parameters of the graphene quantum dots and/or by tuning a uniform magnetic field, as well as topological defects. It is found that, for parabolic graphene dots, the valley splitting occurs due to the introduction of spatial confinement. The corresponding splitting is enhanced by the introduction of a uniform magnetic field and it increases by increasing the angle of the cone in subcritical regime.

Keywords: Coulomb impurity, graphene cones, graphene quantum dots, topological defects.

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59 Effect of Exchange Interaction J on Magnetic Moment of MnO

Authors: C. Thassana, W. Techitdheera

Abstract:

This calculation focus on the effect of exchange interaction J and Coulomb interaction U on spin magnetic moments (ms) of MnO by using the local spin density approximation plus the Coulomb interaction (LSDA+U) method within full potential linear muffin-tin orbital (FP-LMTO). Our calculated results indicated that the spin magnetic moments correlated to J and U. The relevant results exhibited the increasing spin magnetic moments with increasing exchange interaction and Coulomb interaction. Furthermore, equations of spin magnetic moment, which h good correspondence to the experimental data 4.58μB, are defined ms = 0.11J +4.52μB and ms = 0.03U+4.52μB. So, the relation of J and U parameter is obtained, it is obviously, J = -0.249U+1.346 eV.

Keywords: exchange interaction J, the Coulomb interaction U, spin magnetic moment, LSDA+U, MnO.

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58 Oxygen-Interstitials and Group-V Element Doping for p-Type ZnO

Authors: A. M. Gsiea, J. P. Goss, P. R. Briddon, K. M. Etmimi

Abstract:

In realizing devices using ZnO, a key challenge is the production of p-type material. Substitution of oxygen by a group-V impurity is thought to result in deep acceptor levels, but a candidate made up from a complex of a group-V impurity (P, As, Sb) on a Zn site coupled with two vacant Zn sites is widely viewed as a candidate. We show using density-functional simulations that in contrast to such a view, complexes involving oxygen interstitials are energetically more favorable, resulting in group-V impurities coordinated with four, five or six oxygen atoms.

Keywords: DFT, Oxygen, p-Type, ZnO.

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57 Cr Induced Magnetization in Zinc-Blende ZnO Based Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

Authors: Bakhtiar Ul Haq, R. Ahmed, A. Shaari, Mazmira Binti Mohamed, Nisar Ali

Abstract:

The capability of exploiting the electronic charge and spin properties simultaneously in a single material has made diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) remarkable in the field of spintronics. We report the designing of DMS based on zinc-blend ZnO doped with Cr impurity. The full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital FP-L(APW+lo) method in density functional theory (DFT) has been adapted to carry out these investigations. For treatment of exchange and correlation energy, generalized gradient approximations have been used. Introducing Cr atoms in the matrix of ZnO has induced strong magnetic moment with ferromagnetic ordering at stable ground state. Cr:ZnO was found to favor the short range magnetic interaction that reflect tendency of Cr clustering. The electronic structure of ZnO is strongly influenced in the presence of Cr impurity atoms where impurity bands appear in the band gap.

Keywords: ZnO, Density functional theory, Diluted magnetic semiconductors, Ferromagnetic materials, FP-L(APW+lo).

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56 Leaching Characteristics of Upgraded Copper Flotation Tailings

Authors: Mercy M. Ramakokovhu, Henry Kasaini, Richard K.K. Mbaya

Abstract:

The copper flotation tailings from Konkola Copper mine in Nchanga, Zambia were used in the study. The purpose of this study was to determine the leaching characteristics of the tailings material prior and after the physical beneficiation process is employed. The Knelson gravity concentrator (KC-MD3) was used for the beneficiation process. The copper leaching efficiencies and impurity co-extraction percentages in both the upgraded and the raw feed material were determined at different pH levels and temperature. It was observed that the copper extraction increased with an increase in temperature and a decrease in pH levels. In comparison to the raw feed sample, the upgraded sample reported a maximum copper extraction of 69% which was 9%, higher than raw feed % extractions. The impurity carry over was reduced from 18% to 4 % on the upgraded sample. The reduction in impurity co-extraction was as a result of the removal of the reactive gangue elements during the upgrading process, this minimized the number of side reaction occurring during leaching.

