**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**1808

# Search results for: Constant correlation

##### 1808 Medical Image Watermark and Tamper Detection Using Constant Correlation Spread Spectrum Watermarking

**Authors:**
Peter U. Eze,
P. Udaya,
Robin J. Evans

**Abstract:**

Data hiding can be achieved by Steganography or invisible digital watermarking. For digital watermarking, both accurate retrieval of the embedded watermark and the integrity of the cover image are important. Medical image security in Teleradiology is one of the applications where the embedded patient record needs to be extracted with accuracy as well as the medical image integrity verified. In this research paper, the Constant Correlation Spread Spectrum digital watermarking for medical image tamper detection and accurate embedded watermark retrieval is introduced. In the proposed method, a watermark bit from a patient record is spread in a medical image sub-block such that the correlation of all watermarked sub-blocks with a spreading code, W, would have a constant value, *p.* The constant correlation *p*, spreading code, W and the size of the sub-blocks constitute the secret key. Tamper detection is achieved by flagging any sub-block whose correlation value deviates by more than a small value, ℇ, from *p*. The major features of our new scheme include: (1) Improving watermark detection accuracy for high-pixel depth medical images by reducing the Bit Error Rate (BER) to Zero and (2) block-level tamper detection in a single computational process with simultaneous watermark detection, thereby increasing utility with the same computational cost.

**Keywords:**
Constant correlation,
medical image,
spread spectrum,
tamper detection,
watermarking.

##### 1807 Prediction of Henry's Constant in Polymer Solutions using the Peng-Robinson Equation of State

**Authors:**
Somayeh Tourani,
Alireza Behvandi

**Abstract:**

The peng-Robinson (PR), a cubic equation of state (EoS), is extended to polymers by using a single set of energy (A1, A2, A3) and co-volume (b) parameters per polymer fitted to experimental volume data. Excellent results for the volumetric behavior of the 11 polymer up to 2000 bar pressure are obtained. The EoS is applied to the correlation and prediction of Henry constants in polymer solutions comprising three polymer and many nonpolar and polar solvents, including supercritical gases. The correlation achieved with two adjustable parameter is satisfactory compared with the experimental data. As a result, the present work provides a simple and useful model for the prediction of Henry's constant for polymer containing systems including those containing polar, nonpolar and supercritical fluids.

**Keywords:**
Equation of state,
Henry's constant,
Peng-Robinson,
polymer solution.

##### 1806 Determine of Constant Coefficients to RelateTotal Dissolved Solids to Electrical Conductivity

**Authors:**
M. Siosemarde,
F. Kave,
E. Pazira,
H. Sedghi,
S. J. Ghaderi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
constant coefficients,
electrical conductivity,
Khuzestan plain and total dissolved solids.

##### 1805 Choosing between the Regression Correlation, the Rank Correlation, and the Correlation Curve

**Authors:**
Roger L Goodwin

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bayesian estimation,
regression model,
rank
statistics,
correlation,
correlation curve.

##### 1804 A Dynamic Time-Lagged Correlation based Method to Learn Multi-Time Delay Gene Networks

**Authors:**
Ankit Agrawal,
Ankush Mittal

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Activators,
correlation,
dynamic time-lagged
correlation based method,
inhibitors,
multi-time delay gene network.

##### 1803 Pulse Generator with Constant Pulse Width

**Authors:**
Hanif Che Lah,
Wee Leong Son,
Rozita Borhan

**Abstract:**

This paper is about method to produce a stable and accurate constant output pulse width regardless of the amplitude, period and pulse width variation of the input signal source. The pulse generated is usually being used in numerous applications as the reference input source to other circuits in the system. Therefore, it is crucial to produce a clean and constant pulse width to make sure the system is working accurately as expected.

**Keywords:**
Amplitude,
Constant Pulse Width,
Frequency
Divider,
Pulse Generator.

##### 1802 Research on the Correlation of the Fluctuating Density Gradient of the Compressible Flows

**Authors:**
Yasuo Obikane

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Turbulence Modeling ,
Density Gradient Correlation,
Compressible

##### 1801 Heat transfer Characteristics of Fin-and-Tube heat Exchanger under Condensing Conditions

**Authors:**
Abdenour Bourabaa,
Mohamed Saighi,
Said El Metenani

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Fin efficiency,
heat and mass transfer,
dehumidifying
conditions,
finned tube heat exchangers.

