Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 150

Search results for: Computer Simulation

60 Applications of Prediction and Identification Using Adaptive DCMAC Neural Networks

Authors: Yu-Lin Liao, Ya-Fu Peng

Abstract:

An adaptive dynamic cerebellar model articulation controller (DCMAC) neural network used for solving the prediction and identification problem is proposed in this paper. The proposed DCMAC has superior capability to the conventional cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) neural network in efficient learning mechanism, guaranteed system stability and dynamic response. The recurrent network is embedded in the DCMAC by adding feedback connections in the association memory space so that the DCMAC captures the dynamic response, where the feedback units act as memory elements. The dynamic gradient descent method is adopted to adjust DCMAC parameters on-line. Moreover, the analytical method based on a Lyapunov function is proposed to determine the learning-rates of DCMAC so that the variable optimal learning-rates are derived to achieve most rapid convergence of identifying error. Finally, the adaptive DCMAC is applied in two computer simulations. Simulation results show that accurate identifying response and superior dynamic performance can be obtained because of the powerful on-line learning capability of the proposed DCMAC.

Keywords: adaptive, cerebellar model articulation controller, CMAC, prediction, identification

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59 Non-Sensitive Solutions in Multi-Objective Optimization of a Solar Photovoltaic/Thermal(PV/T) Air Collector

Authors: F. Sarhaddi, S. Farahat, M .A. Alavi, F. Sobhnamayan

Abstract:

In this paper, an attempt has been made to obtain nonsensitive solutions in the multi-objective optimization of a photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) air collector. The selected objective functions are overall energy efficiency and exergy efficiency. Improved thermal, electrical and exergy models are used to calculate the thermal and electrical parameters, overall energy efficiency, exergy components and exergy efficiency of a typical PV/T air collector. A computer simulation program is also developed. The results of numerical simulation are in good agreement with the experimental measurements noted in the previous literature. Finally, multi-objective optimization has been carried out under given climatic, operating and design parameters. The optimized ranges of inlet air velocity, duct depth and the objective functions in optimal Pareto front have been obtained. Furthermore, non-sensitive solutions from energy or exergy point of view in the results of multi-objective optimization have been shown.

Keywords: Solar photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) air collector, Overall energy efficiency, Exergy efficiency, Multi-objectiveoptimization, Sensitivity analysis.

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58 Modeling of Bio Scaffolds: Structural and Fluid Transport Characterization

Authors: Sahba Sadir, M. R. A. Kadir, A. Öchsner, M. N. Harun

Abstract:

Scaffolds play a key role in tissue engineering and can be produced in many different ways depending on the applications and the materials used. Most researchers used an experimental trialand- error approach into new biomaterials but computer simulation applied to tissue engineering can offer a more exhaustive approach to test and screen out biomaterials. This paper develops the model of scaffolds and Computational Fluid Dynamics that show the value of computer simulations in determining the influence of the geometrical scaffold parameter porosity, pore size and shape on the permeability of scaffolds, magnitude of velocity, drop pressure, shear stress distribution and level and the proper design of the geometry of the scaffold. This creates a need for more advanced studies that include aspects of dynamic conditions of a micro fluid passing through the scaffold were characterized for tissue engineering applications and differentiation of tissues within scaffolds.

Keywords: Scaffold engineering, Tissue engineering, Cellularstructure, Biomaterial, Computational fluid dynamics.

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57 Simulation of the Pedestrian Flow in the Tawaf Area Using the Social Force Model

Authors: Zarita Zainuddin, Kumatha Thinakaran, Mohammed Shuaib

Abstract:

