Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: Computational simulations

5 Development of a Paediatric Head Model for the Computational Analysis of Head Impact Interactions

Authors: G. A. Khalid, M. D. Jones, R. Prabhu, A. Mason-Jones, W. Whittington, H. Bakhtiarydavijani, P. S. Theobald

Abstract:

Head injury in childhood is a common cause of death or permanent disability from injury. However, despite its frequency and significance, there is little understanding of how a child’s head responds during injurious loading. Whilst Infant Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) experimentation is a logical approach to understand injury biomechanics, it is the authors’ opinion that a lack of subject availability is hindering potential progress. Computer modelling adds great value when considering adult populations; however, its potential remains largely untapped for infant surrogates. The complexities of child growth and development, which result in age dependent changes in anatomy, geometry and physical response characteristics, present new challenges for computational simulation. Further geometric challenges are presented by the intricate infant cranial bones, which are separated by sutures and fontanelles and demonstrate a visible fibre orientation. This study presents an FE model of a newborn infant’s head, developed from high-resolution computer tomography scans, informed by published tissue material properties. To mimic the fibre orientation of immature cranial bone, anisotropic properties were applied to the FE cranial bone model, with elastic moduli representing the bone response both parallel and perpendicular to the fibre orientation. Biofiedility of the computational model was confirmed by global validation against published PMHS data, by replicating experimental impact tests with a series of computational simulations, in terms of head kinematic responses. Numerical results confirm that the FE head model’s mechanical response is in favourable agreement with the PMHS drop test results.

Keywords: Finite element analysis, impact simulation, infant head trauma, material properties, post mortem human subjects.

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4 Computational Simulations on Stability of Model Predictive Control for Linear Discrete-time Stochastic Systems

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

Model predictive control is a kind of optimal feedback control in which control performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a moving initial time and a moving terminal time. This paper examines the stability of model predictive control for linear discrete-time systems with additive stochastic disturbances. A sufficient condition for the stability of the closed-loop system with model predictive control is derived by means of a linear matrix inequality. The objective of this paper is to show the results of computational simulations in order to verify the effectiveness of the obtained stability condition.

Keywords: Computational simulations, optimal control, predictive control, stochastic systems, discrete-time systems.

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3 Hygric Performance of a Sandstone Wall Retrofitted with Interior Thermal Insulation

Authors: J. Maděra, M. Jerman, R. Černý

Abstract:

Temperature, relative humidity and overhygroscopic moisture fields in a sandstone wall provided with interior thermal insulation were calculated in order to assess the hygric performance of the retrofitted wall. Computational simulations showed that during the time period of 10 years which was subject of investigation no overhygroscopic moisture appeared in the analyzed building envelope so that it performed in a satisfactory way from the hygric point of view.

Keywords: Sandstone wall, interior thermal insulation, moisture, computational modeling.

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2 Computational Fluid Dynamics Expert System using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Gonzalo Rubio, Eusebio Valero, Sven Lanzan

Abstract:

The design of a modern aircraft is based on three pillars: theoretical results, experimental test and computational simulations. As a results of this, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) solvers are widely used in the aeronautical field. These solvers require the correct selection of many parameters in order to obtain successful results. Besides, the computational time spent in the simulation depends on the proper choice of these parameters. In this paper we create an expert system capable of making an accurate prediction of the number of iterations and time required for the convergence of a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) solver. Artificial neural network (ANN) has been used to design the expert system. It is shown that the developed expert system is capable of making an accurate prediction the number of iterations and time required for the convergence of a CFD solver.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Optimization

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1 Topographic Arrangement of 3D Design Components on 2D Maps by Unsupervised Feature Extraction

Authors: Stefan Menzel

Abstract:

As a result of the daily workflow in the design development departments of companies, databases containing huge numbers of 3D geometric models are generated. According to the given problem engineers create CAD drawings based on their design ideas and evaluate the performance of the resulting design, e.g. by computational simulations. Usually, new geometries are built either by utilizing and modifying sets of existing components or by adding single newly designed parts to a more complex design. The present paper addresses the two facets of acquiring components from large design databases automatically and providing a reasonable overview of the parts to the engineer. A unified framework based on the topographic non-negative matrix factorization (TNMF) is proposed which solves both aspects simultaneously. First, on a given database meaningful components are extracted into a parts-based representation in an unsupervised manner. Second, the extracted components are organized and visualized on square-lattice 2D maps. It is shown on the example of turbine-like geometries that these maps efficiently provide a wellstructured overview on the database content and, at the same time, define a measure for spatial similarity allowing an easy access and reuse of components in the process of design development.

Keywords: Design decomposition, topographic non-negative matrix factorization, parts-based representation, self-organization, unsupervised feature extraction.

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