##### 1800 Physical Parameter Based Compact Expression for Propagation Constant of SWCNT Interconnects

**Authors:**
Kollarama Subramanyam,
Nisha Kuruvilla,
J. P. Raina

**Abstract:**

Novel compact expressions for propagation constant (γ) of SWCNT and bundled SWCNTs interconnect, in terms of physical parameters such as length, operating frequency and diameter of CNTs is proposed in this work. These simplified expressions enable physical insight and accurate estimation of signal attenuation level and its phase change at any length for a particular frequency. The proposed expressions are validated against SPICE simulated results of lumped as well as distributed equivalent electrical RLC nets of CNT interconnect. These expressions also help us to evaluate the cut off frequencies of SWCNTs for different interconnect lengths.

**Keywords:**
Attenuation constant,
Bundled SWCNT,
CNT interconnects,
Propagation Constant.

##### 1799 Ignition Delay Correlation for a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fuelled with Automotive Diesel and Water Diesel Emulsion

**Authors:**
K.Alkhulaifi,
M. Hamdalla

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
gnition delay correlation,
water diesel emulsion,
direct injection diesel engine

##### 1798 Computing Center Conditions for Non-analytic Vector Fields with Constant Angular Speed

**Authors:**
Li Feng

**Abstract:**

We investigate the planar quasi-septic non-analytic systems which have a center-focus equilibrium at the origin and whose angular speed is constant. The system could be changed into an analytic system by two transformations, with the help of computer algebra system MATHEMATICA, the conditions of uniform isochronous center are obtained.

**Keywords:**
Non-analytic,
center–focus problem,
Lyapunov constant,
uniform isochronous center.

##### 1797 The Photon-Drag Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with a Parabolic Potential

**Authors:**
Hoang Van Ngoc,
Nguyen Thu Huong,
Nguyen Quang Bau

**Abstract:**

Using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with acoustic phonon, the density of the constant current associated with the drag of charge carriers in cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field and a laser radiation field is calculated. The density of the constant current is studied as a function of the frequency of electromagnetic wave, as well as the frequency of laser field and the basic elements of quantum wire with a parabolic potential. The analytic expression of the constant current density is numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wires GaAs/AlGaAs to show the dependence of the constant current density on above parameters. All these results of quantum wire compared with bulk semiconductors and superlattices to show the difference.

**Keywords:**
Photon-drag effect,
constant current density,
quantum wire,
parabolic potential.

##### 1796 Mass Transfer of Palm Kernel Oil under Supercritical Conditions

**Authors:**
I. Norhuda,
A. K. Mohd Omar

**Abstract:**

The purpose of the study was to determine the amount of Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) extracted from a packed bed of palm kernels in a supercritical fluid extractor using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) as an environmental friendly solvent. Further, the study sought to ascertain the values of the overall mass transfer coefficient (K) of PKO evaluation through a mass transfer model, at constant temperature of 50 °C, 60 °C, and 70 °C and pressures range from 27.6 MPa, 34.5 MPa, 41.4 MPa and 48.3 MPa respectively. Finally, the study also seeks to demonstrate the application of the overall mass transfer coefficient values in relation to temperature and pressure. The overall mass transfer coefficient was found to be dependent pressure at each constant temperature of 50 °C, 60 °C and 70 °C. The overall mass transfer coefficient for PKO in a packed bed of palm kernels was found to be in the range of 1.21X 10-4 m min-1 to 1.72 X 10-4 m min-1 for a constant temperature of 50 °C and in the range of 2.02 X 10-4 m min-1 to 2.43 X 10-4 m min-1 for a constant temperature of 60 °C. Similar increasing trend of the overall mass transfer coefficient from 1.77 X 10-4 m min-1 to 3.64 X 10-4 m min-1 was also observed at constant temperature of 70 °C within the same pressure range from 27.6 MPa to 48.3 MPa.

**Keywords:**
Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient (D),
Supercritical
Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2),
Palm Kernel Oil (PKO).