In today-s modern world, the number of vehicles is increasing on the road. This causes more people to choose walking instead of traveling using vehicles. Thus, proper planning of pedestrians- paths is important to ensure the safety of pedestrians in a walking area. Crowd dynamics study the pedestrians- behavior and modeling pedestrians- movement to ensure safety in their walking paths. To date, many models have been designed to ease pedestrians- movement. The Social Force Model is widely used among researchers as it is simpler and provides better simulation results. We will discuss the problem regarding the ritual of circumambulating the Ka-aba (Tawaf) where the entrances to this area are usually congested which worsens during the Hajj season. We will use the computer simulation model SimWalk which is based on the Social Force Model to simulate the movement of pilgrims in the Tawaf area. We will first discuss the effect of uni and bi-directional flows at the gates. We will then restrict certain gates to the area as the entrances only and others as exits only. From the simulations, we will study the effect of the distance of other entrances from the beginning line and their effects on the duration of pilgrims circumambulate Ka-aba. We will distribute the pilgrims at the different entrances evenly so that the congestion at the entrances can be reduced. We would also discuss the various locations and designs of barriers at the exits and its effect on the time taken for the pilgrims to exit the Tawaf area.

Keywords: circumambulation, Ka'aba, pedestrian flow, SFM, Tawaf , entrance, exit

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56 Simulating Discrete Time Model Reference Adaptive Control System with Great Initial Error

Authors: Bubaker M. F. Bushofa, Abdel Hafez A. Azab

Abstract:

This article is based on the technique which is called Discrete Parameter Tracking (DPT). First introduced by A. A. Azab [8] which is applicable for less order reference model. The order of the reference model is (n-l) and n is the number of the adjustable parameters in the physical plant. The technique utilizes a modified gradient method [9] where the knowledge of the exact order of the nonadaptive system is not required, so, as to eliminate the identification problem. The applicability of the mentioned technique (DPT) was examined through the solution of several problems. This article introduces the solution of a third order system with three adjustable parameters, controlled according to second order reference model. The adjustable parameters have great initial error which represent condition. Computer simulations for the solution and analysis are provided to demonstrate the simplicity and feasibility of the technique.

Keywords: Adaptive Control System, Discrete Parameter Tracking, Discrete Time Model.

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55 Virtual Laboratory for Learning Biology – A Preliminary Investigation

Authors: Murniza Muhamad, Halimah Badioze Zaman, Azlina Ahmad

Abstract:

This study aims to conduct a preliminary investigation to determine the topic to be focused in developing Virtual Laboratory For Biology (VLab-Bio). Samples involved in answering the questionnaire are form five students (equivalent to A-Level) and biology teachers. Time and economical resources for the setting up and construction of scientific laboratories can be solved with the adaptation of virtual laboratories as an educational tool. Thus, it is hoped that the proposed virtual laboratory will help students to learn the abstract concepts in biology. Findings show that the difficult topic chosen is Cell Division and the learning objective to be focused in developing the virtual lab is “Describe the application of knowledge on mitosis in cloning".

Keywords: biology education, computer simulation, virtual laboratory, virtual reality

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54 Computer Simulations of an Augmented Automatic Choosing Control Using Automatic Choosing Functions of Gradient Optimization Type

Authors: Toshinori Nawata

Abstract:

In this paper we consider a nonlinear feedback control called augmented automatic choosing control (AACC) using the automatic choosing functions of gradient optimization type for nonlinear systems. Constant terms which arise from sectionwise linearization of a given nonlinear system are treated as coefficients of a stable zero dynamics. Parameters included in the control are suboptimally selected by minimizing the Hamiltonian with the aid of the genetic algorithm. This approach is applied to a field excitation control problem of power system to demonstrate the splendidness of the AACC. Simulation results show that the new controller can improve performance remarkably well.

Keywords: augmented automatic choosing control, nonlinear control, genetic algorithm, zero dynamics.

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53 Multihop Cooperative Transmissions for Asymmetric Traffic Accommodation in CDMA/FDD Cellular Networks

Authors: Kazuo Mori, Takeo Saga, Katsuhiro Naito, Hideo Kobayashi

Abstract:

The asymmetric trafc between uplink and downlink over recent mobile communication systems has been conspicuous because of providing new communication services. This paper proposes an asymmetric trafc accommodation scheme adopting a multihop cooperative transmission technique for CDMA/FDD cellular networks. The proposed scheme employs the cooperative transmission technique in the already proposed downlink multihop transmissions for the accommodation of the asymmetric trafc, which utilizes the vacant uplink band for the downlink relay transmissions. The proposed scheme reduces the transmission power at the downlink relay transmissions and then suppresses the interference to the uplink communications, and thus, improves the uplink performance. The proposed scheme is evaluated by computer simulation and the results show that it can achieve better throughput performance.