Keywords: Atmospheric leaching, Copper, Iron, Knelson concentrator

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55 Finite Element Modeling of the Mechanical Behavior of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash with the Mohr-Coulomb Model

Authors: Le Ngoc Hung, Abriak Nor Edine, Binetruy Christophe, Benzerzour Mahfoud, Shahrour Isam, Patrice Rivard

Abstract:

Bottom ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) can be viewed as a typical granular material because these industrial by-products result from the incineration of various domestic wastes. MSWI bottom ash is mainly used in road engineering in substitution of the traditional natural aggregates. As the characterization of their mechanical behavior is essential in order to use them, specific studies have been led over the past few years. In the first part of this paper, the mechanical behavior of MSWI bottom ash is studied with triaxial tests. After, analysis of the experiment results, the simulation of triaxial tests is carried out by using the software package CESAR-LCPC. As the first approach in modeling of this new class material, the Mohr-Coulomb model was chosen to describe the evolution of material under the influence of external mechanical actions.

Keywords: Bottom ash, granular material, triaxial test, mechanical behavior, simulation, Mohr-Coulomb model, CESARLCPC.

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54 Properties of Rhizophora Charcoal for Product Design

Authors: Tanutpong Phriwanrat

Abstract:

This research investigated the properties of Rhizophora charcoal for product design on 3 aspects: electrical conductor, impurity absorption, and fresh fruit shelf life. After the study, the properties of Rhizophora charcoal were applied to produce local product model at Ban Yisarn, Ampawa District, Samudsongkram Province which can add value to the Rhizophora charcoal as one of the OTOP (One-Tambon-One product). The results showed that the Rhizophora charcoal is not an electrical conductor but good liquid impurity absorber and it can extend fresh fruit shelf life.

Keywords: Design, Product design, Properties of Rhizophora, Rhizophora Charcoal.

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53 Triboelectric Separation of Binary Plastic Mixture

Authors: M. Saeki

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the performance of a triboelectric separator of plastic mixtures used for recycling. The separator consists of four cylindrical electrodes. The principle behind the separation technique is based on the difference in the Coulomb force acting on the plastic particles after triboelectric charging. The separation of mixtures of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polystyrene (PS) using this method was studied. The effects of the triboelectric charging time and applied voltage on the separation efficiency were investigated. The experimental results confirm that it is possible to obtain a high purity and recovery rate for the initial compositions considered in this study.

Keywords: Coulomb force, recycling, triboelectric separator, waste plastics.

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52 Two Kinds of Self-Oscillating Circuits Mechanically Demonstrated

Authors: Shiang-Hwua Yu, Po-Hsun Wu

Abstract:

This study introduces two types of self-oscillating circuits that are frequently found in power electronics applications. Special effort is made to relate the circuits to the analogous mechanical systems of some important scientific inventions: Galileo’s pendulum clock and Coulomb’s friction model. A little touch of related history and philosophy of science will hopefully encourage curiosity, advance the understanding of self-oscillating systems and satisfy the aspiration of some students for scientific literacy. Finally, the two self-oscillating circuits are applied to design a simple class-D audio amplifier.

Keywords: Self-oscillation, sigma-delta modulator, pendulum clock, Coulomb friction, class-D amplifier.

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51 Analysis of the Elastic Scattering of 12C on 11B at Energy near Coulomb Barrier Using Different Optical Potential Codes

Authors: Sh. Hamada, N. Burtebayev, A. Amar, N. Amangieldy

Abstract:

the aim of that work is to study the proton transfer phenomenon which takes place in the elastic scattering of 12C on 11B at energies near the coulomb barrier. This reaction was studied at four different energies 16, 18, 22, 24 MeV. The experimental data of the angular distribution at these energies were compared to the calculation prediction using the optical potential codes such as ECIS88 and SPIVAL. For the raising in the cross section at backward angles due to the transfer process we could use Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWUCK5). Our analysis showed that SPIVAL code with l-dependent imaginary potential could be used effectively.

Keywords: Transfer reaction, DWBA, Elastic Scattering, Optical Potential Codes.

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50 Magnetic Properties of NiO and MnO by LSDA+U

Authors: Chewa Thassana, Wicharn Techitdheera

Abstract:

The spin (ms) and orbital (mo) magnetic moment of the antiferromagnetic NiO and MnO have been studied in the local spin density approximation (LSDA+U) within full potential linear muffin-tin orbital (FP-LMTO method with in the coulomb interaction U varying from 0 to 10eV, exchange interaction J, from 0 to 1.0eV, and volume compression VC in range of 0 to 80%. Our calculated results shown that the spin magnetic moments and the orbital magnetic moments increase linearly with increasing U and J. While the interesting behaviour appears when volume compression is greater than 70% for NiO and 50% for MnO at which ms collapses. Further increase of volume compression to be at 80% leads to the disappearance of both magnetic moments.