##### 1795 Analysis of Distribution of Thrust, Torque and Efficiency of a Constant Chord, Constant Pitch C.R.P. Fan by H.E.S. Method

**Authors:**
Morteza Abbaszadeh,
Parvin Nikpoorparizi,
Mina Shahrooz

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
C.F.D Test,
Counter Rotating Propeller,
H.E.S. Method,
R.S.M. Method

##### 1794 Dielectric Studies on Nano Zirconium Dioxide Synthesized through Co-Precipitation Process

**Authors:**
K. Geethalakshmi,
T. Prabhakaran,
J. Hemalatha

**Abstract:**

Nano sized zirconium dioxide in monoclinic phase (m-ZrO2) has been synthesized in pure form through co-precipitation processing at different calcination temperatures and has been characterized by several techniques such as XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis Spectroscopy and SEM. The dielectric and capacitance values of the pelletized samples have been examined at room temperature as the functions of frequency. The higher dielectric constant value of the sample having larger grain size proves the strong influence of grain size on the dielectric constant.

**Keywords:**
capacitance,
dielectric constant,
m-ZrO2,
nano
zirconia

##### 1793 Leisure and Perceived Wellness of Nursing Students: A Canonical Correlation Analysis

**Authors:**
Ming-Tsang Wu

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Leisure,
perceived wellness.

##### 1792 Correlation to Predict Thermal Performance According to Working Fluids of Vertical Closed-Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe

**Authors:**
Niti Kammuang-lue,
Kritsada On-ai,
Phrut Sakulchangsatjatai,
Pradit Terdtoon

**Abstract:**

The objectives of this paper are to investigate effects of dimensionless numbers on thermal performance of the vertical closed-loop pulsating heat pipe (VCLPHP) and to establish a correlation to predict the thermal performance of the VCLPHP. The CLPHPs were made of long copper capillary tubes with inner diameters of 1.50, 1.78, and 2.16mm and bent into 26 turns. Then, both ends were connected together to form a loop. The evaporator, adiabatic, and condenser sections length were equal to 50 and 150 mm. R123, R141b, acetone, ethanol, and water were chosen as variable working fluids with constant filling ratio of 50% by total volume. Inlet temperature of heating medium and adiabatic section temperature was constantly controlled at 80 and 50^{o}C, respectively. Thermal performance was represented in a term of Kutateladze number (*Ku*). It can be concluded that when Prandtl number of liquid working fluid (*Pr _{l}*), and Karman number (

*Ka*) increases, thermal performance increases. On contrary, when Bond number (

*Bo*), Jacob number (

*Ja*), and Aspect ratio (

*L*) increases, thermal performance decreases. Moreover, the correlation to predict more precise thermal performance has been successfully established by analyzing on all dimensionless numbers that have effect on the thermal performance of the VCLPHP.

_{e}/D_{i}**Keywords:**
Vertical closed-loop pulsating heat pipe,
working fluid,
thermal performance,
dimensionless parameter.

##### 1791 Modeling and Simulation of a Serial Production Line with Constant Work-In-Process

**Authors:**
Mehmet Savsar

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Production line simulator,
Push-pull system,
JIT
system,
Constant WIP,
Machine failures.

##### 1790 On Quasi Conformally Flat LP-Sasakian Manifolds with a Coefficient α

**Authors:**
Jay Prakash Singh

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
LP-Sasakian manifolds,
coefficient α,
quasi conformal
curvature tensor,
concircular vector field,
torse forming vector field,
η-Einstein manifold.

##### 1789 Deep Web Content Mining

**Authors:**
Shohreh Ajoudanian,
Mohammad Davarpanah Jazi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Content mining,
complex matching,
correlation
mining,
information extraction.

##### 1788 Approximations to the Distribution of the Sample Correlation Coefficient

**Authors:**
John N. Haddad,
Serge B. Provost

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Sample correlation coefficient,
density approximation,
confidence intervals.

##### 1787 On the Effectivity of Different Pseudo-Noise and Orthogonal Sequences for Speech Encryption from Correlation Properties

**Authors:**
V. Anil Kumar,
Abhijit Mitra,
S. R. Mahadeva Prasanna

**Abstract:**

We analyze the effectivity of different pseudo noise (PN) and orthogonal sequences for encrypting speech signals in terms of perceptual intelligence. Speech signal can be viewed as sequence of correlated samples and each sample as sequence of bits. The residual intelligibility of the speech signal can be reduced by removing the correlation among the speech samples. PN sequences have random like properties that help in reducing the correlation among speech samples. The mean square aperiodic auto-correlation (MSAAC) and the mean square aperiodic cross-correlation (MSACC) measures are used to test the randomness of the PN sequences. Results of the investigation show the effectivity of large Kasami sequences for this purpose among many PN sequences.