Keywords: asymmetric traffic, cooperative transmissions, multihop transmissions, CDMA, FDD, cellular systems

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52 Capacitor Placement in Radial Distribution System for Loss Reduction Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

Authors: R. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method which applies an artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) for capacitor placement in distribution systems with an objective of improving the voltage profile and reduction of power loss. The ABC algorithm is a new population based meta heuristic approach inspired by intelligent foraging behavior of honeybee swarm. The advantage of ABC algorithm is that it does not require external parameters such as cross over rate and mutation rate as in case of genetic algorithm and differential evolution and it is hard to determine these parameters in prior. The other advantage is that the global search ability in the algorithm is implemented by introducing neighborhood source production mechanism which is a similar to mutation process. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out on 69-bus system and compared the results with the other approach available in the literature. The proposed method has outperformed the other methods in terms of the quality of solution and computational efficiency.

Keywords: Distribution system, Capacitor Placement, Loss reduction, Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm.

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51 Accurate And Efficient Global Approximation using Adaptive Polynomial RSM for Complex Mechanical and Vehicular Performance Models

Authors: Y. Z. Wu, Z. Dong, S. K. You

Abstract:

Global approximation using metamodel for complex mathematical function or computer model over a large variable domain is often needed in sensibility analysis, computer simulation, optimal control, and global design optimization of complex, multiphysics systems. To overcome the limitations of the existing response surface (RS), surrogate or metamodel modeling methods for complex models over large variable domain, a new adaptive and regressive RS modeling method using quadratic functions and local area model improvement schemes is introduced. The method applies an iterative and Latin hypercube sampling based RS update process, divides the entire domain of design variables into multiple cells, identifies rougher cells with large modeling error, and further divides these cells along the roughest dimension direction. A small number of additional sampling points from the original, expensive model are added over the small and isolated rough cells to improve the RS model locally until the model accuracy criteria are satisfied. The method then combines local RS cells to regenerate the global RS model with satisfactory accuracy. An effective RS cells sorting algorithm is also introduced to improve the efficiency of model evaluation. Benchmark tests are presented and use of the new metamodeling method to replace complex hybrid electrical vehicle powertrain performance model in vehicle design optimization and optimal control are discussed.

Keywords: Global approximation, polynomial response surface, domain decomposition, domain combination, multiphysics modeling, hybrid powertrain optimization

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50 Reconfigurable Circularly Polarized Compact Short Backfire Antenna

Authors: M. Javid Asad, M. Zafrullah, Mian Shahzad Iqbal

Abstract:

In this research paper, a slotted coaxial line fed cross dipole excitation structure for short backfire antenna is proposed and developed to achieve reconfigurable circular polarization. The cross dipole, which is fed by the slotted coaxial line, consists of two orthogonal dipoles. The dipoles are mounted on the outer conductor of the coaxial line. A unique technique is developed to generate reconfigurable circular polarization using cross dipole configuration. The sub-reflector is supported by the feed line, thus requiring no extra support. The antenna is developed on elliptical ground plane with dielectric rim making antenna compact. It is demonstrated that cross dipole excited short backfire antenna can achieve voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) bandwidth of 14.28% for 2:1 VSWR, axial ratio of 0.2 dB with axial ratio (≤ 3dB) bandwidth of 2.14% and a gain of more than 12 dBi. The experimental results for the designed antenna structure are in close agreement with computer simulations.

Keywords: Circularly polarized, compact, short backfireantenna.