Keywords: spin-orbital magnetic moment, Coulomb interaction U and exchange interaction J, volume compression VC, LSDA+U.

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49 Effective Charge Coupling in Low Dimensional Doped Quantum Antiferromagnets

Authors: Suraka Bhattacharjee, Ranjan Chaudhury

Abstract:

The interaction between the charge degrees of freedom for itinerant antiferromagnets is investigated in terms of generalized charge stiffness constant corresponding to nearest neighbour t-J model and t1-t2-t3-J model. The low dimensional hole doped antiferromagnets are the well known systems that can be described by the t-J-like models. Accordingly, we have used these models to investigate the fermionic pairing possibilities and the coupling between the itinerant charge degrees of freedom. A detailed comparison between spin and charge couplings highlights that the charge and spin couplings show very similar behaviour in the over-doped region, whereas, they show completely different trends in the lower doping regimes. Moreover, a qualitative equivalence between generalized charge stiffness and effective Coulomb interaction is also established based on the comparisons with other theoretical and experimental results. Thus it is obvious that the enhanced possibility of fermionic pairing is inherent in the reduction of Coulomb repulsion with increase in doping concentration. However, the increased possibility can not give rise to pairing without the presence of any other pair producing mechanism outside the t-J model. Therefore, one can conclude that the t-J-like models themselves solely are not capable of producing conventional momentum-based superconducting pairing on their own.

Keywords: Generalized charge stiffness constant, charge coupling, effective Coulomb interaction, t-J-like models, momentum-space pairing.

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48 2D Numerical Analysis of Sao Paulo Tunnel

Authors: A.H. Akhaveissy

Abstract:

Nonlinear finite element method and Serendipity eight nodes element are used for determining of ground surface settlement due to tunneling. Linear element with elastic behavior is used for modeling of lining. Modified Generalized plasticity model with nonassociated flow rule is applied for analysis of a tunnel in Sao Paulo – Brazil. The tunnel had analyzed by Lades- model with 16 parameters. In this work modified Generalized Plasticity is used with 10 parameters, also Mohr-Coulomb model is used to analysis the tunnel. The results show good agreement with observed results of field data by modified Generalized Plasticity model than other models. The obtained result by Mohr-Coulomb model shows less settlement than other model due to excavation.

Keywords: Non-associated flow rule, Generalized plasticity, tunnel excavation, Excavation method.

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47 Debye Layer Confinement of Nucleons in Nuclei by Laser Ablated Plasma

Authors: M. Ghanaatian, N. Ghahramany, A. Bazrafshan

Abstract:

Following the laser ablation studies leading to a theory of nuclei confinement by a Debye layer mechanism, we present here numerical evaluations for the known stable nuclei where the Coulomb repulsion is included as a rather minor component especially for lager nuclei. In this research paper the required physical conditions for the formation and stability of nuclei particularly endothermic nuclei with mass number greater than to which is an open astrophysical question have been investigated. Using the Debye layer mechanism, nuclear surface energy, Fermi energy and coulomb repulsion energy it is possible to find conditions under which the process of nucleation is permitted in early universe. Our numerical calculations indicate that about 200 second after the big bang at temperature of about 100 KeV and subrelativistic region with nucleon density nearly equal to normal nuclear density namely, 10cm all endothermic and exothermic nuclei have been formed.

Keywords: Endothermic nuclear synthesis, Fermi energy, Surface tension, Debye length.

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46 Depletion Layer Parameters of Al-MoO3-P-CdTe-Al MOS Structures

Authors: A. C. Sarmah

Abstract:

The Al-MoO3-P-CdTe-Al MOS sandwich structures were fabricated by vacuum deposition method on cleaned glass substrates. Capacitance versus voltage measurements were performed at different frequencies and sweep rates of applied voltages for oxide and semiconductor films of different thicknesses. In the negative voltage region of the C-V curve a high differential capacitance of the semiconductor was observed and at high frequencies (<10 kHz) the transition from accumulation to depletion and further to deep depletion was observed as the voltage was swept from negative to positive. A study have been undertaken to determine the value of acceptor density and some depletion layer parameters such as depletion layer capacitance, depletion width, impurity concentration, flat band voltage, Debye length, flat band capacitance, diffusion or built-in-potential, space charge per unit area etc. These were determined from C-V measurements for different oxide and semiconductor thicknesses.