**Keywords:**
Speech encryption,
pseudo-noise codes,
maximallength,
Gold,
Barker,
Kasami,
Walsh-Hadamard,
autocorrelation,
crosscorrelation,
figure of merit.

##### 1786 The Correlation between Peer Aggression and Peer Victimization: Are Aggressors Victims Too?

**Authors:**
Glenn M. Calaguas

**Abstract:**

To investigate the possible correlation between peer aggression and peer victimization, 148 sixth-graders were asked to respond to the Reduced Aggression and Victimization Scales (RAVS). RAVS measures the frequency of reporting aggressive behaviors or of being victimized during the previous week prior to the survey. The scales are composed of six items each. Each point represents one instance of aggression or victimization. Specifically, the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient (PMCC) was used to determine the correlations between the scores of the sixthgraders in the two scales, both in individual items and total scores. Positive correlations were established and correlations were significant at the 0.01 levels.

**Keywords:**
correlation,
peer aggression,
peer victimization,
sixth-graders.

##### 1785 Multiscale Modelization of Multilayered Bi-Dimensional Soils

**Authors:**
I. Hosni,
L. Bennaceur Farah,
N. Saber,
R Bennaceur

**Abstract:**

Soil moisture content is a key variable in many environmental sciences. Even though it represents a small proportion of the liquid freshwater on Earth, it modulates interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere, thereby influencing climate and weather. Accurate modeling of the above processes depends on the ability to provide a proper spatial characterization of soil moisture. The measurement of soil moisture content allows assessment of soil water resources in the field of hydrology and agronomy. The second parameter in interaction with the radar signal is the geometric structure of the soil. Most traditional electromagnetic models consider natural surfaces as single scale zero mean stationary Gaussian random processes. Roughness behavior is characterized by statistical parameters like the Root Mean Square (RMS) height and the correlation length. Then, the main problem is that the agreement between experimental measurements and theoretical values is usually poor due to the large variability of the correlation function, and as a consequence, backscattering models have often failed to predict correctly backscattering. In this study, surfaces are considered as band-limited fractal random processes corresponding to a superposition of a finite number of one-dimensional Gaussian process each one having a spatial scale. Multiscale roughness is characterized by two parameters, the first one is proportional to the RMS height, and the other one is related to the fractal dimension. Soil moisture is related to the complex dielectric constant. This multiscale description has been adapted to two-dimensional profiles using the bi-dimensional wavelet transform and the Mallat algorithm to describe more correctly natural surfaces. We characterize the soil surfaces and sub-surfaces by a three layers geo-electrical model. The upper layer is described by its dielectric constant, thickness, a multiscale bi-dimensional surface roughness model by using the wavelet transform and the Mallat algorithm, and volume scattering parameters. The lower layer is divided into three fictive layers separated by an assumed plane interface. These three layers were modeled by an effective medium characterized by an apparent effective dielectric constant taking into account the presence of air pockets in the soil. We have adopted the 2D multiscale three layers small perturbations model including, firstly air pockets in the soil sub-structure, and then a vegetable canopy in the soil surface structure, that is to simulate the radar backscattering. A sensitivity analysis of backscattering coefficient dependence on multiscale roughness and new soil moisture has been performed. Later, we proposed to change the dielectric constant of the multilayer medium because it takes into account the different moisture values of each layer in the soil. A sensitivity analysis of the backscattering coefficient, including the air pockets in the volume structure with respect to the multiscale roughness parameters and the apparent dielectric constant, was carried out. Finally, we proposed to study the behavior of the backscattering coefficient of the radar on a soil having a vegetable layer in its surface structure.

**Keywords:**
Multiscale,
bi-dimensional,
wavelets,
SPM,
backscattering,
multilayer,
air pockets,
vegetable.

##### 1784 Determination of Unsaturated Soil Permeability Based on Geometric Factor Development of Constant Discharge Model

**Authors:**
A. Rifa’i,
Y. Takeshita,
M. Komatsu

**Abstract:**

*k*) in both saturated and unsaturated conditions to solve this problem. More accurate and efficient field testing procedure is required to obtain permeability data that present the field condition. One of the field permeability test equipment is Constant Discharge procedure to determine the permeability coefficient. Necessary adjustments of the Constant Discharge procedure are needed to be determined especially the value of geometric factor (

*F*) to improve the corresponding value of permeability coefficient. The value of