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49 Computer Models of the Vestibular Head Tilt Response, and Their Relationship to EVestG and Meniere's Disease

Authors: Daniel Heibert, Brian Lithgow, Kerry Hourigan

Abstract:

This paper attempts to explain response components of Electrovestibulography (EVestG) using a computer simulation of a three-canal model of the vestibular system. EVestG is a potentially new diagnostic method for Meniere's disease. EVestG is a variant of Electrocochleography (ECOG), which has been used as a standard method for diagnosing Meniere's disease - it can be used to measure the SP/AP ratio, where an SP/AP ratio greater than 0.4-0.5 is indicative of Meniere-s Disease. In EVestG, an applied head tilt replaces the acoustic stimulus of ECOG. The EVestG output is also an SP/AP type plot, where SP is the summing potential, and AP is the action potential amplitude. AP is thought of as being proportional to the size of a population of afferents in an excitatory neural firing state. A simulation of the fluid volume displacement in the vestibular labyrinth in response to various types of head tilts (ipsilateral, backwards and horizontal rotation) was performed, and a simple neural model based on these simulations developed. The simple neural model shows that the change in firing rate of the utricle is much larger in magnitude than the change in firing rates of all three semi-circular canals following a head tilt (except in a horizontal rotation). The data suggests that the change in utricular firing rate is a minimum 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than changes in firing rates of the canals during ipsilateral/backward tilts. Based on these results, the neural response recorded by the electrode in our EVestG recordings is expected to be dominated by the utricle in ipsilateral/backward tilts (It is important to note that the effect of the saccule and efferent signals were not taken into account in this model). If the utricle response dominates the EVestG recordings as the modeling results suggest, then EVestG has the potential to diagnose utricular hair cell damage due to a viral infection (which has been cited as one possible cause of Meniere's Disease).

Keywords: Diagnostic, endolymph hydrops, Meniere's disease, modeling.

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48 The Decentralized Nonlinear Controller of Robot Manipulator with External Load Compensation

Authors: Sun Lim, Il-Kyun Jung

Abstract:

This paper describes a newly designed decentralized nonlinear control strategy to control a robot manipulator. Based on the concept of the nonlinear state feedback theory and decentralized concept is developed to improve the drawbacks in previous works concerned with complicate intelligent control and low cost effective sensor. The control methodology is derived in the sense of Lyapunov theorem so that the stability of the control system is guaranteed. The decentralized algorithm does not require other joint angle and velocity information. Individual Joint controller is implemented using a digital processor with nearly actuator to make it possible to achieve good dynamics and modular. Computer simulation result has been conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme under the occurrence of possible uncertainties and different reference trajectories. The merit of the proposed control system is indicated in comparison with a classical control system.

Keywords: Robot manipulator control, nonlinear controller, Lyapunov based stability, Interconnection compensation.

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47 In silico Simulations for DNA Shuffling Experiments

Authors: Luciana Montera

Abstract:

DNA shuffling is a powerful method used for in vitro evolute molecules with specific functions and has application in areas such as, for example, pharmaceutical, medical and agricultural research. The success of such experiments is dependent on a variety of parameters and conditions that, sometimes, can not be properly pre-established. Here, two computational models predicting DNA shuffling results is presented and their use and results are evaluated against an empirical experiment. The in silico and in vitro results show agreement indicating the importance of these two models and motivating the study and development of new models.

Keywords: Computer simulation, DNA shuffling, in silico andin vitro comparison.

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46 Avoiding Catastrophic Forgetting by a Dual-Network Memory Model Using a Chaotic Neural Network

Authors: Motonobu Hattori

Abstract:

In neural networks, when new patterns are learned by a network, the new information radically interferes with previously stored patterns. This drawback is called catastrophic forgetting or catastrophic interference. In this paper, we propose a biologically inspired neural network model which overcomes this problem. The proposed model consists of two distinct networks: one is a Hopfield type of chaotic associative memory and the other is a multilayer neural network. We consider that these networks correspond to the hippocampus and the neocortex of the brain, respectively. Information given is firstly stored in the hippocampal network with fast learning algorithm. Then the stored information is recalled by chaotic behavior of each neuron in the hippocampal network. Finally, it is consolidated in the neocortical network by using pseudopatterns. Computer simulation results show that the proposed model has much better ability to avoid catastrophic forgetting in comparison with conventional models.