Keywords: Debye length, Depletion width, flat band capacitance, impurity concentration.

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45 Simulation of Kinetic Friction in L-Bending of Sheet Metals

Authors: Maziar Ramezani, Thomas Neitzert, Timotius Pasang

Abstract:

This paper aims at experimental and numerical investigation of springback behavior of sheet metals during L-bending process with emphasis on Stribeck-type friction modeling. The coefficient of friction in Stribeck curve depends on sliding velocity and contact pressure. The springback behavior of mild steel and aluminum alloy 6022-T4 sheets was studied experimentally and using numerical simulations with ABAQUS software with two types of friction model: Coulomb friction and Stribeck friction. The influence of forming speed on springback behavior was studied experimentally and numerically. The results showed that Stribeck-type friction model has better results in predicting springback in sheet metal forming. The FE prediction error for mild steel and 6022-T4 AA is 23.8%, 25.5% respectively, using Coulomb friction model and 11%, 13% respectively, using Stribeck friction model. These results show that Stribeck model is suitable for simulation of sheet metal forming especially at higher forming speed.

Keywords: Friction, L-bending, Springback, Stribeck curves.

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44 The Self-Energy of an Ellectron Bound in a Coulomb Field

Authors: J. Zamastil, V. Patkos

Abstract:

Recent progress in calculation of the one-loop selfenergy of the electron bound in the Coulomb field is summarized. The relativistic multipole expansion is introduced. This expansion is based on a single assumption: except for the part of the time component of the electron four-momentum corresponding to the electron rest mass, the exchange of four-momentum between the virtual electron and photon can be treated perturbatively. For non Sstates and normalized difference n3En −E1 of the S-states this itself yields very accurate results after taking the method to the third order. For the ground state the perturbation treatment of the electron virtual states with very high three-momentum is to be avoided. For these states one can always rearrange the pertinent expression in such a way that free-particle approximation is allowed. Combination of the relativistic multipole expansion and free-particle approximation yields very accurate result after taking the method to the ninth order. These results are in very good agreement with the previous results obtained by the partial wave expansion and definitely exclude the possibility that the uncertainity in determination of the proton radius comes from the uncertainity in the calculation of the one-loop selfenergy.

Keywords: Hydrogen-like atoms, self-energy.

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43 Single Ion Transport with a Single-Layer Graphene Nanopore

Authors: Vishal V. R. Nandigana, Mohammad Heiranian, Narayana R. Aluru

Abstract:

Graphene material has found tremendous applications in water desalination, DNA sequencing and energy storage. Multiple nanopores are etched to create opening for water desalination and energy storage applications. The nanopores created are of the order of 3-5 nm allowing multiple ions to transport through the pore. In this paper, we present for the first time, molecular dynamics study of single ion transport, where only one ion passes through the graphene nanopore. The diameter of the graphene nanopore is of the same order as the hydration layers formed around each ion. Analogous to single electron transport resulting from ionic transport is observed for the first time. The current-voltage characteristics of such a device are similar to single electron transport in quantum dots. The current is blocked until a critical voltage, as the ions are trapped inside a hydration shell. The trapped ions have a high energy barrier compared to the applied input electrical voltage, preventing the ion to break free from the hydration shell. This region is called “Coulomb blockade region”. In this region, we observe zero transport of ions inside the nanopore. However, when the electrical voltage is beyond the critical voltage, the ion has sufficient energy to break free from the energy barrier created by the hydration shell to enter into the pore. Thus, the input voltage can control the transport of the ion inside the nanopore. The device therefore acts as a binary storage unit, storing 0 when no ion passes through the pore and storing 1 when a single ion passes through the pore. We therefore postulate that the device can be used for fluidic computing applications in chemistry and biology, mimicking a computer. Furthermore, the trapped ion stores a finite charge in the Coulomb blockade region; hence the device also acts a super capacitor.

Keywords: Graphene, single ion transport, Coulomb blockade, fluidic computer, super capacitor.