*k*will be correlated with the value of volumetric water content (

*θ*) of an unsaturated condition until saturated condition. The principle procedure of Constant Discharge model provides a constant flow in permeameter tube that flows into the ground until the water level in the tube becomes constant. Constant water level in the tube is highly dependent on the tube dimension. Every tube dimension has a shape factor called the geometric factor that affects the result of the test. Geometric factor value is defined as the characteristic of shape and radius of the tube. This research has modified the geometric factor parameters by using empty material tube method so that the geometric factor will change. Saturation level is monitored by using soil moisture sensor. The field test results were compared with the results of laboratory tests to validate the results of the test. Field and laboratory test results of empty tube material method have an average difference of 3.33 x 10

^{-4}cm/sec. The test results showed that modified geometric factor provides more accurate data. The improved methods of constant discharge procedure provide more relevant results.

**Keywords:**
Constant discharge,
geometric factor,
permeability coefficient,
unsaturated soils.

##### 1783 Constant Factor Approximation Algorithm for p-Median Network Design Problem with Multiple Cable Types

**Authors:**
Chaghoub Soraya,
Zhang Xiaoyan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Approximation algorithms,
buy-at-bulk,
combinatorial
optimization,
network design,
p-median.

##### 1782 Mixed Convection Heat Transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid in Vertical Tube

**Authors:**
Farhad Hekmatipour,
M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi,
Farzad Hekmatipour

**Abstract:**

In this paper, experiments were conducted to investigate the heat transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid laminar flow in vertical smooth and microfin tubes as the surface temperature is constant. The effect of adding the nanoparticle to base fluid and Richardson number on the heat transfer enhancement is investigated as Richardson number increases from 0.1 to 0.7. The experimental results demonstrate that the combined forced-natural convection heat transfer rate may be improved significantly with an increment of mass nanoparticle concentration from 0% to 1.5%. In this experiment, a correlation is also proposed to predict the mixed convection heat transfer rate of CuO-HTO nanofluid flow. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 14%. Moreover, a correlation is presented to estimate the Nusselt number inside vertical smooth and microfin tubes as Rayleigh number is between 2´105 and 6.8´106 with the maximum deviation of 12%.

**Keywords:**
Nanofluid,
heat transfer oil,
mixed convection,
vertical tube,
laminar flow.

##### 1781 Constructive Proof of Tychonoff’s Fixed Point Theorem for Sequentially Locally Non-Constant Functions

**Authors:**
Yasuhito Tanaka

**Abstract:**

We present a constructive proof of Tychonoff’s fixed point theorem in a locally convex space for uniformly continuous and sequentially locally non-constant functions.

**Keywords:**
sequentially locally non-constant functions,
Tychonoff’s
fixed point theorem,
constructive mathematics.

##### 1780 The Fatigue Damage Accumulation on Systems of Concentrators

**Authors:**
Alexander Urbach,
Mukharbij Banov,
Vladislav Turko

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Correlation analysis,
fatigue damage accumulation,
local area,
mathematical model.

##### 1779 Development of In Situ Permeability Test Using Constant Discharge Method for Sandy Soils

**Authors:**
A. Rifa’i,
Y. Takeshita,
M. Komatsu

**Abstract:**

The post-rain puddles problem that occurs in the first yard of Prambanan Temple are often disturbing visitor activity. A poodle layer and a drainage system had ever built to avoid such a problem, but puddles still did not stop appearing after rain. Permeability parameter needs to be determined by using a simpler procedure to find exact method of solution. The instrument modelling was proposed according to the development of field permeability testing instrument. This experiment used a proposed Constant Discharge method. Constant Discharge method used a tube poured with constant water flow from unsaturated until saturated soil condition. Volumetric water content (θ) were monitored by soil moisture measurement device. The results were correlations between k and θ which were drawn by numerical approach from Van Genutchen model. Parameters θr optimum value obtained from the test was at very dry soil. Coefficient of permeability with a density of 19.8 kN/m3 for unsaturated conditions was in range of 3 x 10-6 cm/sec (Sr=68%) until 9.98 x 10-4 cm/sec (Sr=82%). The equipment and testing procedure developed in this research was quite effective, simple and easy to be implemented on determining field soil permeability coefficient value of sandy soil. Using constant discharge method in proposed permeability test, value of permeability coefficient under unsaturated condition can be obtained without establish soil water characteristic curve.

**Keywords:**
Constant discharge method,
in situ permeability test,
sandy soil,
unsaturated conditions.