Keywords: catastrophic forgetting, chaotic neural network, complementary learning systems, dual-network

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45 Design and Trajectory Planning of Bipedal Walking Robot with Minimum Sufficient Actuation System

Authors: H. Siswoyo Jo, N. Mir-Nasiri, E. Jayamani

Abstract:

This paper presents a new type of mechanism and trajectory planning strategy for bipedal walking robot. The newly designed mechanism is able to improve the performance of bipedal walking robot in terms of energy efficiency and weight reduction by utilizing minimum number of actuators. The usage of parallelogram mechanism eliminates the needs of having an extra actuator at the knee joint. This mechanism works together with the joint space trajectory planning in order to realize straight legged walking which cannot be achieved by conventional inverse kinematics trajectory planning due to the singularity. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is confirmed by computer simulation results.

Keywords: Bipedal robot, Energy efficiency, Straight legged walking, Trajectory planning.

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44 A Dynamic Model of Air Pollution, Health,and Population Growth Using System Dynamics: A Study on Tehran-Iran (With Computer Simulation by the Software Vensim)

Authors: Keyvan Shahgholian, Hamid Hajihosseini

Abstract:

The significance of environmental protection is wellknown in today's world. The execution of any program depends on sufficient knowledge and required familiarity with environment and its pollutants. Taking advantage of a systematic method, as a new science, in environmental planning can solve many problems. In this article, air pollution in Tehran and its relationship with health and population growth have been analyzed using dynamic systems. Firstly, by using casual loops, the relationship between the parameters effective on air pollution in Tehran were taken into consideration, then these casual loops were turned into flow diagrams [6], and finally, they were simulated using the software Vensim [16]in order to conclude what the effect of each parameter will be on air pollution in Tehran in the next 10 years, how changing of one or more parameters influences other parameters, and which parameter among all other parameters requires to be controlled more.

Keywords: Air pollutions, Simulation, System Dynamics, Tehran, Vensim.

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43 A New Distribution Network Reconfiguration Approach using a Tree Model

Authors: E. Dolatdar, S. Soleymani, B. Mozafari

Abstract:

Power loss reduction is one of the main targets in power industry and so in this paper, the problem of finding the optimal configuration of a radial distribution system for loss reduction is considered. Optimal reconfiguration involves the selection of the best set of branches to be opened ,one each from each loop, for reducing resistive line losses , and reliving overloads on feeders by shifting the load to adjacent feeders. However ,since there are many candidate switching combinations in the system ,the feeder reconfiguration is a complicated problem. In this paper a new approach is proposed based on a simple optimum loss calculation by determining optimal trees of the given network. From graph theory a distribution network can be represented with a graph that consists a set of nodes and branches. In fact this problem can be viewed as a problem of determining an optimal tree of the graph which simultaneously ensure radial structure of each candidate topology .In this method the refined genetic algorithm is also set up and some improvements of algorithm are made on chromosome coding. In this paper an implementation of the algorithm presented by [7] is applied by modifying in load flow program and a comparison of this method with the proposed method is employed. In [7] an algorithm is proposed that the choice of the switches to be opened is based on simple heuristic rules. This algorithm reduce the number of load flow runs and also reduce the switching combinations to a fewer number and gives the optimum solution. To demonstrate the validity of these methods computer simulations with PSAT and MATLAB programs are carried out on 33-bus test system. The results show that the performance of the proposed method is better than [7] method and also other methods.

Keywords: Distribution System, Reconfiguration, Loss Reduction , Graph Theory , Optimization , Genetic Algorithm

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42 A New Heuristic Approach for Optimal Network Reconfiguration in Distribution Systems

Authors: R. Srinivasa Rao, S. V. L. Narasimham

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel approach for optimal reconfiguration of radial distribution systems. Optimal reconfiguration involves the selection of the best set of branches to be opened, one each from each loop, such that the resulting radial distribution system gets the desired performance. In this paper an algorithm is proposed based on simple heuristic rules and identified an effective switch status configuration of distribution system for the minimum loss reduction. This proposed algorithm consists of two parts; one is to determine the best switching combinations in all loops with minimum computational effort and the other is simple optimum power loss calculation of the best switching combination found in part one by load flows. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out on 33-bus system. The results show that the performance of the proposed method is better than that of the other methods.

Keywords: Distribution system, network reconfiguration, powerloss reduction, radial network, heuristic technique.