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42 Characterization of Penicillin V Acid and Its Related Compounds by HPLC

Authors: Bahdja Guerfi, N. Hadhoum, I. Azouz, M. Bendoumia, S. Bouafia, F. Z. Hadjadj Aoul

Abstract:

Background: 'Penicillin V' is a narrow, bactericidal antibiotic of the beta-lactam family of the naturally occurring penicillin group. It is limited to infections due to the germs defined as sensitive. The objective of this work was to identify and to characterize Penicillin V acid and its related compounds by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: Firstly phenoxymethylpenicillin was identified by an infrared absorption. The organoleptic characteristics, pH, and determination of water content were also studied. The dosage of Penicillin V acid active substance and the determination of its related compounds were carried on waters HPLC, equipped with a UV detector at 254 nm and Discovery HS C18 column (250 mm X 4.6 mm X 5 µm) which is maintained at room temperature. The flow rate was about 1 ml per min. A mixture of water, acetonitrile and acetic acid (65:35:01) was used as mobile phase for phenoxyacetic acid ‘impurity B' and a mixture of water, acetonitrile and acetic acid (650:150:5.75) for the assay and 4-hydroxypenicillin V 'impurity D'. Results: The identification of Penicillin V acid active substance and the evaluation of its chemical quality showed conformity with USP 35th edition. The Penicillin V acid content in the raw material is equal to 1692.22 UI/mg. The percentage content of phenoxyacetic acid and 4-hydroxypenicillin V was respectively: 0.035% and 0.323%. Conclusion: Through these results, we can conclude that the Penicillin V acid active substance tested is of good physicochemical quality.

Keywords: Penicillin V acid, characterization, related substances, HPLC.

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41 Transformations of Spatial Distributions of Bio-Polymers and Nanoparticles in Water Suspensions Induced by Resonance-Like Low Frequency Electrical Fields

Authors: A. A. Vasin, N. V. Klassen, A. M. Likhter

Abstract:

Water suspensions of in-organic (metals and oxides) and organic nano-objects (chitozan and collagen) were subjected to the treatment of direct and alternative electrical fields. In addition to quasi-periodical spatial patterning resonance-like performance of spatial distributions of these suspensions has been found at low frequencies of alternating electrical field. These resonances are explained as the result of creation of equilibrium states of groups of charged nano-objects with opposite signs of charges at the interparticle distances where the forces of Coulomb attraction are compensated by the repulsion forces induced by relatively negative polarization of hydrated regions surrounding the nanoparticles with respect to pure water. The low frequencies of these resonances are explained by comparatively big distances between the particles and their big masses with t\respect to masses of atoms constituting molecules with high resonance frequencies. These new resonances open a new approach to detailed modeling and understanding of mechanisms of the influence of electrical fields on the functioning of internal organs of living organisms at the level of cells and neurons.

Keywords: Bio-polymers, chitosan, collagen, nanoparticles, coulomb attraction, polarization repulsion, periodical patterning, electrical low frequency resonances, transformations.

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40 Characterization of InGaAsP/InP Quantum Well Lasers

Authors: K. Melouk, M. Dellakrachai

Abstract:

Analytical formula for the optical gain based on a simple parabolic-band by introducing theoretical expressions for the quantized energy is presented. The model used in this treatment take into account the effects of intraband relaxation. It is shown, as a result, that the gain for the TE mode is larger than that for TM mode and the presence of acceptor impurity increase the peak gain.

Keywords: Laser, quantum well, semiconductor, InGaAsP.

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39 Numerical Simulation of Axially Loaded to Failure Large Diameter Bored Pile

Authors: M. Ezzat, Y. Zaghloul, T. Sorour, A. Hefny, M. Eid

Abstract:

Ultimate capacity of large diameter bored piles is usually determined from pile loading tests as recommended by several international codes and foundation design standards. However, loading of this type of piles till achieving apparent failure is practically seldom. In this paper, numerical analyses are carried out to simulate load test of a large diameter bored pile performed at the location of Alzey highway bridge project (Germany). Test results of pile load settlement relationship till failure as well as results of the base and shaft resistances are available. Apparent failure was indicated in this test by the significant increase of the induced settlement during the last load increment applied on the pile head. Measurements of this pile load test are used to assess the quality of the numerical models investigated. Three different material soil models are implemented in the analyses: Mohr coulomb (MC), Soft soil (SS), and Modified Mohr coulomb (MMC). Very good agreement is obtained between the field measured settlement and the calculated settlement using the MMC model. Results of analysis showed also that the MMC constitutive model is superior to MC, and SS models in predicting the ultimate base and shaft resistances of the large diameter bored pile. After calibrating the numerical model, behavior of large diameter bored piles under axial loads is discussed and the formation of the plastic zone around the pile is explored. Results obtained showed that the plastic zone below the base of the pile at failure extended laterally to about four times the pile diameter and vertically to about three times the pile diameter.