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41 Agent-based Simulation for Blood Glucose Control in Diabetic Patients

Authors: Sh. Yasini, M. B. Naghibi-Sistani, A. Karimpour

Abstract:

This paper employs a new approach to regulate the blood glucose level of type I diabetic patient under an intensive insulin treatment. The closed-loop control scheme incorporates expert knowledge about treatment by using reinforcement learning theory to maintain the normoglycemic average of 80 mg/dl and the normal condition for free plasma insulin concentration in severe initial state. The insulin delivery rate is obtained off-line by using Qlearning algorithm, without requiring an explicit model of the environment dynamics. The implementation of the insulin delivery rate, therefore, requires simple function evaluation and minimal online computations. Controller performance is assessed in terms of its ability to reject the effect of meal disturbance and to overcome the variability in the glucose-insulin dynamics from patient to patient. Computer simulations are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed technique and to show its superiority in controlling hyperglycemia over other existing algorithms

Keywords: Insulin Delivery rate, Q-learning algorithm, Reinforcement learning, Type I diabetes.

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40 Numerical Simulation of Investment Casting of Gold Jewelry: Experiments and Validations

Authors: Marco Actis Grande, Somlak Wannarumon

Abstract:

This paper proposes the numerical simulation of the investment casting of gold jewelry. It aims to study the behavior of fluid flow during mould filling and solidification and to optimize the process parameters, which lead to predict and control casting defects such as gas porosity and shrinkage porosity. A finite difference method, computer simulation software FLOW-3D was used to simulate the jewelry casting process. The simplified model was designed for both numerical simulation and real casting production. A set of sensor acquisitions were allocated on the different positions of the wax tree of the model to detect filling times, while a set of thermocouples were allocated to detect the temperature during casting and cooling. Those detected data were applied to validate the results of the numerical simulation to the results of the real casting. The resulting comparisons signify that the numerical simulation can be used as an effective tool in investment-casting-process optimization and casting-defect prediction.

Keywords: Computer fluid dynamic, Investment casting, Jewelry, Mould filling, Simulation.

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39 Simulation and Optimization of Mechanisms made of Micro-molded Components

Authors: Albert Albers, Pablo Enrique Leslabay

Abstract:

The Institute of Product Development is dealing with the development, design and dimensioning of micro components and systems as a member of the Collaborative Research Centre 499 “Design, Production and Quality Assurance of Molded micro components made of Metallic and Ceramic Materials". Because of technological restrictions in the miniaturization of conventional manufacturing techniques, shape and material deviations cannot be scaled down in the same proportion as the micro parts, rendering components with relatively wide tolerance fields. Systems that include such components should be designed with this particularity in mind, often requiring large clearance. On the end, the output of such systems results variable and prone to dynamical instability. To save production time and resources, every study of these effects should happen early in the product development process and base on computer simulation to avoid costly prototypes. A suitable method is proposed here and exemplary applied to a micro technology demonstrator developed by the CRC499. It consists of a one stage planetary gear train in a sun-planet-ring configuration, with input through the sun gear and output through the carrier. The simulation procedure relies on ordinary Multi Body Simulation methods and subsequently adds other techniques to further investigate details of the system-s behavior and to predict its response. The selection of the relevant parameters and output functions followed the engineering standards for regular sized gear trains. The first step is to quantify the variability and to reveal the most critical points of the system, performed through a whole-mechanism Sensitivity Analysis. Due to the lack of previous knowledge about the system-s behavior, different DOE methods involving small and large amount of experiments were selected to perform the SA. In this particular case the parameter space can be divided into two well defined groups, one of them containing the gear-s profile information and the other the components- spatial location. This has been exploited to explore the different DOE techniques more promptly. A reduced set of parameters is derived for further investigation and to feed the final optimization process, whether as optimization parameters or as external perturbation collective. The 10 most relevant perturbation factors and 4 to 6 prospective variable parameters are considered in a new, simplified model. All of the parameters are affected by the mentioned production variability. The objective functions of interest are based on scalar output-s variability measures, so the problem becomes an optimization under robustness and reliability constrains. The study shows an initial step on the development path of a method to design and optimize complex micro mechanisms composed of wide tolerated elements accounting for the robustness and reliability of the systems- output.

Keywords: Micro molded components, Optimization, Robustness und Reliability, Simulation

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38 Integration of Acceleration Feedback Control with Automatic Generation Control in Intelligent Load Frequency Control

Authors: H. Zainuddin, F. Hanafi, M. H. Hairi, A. Aman, M.H.N. Talib

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effects of knowledge-based acceleration feedback control integrated with Automatic Generation Control (AGC) to enhance the quality of frequency control of governing system. The Intelligent Acceleration Feedback Controller (IAFC) is proposed to counter the over and under frequency occurrences due to major load change in power system network. Therefore, generator tripping and load shedding operations can be reduced. Meanwhile, the integration of IAFC with AGC, a well known Load-Frequency Control (LFC) is essential to ensure the system frequency is restored to the nominal value. Computer simulations of frequency response of governing system are used to optimize the parameters of IAFC. As a result, there is substantial improvement on the LFC of governing system that employing the proposed control strategy.

Keywords: Knowledge-based Supplementary Control, Acceleration Feedback, Load Frequency Control, Automatic Generation Control.

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37 Action Potential Propagation in Inhomogeneous 2D Mouse Ventricular Tissue Model

Authors: Mouse, cardiac myocytes, computer simulation, action potential.

Abstract:

Heterogeneous repolarization causes dispersion of the T-wave and has been linked to arrhythmogenesis. Such heterogeneities appear due to differential expression of ionic currents in different regions of the heart, both in healthy and diseased animals and humans. Mice are important animals for the study of heart diseases because of the ability to create transgenic animals. We used our previously reported model of mouse ventricular myocytes to develop 2D mouse ventricular tissue model consisting of 14,000 cells (apical or septal ventricular myocytes) and to study the stability of action potential propagation and Ca2+ dynamics. The 2D tissue model was implemented as a FORTRAN program code for highperformance multiprocessor computers that runs on 36 processors. Our tissue model is able to simulate heterogeneities not only in action potential repolarization, but also heterogeneities in intracellular Ca2+ transients. The multicellular model reproduced experimentally observed velocities of action potential propagation and demonstrated the importance of incorporation of realistic Ca2+ dynamics for action potential propagation. The simulations show that relatively sharp gradients of repolarization are predicted to exist in 2D mouse tissue models, and they are primarily determined by the cellular properties of ventricular myocytes. Abrupt local gradients of channel expression can cause alternans at longer pacing basic cycle lengths than gradual changes, and development of alternans depends on the site of stimulation.

Keywords: Mouse, cardiac myocytes, computer simulation, action potential

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36 The Use of KREISIG Computer Simulation Program to Optimize Signalized Roundabout

Authors: Ahmad Munawar

Abstract:

KREISIG is a computer simulation program, firstly developed by Munawar (1994) in Germany to optimize signalized roundabout. The traffic movement is based on the car following theory. Turbine method has been implemented for signal setting. The program has then been further developed in Indonesia to meet the traffic characteristics in Indonesia by adjusting the sensitivity of the drivers. Trial and error method has been implemented to adjust the saturation flow. The saturation flow output has also been compared to the calculation method according to 1997 Indonesian Highway Capacity Manual. It has then been implemented to optimize signalized roundabout at Kleringan roundabout in Malioboro area, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It is found that this method can optimize the signal setting of this roundabout. Therefore, it is recommended to use this program to optimize signalized roundabout.

Keywords: KREISIG, signalized roundabout, traffic.

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35 Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Effects Using FEM for Transmission Lines Transposition

Authors: S. Tupsie, A. Isaramongkolrak, P. Pao-la-or

Abstract:

This paper presents the mathematical model of electric field and magnetic field in transmission system, which performs in second-order partial differential equation. This research has conducted analyzing the electromagnetic field radiating to atmosphere around the transmission line, when there is the transmission line transposition in case of long distance distribution. The six types of 500 kV transposed HV transmission line with double circuit will be considered. The computer simulation is applied finite element method that is developed by MATLAB program. The problem is considered to two dimensions, which is time harmonic system with the graphical performance of electric field and magnetic field. The impact from simulation of six types long distance distributing transposition will not effect changing of electric field and magnetic field which surround the transmission line.