Keywords: Ultimate capacity, large diameter bored piles, plastic zone, failure, pile load test.

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38 Study of the Elastic Scattering of 16O, 14N and 12C on the Nucleus of 27Al at Different Energies near the Coulomb Barrier

Authors: N. Amangeldi, N. Burtebayev, Sh. Hamada, A. Amar

Abstract:

the measurement of the angular distribution for the elastic scattering of 16O, 14N and 12C on 27Al has been done at energy 1.75 MeV/nucleon. The optical potential code SPIVAL used in this work to analyze the experimental results. A good agreement between the experimental and theoretical results was obtained.

Keywords: 27Al(16O, 16O)27Al, SPIVAL, 27Al(14N, 14N)27Al, 27Al(12C, 12C)27Al, Elastic Scattering, Optical Potential Codes.

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37 Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Chemical Reduction Method and Their Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Maribel G. Guzmán, Jean Dille, Stephan Godet

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles were prepared by chemical reduction method. Silver nitrate was taken as the metal precursor and hydrazine hydrate as a reducing agent. The formation of the silver nanoparticles was monitored using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed the formation of silver nanopart├¡cles by exhibing the typical surface plasmon absorption maxima at 418-420 nm from the UV–Vis spectrum. Comparison of theoretical (Mie light scattering theory) and experimental results showed that diameter of silver nanoparticles in colloidal solution is about 60 nm. We have used energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and, UV–Vis spectroscopy to characterize the nanoparticles obtained. The energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) of the nanoparticles dispersion confirmed the presence of elemental silver signal no peaks of other impurity were detected. The average size and morphology of silver nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM photographs indicate that the nanopowders consist of well dispersed agglomerates of grains with a narrow size distribution (40 and 60 nm), whereas the radius of the individual particles are between 10 and 20 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission high-energy electron diffraction (HEED). The peaks in the XRD pattern are in good agreement with the standard values of the face-centered-cubic form of metallic silver (ICCD-JCPDS card no. 4-0787) and no peaks of other impurity crystalline phases were detected. Additionally, the antibacterial activity of the nanopart├¡culas dispersion was measured by Kirby-Bauer method. The nanoparticles of silver showed high antimicrobial and bactericidal activity against gram positive bacteria such as Escherichia Coli, Pseudimonas aureginosa and staphylococcus aureus which is a highly methicillin resistant strain.

Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, surface plasmon, UV-Vis absorption spectrum, chemicals reduction.

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36 Design and Instrumentation of a Benchmark Multivariable Nonlinear Control Laboratory

Authors: S. H. Teh, S. Malawaraarachci, W. P. Chan, A. Nassirharand

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present the design and instrumentation of a new benchmark multivariable nonlinear control laboratory. The mathematical model of this system may be used to test the applicability and performance of various nonlinear control procedures. The system is a two degree-of-freedom robotic arm with soft and hard (discontinuous) nonlinear terms. Two novel mechanisms are designed to allow the implementation of adjustable Coulomb friction and backlash.

Keywords: Nonlinear control, describing functions, AdjustableCoulomb friction, Adjustable backlash.

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35 Study of Proton-9,11Li Elastic Scattering at 60~75 MeV/Nucleon

Authors: Arafa A. Alholaisi, Jamal H. Madani, M. A. Alvi

Abstract:

The radial form of nuclear matter distribution, charge and the shape of nuclei are essential properties of nuclei, and hence, are of great attention for several areas of research in nuclear physics. More than last three decades have witnessed a range of experimental means employing leptonic probes (such as muons, electrons etc.) for exploring nuclear charge distributions, whereas the hadronic probes (for example alpha particles, protons, etc.) have been used to investigate the nuclear matter distributions. In this paper, p-9,11Li elastic scattering differential cross sections in the energy range  to  MeV have been studied by means of Coulomb modified Glauber scattering formalism. By applying the semi-phenomenological Bhagwat-Gambhir-Patil [BGP] nuclear density for loosely bound neutron rich 11Li nucleus, the estimated matter radius is found to be 3.446 fm which is quite large as compared to so known experimental value 3.12 fm. The results of microscopic optical model based calculation by applying Bethe-Brueckner–Hartree–Fock formalism (BHF) have also been compared. It should be noted that in most of phenomenological density model used to reproduce the p-11Li differential elastic scattering cross sections data, the calculated matter radius lies between 2.964 and 3.55 fm. The calculated results with phenomenological BGP model density and with nucleon density calculated in the relativistic mean-field (RMF) reproduces p-9Li and p-11Li experimental data quite nicely as compared to Gaussian- Gaussian or Gaussian-Oscillator densities at all energies under consideration. In the approach described here, no free/adjustable parameter has been employed to reproduce the elastic scattering data as against the well-known optical model based studies that involve at least four to six adjustable parameters to match the experimental data. Calculated reaction cross sections σR for p-11Li at these energies are quite large as compared to estimated values reported by earlier works though so far no experimental studies have been performed to measure it.

Keywords: Bhagwat-Gambhir-Patil density, coulomb modified Glauber model, halo nucleus, optical limit approximation.

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34 A Physically-Based Analytical Model for Reduced Surface Field Laterally Double Diffused MOSFETs

Authors: M. Abouelatta, A. Shaker, M. El-Banna, G. T. Sayah, C. Gontrand, A. Zekry

Abstract:

In this paper, a methodology for physically modeling the intrinsic MOS part and the drift region of the n-channel Laterally Double-diffused MOSFET (LDMOS) is presented. The basic physical effects like velocity saturation, mobility reduction, and nonuniform impurity concentration in the channel are taken into consideration. The analytical model is implemented using MATLAB. A comparison of the simulations from technology computer aided design (TCAD) and that from the proposed analytical model, at room temperature, shows a satisfactory accuracy which is less than 5% for the whole voltage domain.

Keywords: LDMOS, MATLAB, RESURF, modeling, TCAD.

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33 Electrotechnology for Silicon Refining: Plasma Generator and Arc Furnace: Installations and Theoretical Base

Authors: Ashot Navasardian, Mariam Vardanian, Vladik Vardanian

Abstract:

The photovoltaic and the semiconductor industries are in growth and it is necessary to supply a large amount of silicon to maintain this growth. Since silicon is still the best material for the manufacturing of solar cells and semiconductor components so the pure silicon like solar grade and semiconductor grade materials are demanded. There are two main routes for silicon production: metallurgical and chemical. In this article, we reviewed the electrotecnological installations and systems for semiconductor manufacturing. The main task is to design the installation which can produce SOG Silicon from river sand by one work unit.

Keywords: Metallurgical grade silicon, solar grade silicon, impurity, refining, plasma.

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32 Further Investigation of Elastic Scattering of 16O on 12C at Different Energies

Authors: Sh. Hamada, N. Burtebayev, N. Amangeldi, A. Amar

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to study the elastic transfer phenomenon which takes place in the elastic scattering of 16O on 12C at energies near the Coulomb barrier. Where, the angular distribution decrease steadily with increasing the scattering angle, then the cross section will increase at backward angles due to the α-transfer process. This reaction was also studied at different energies for tracking the nuclear rainbow phenomenon. The experimental data of the angular distribution at these energies were compared to the calculation predictions. The optical potential codes such as SPIVAL and Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWUCK5) were used in analysis.

Keywords: Transfer reaction, DWBA, Elastic Scattering, Optical Potential Codes.

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31 Gas Permeation Behavior of Single and Mixed Gas Components Using an Asymmetric Ceramic Membrane

Authors: Ngozi Nwogu, Edward Gobina

Abstract:

A dip-coating process has been used to form an asymmetric silica membrane with improved membrane performance and reproducibility. First, we deposited repeatedly silica on top of a commercial alumina membrane support to improve its structural make up. The membrane is further processed under clean room conditions to avoid dust impurity and subsequent drying in an oven for high thermal, chemical and physical stability. The resulting asymmetric membrane exhibits a gradual change in the membrane layer thickness. Compared to the support, the dual-layer process improves the gas flow rates. For the scientific applications for natural gas purification, CO2, CH4 and H2 gas flow rates were. In addition, the membrane selectively separated hydrogen.

Keywords: Gas permeation, Silica membrane, separation factor, membrane layer thickness.

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