Keywords: Transposition, Electromagnetic Field, Finite Element Method (FEM), Transmission Line, Computer Simulation

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34 Effects of Operating Conditions on Calcium Carbonate Fouling in a Plate Heat Exchanger

Authors: K. Pana-Suppamassadu, P. Jeimrittiwong, P. Narataruksa, S. Tungkamani

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to investigate on the internalflow patterns in a plate heat exchanger channel, which affect the rate of sedimentation fouling on the heat transfer surface of the plate heat exchanger. The research methodologies were the computer simulation using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the experimental works. COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS™ Version 3.3 was used to simulate the velocity flow fields to verify the low and high flow regions. The results from the CFD technique were then compared with the images obtained from the experiments in which the fouling test rig was set up with a singlechannel plate heat exchanger to monitor the fouling of calcium carbonate. Two parameters were varied i.e., the crossing angle of the two plate: 55/55, 10/10, and 55/10 degree, and the fluid flow rate at the inlet: 0.0566, 0.1132 and 0.1698 m/s. The type of plate “GX-12" (the surface area 0.12 m2, the depth 2.9 mm, the width of fluid flow 215 mm and the thickness of stainless plate of 0.5 mm) was used in this study. The results indicated that the velocity distribution for the case of 55/55 degree seems to be very well organized when compared with the others. Also, an increase in the inlet velocity resulted in the reduction of fouling rate on the surface of plate heat exchangers.

Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics, crossing angles, finite element method, plate heat exchanger.

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33 Robust Nonlinear Control of Two Links Robot Manipulator and Computing Maximum Load

Authors: Hasanifard Goran, Habib Nejad Korayem Moharam, Nikoobin Amin

Abstract:

A new robust nonlinear control scheme of a manipulator is proposed in this paper which is robust against modeling errors and unknown disturbances. It is based on the principle of variable structure control, with sliding mode control (SMC) method. The variable structure control method is a robust method that appears to be well suited for robotic manipulators because it requers only bounds on the robotic arm parameters. But there is no single systematic procedure that is guaranteed to produce a suitable control law. Also, to reduce chattring of the control signal, we replaced the sgn function in the control law by a continuous approximation such as tangant function. We can compute the maximum load with regard to applied torque into joints. The effectivness of the proposed approach has been evaluated analitically demonstrated through computer simulations for the cases of variable load and robot arm parameters.

Keywords: Variable structure control, robust control, switching surface, robot manipulator.

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32 Analysis of Different Combining Schemes of Two Amplify-Forward Relay Branches with Individual Links Experiencing Nakagami Fading

Authors: Babu Sena Paul, Ratnajit Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

Relay based communication has gained considerable importance in the recent years. In this paper we find the end-toend statistics of a two hop non-regenerative relay branch, each hop being Nakagami-m faded. Closed form expressions for the probability density functions of the signal envelope at the output of a selection combiner and a maximal ratio combiner at the destination node are also derived and analytical formulations are verified through computer simulation. These density functions are useful in evaluating the system performance in terms of bit error rate and outage probability.

Keywords: co-operative diversity, diversity combining, maximal ratio combining, selection combining.

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31 Remarks on Energy Based Control of a Nonlinear, Underactuated, MIMO and Unstable Benchmark

Authors: Guangyu Liu

Abstract:

In the last decade, energy based control theory has undergone a significant breakthrough in dealing with underactated mechanical systems with two successful and similar tools, controlled Lagrangians and controlled Hamiltanians (IDA-PBC). However, because of the complexity of these tools, successful case studies are lacking, in particular, MIMO cases. The seminal theoretical paper of controlled Lagrangians proposed by Bloch and his colleagues presented a benchmark example–a 4 d.o.f underactuated pendulum on a cart but a detailed and completed design is neglected. To compensate this ignorance, the note revisit their design idea by addressing explicit control functions for a similar device motivated by a vector thrust body hovering in the air. To the best of our knowledge, this system is the first MIMO, underactuated example that is stabilized by using energy based tools at the courtesy of the original design idea. Some observations are given based on computer simulation.

Keywords: Controlled Lagrangian, Energy Shaping, Spherical Inverted Pendulum, Controlled Hamiltonian.

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