Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 461

Search results for: Compression

371 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg-Zn Alloys

Authors: Tae Kwon Ha, Young Sik Kim

Abstract:

Effect of Zn addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-Zn alloys with Zn contents from 6 to 10 weight percent was investigated in this study. Through calculation of phase equilibria of Mg-Zn alloys, carried out by using FactSage® and FTLite database, solution treatment temperature was decided as temperatures from 300 to 400oC, where supersaturated solid solution can be obtained. Solid solution treatment of Mg-Zn alloys was successfully conducted at 380oC and supersaturated microstructure with all beta phase resolved into matrix was obtained. After solution treatment, hot rolling was successfully conducted by reduction of 60%. Compression and tension tests were carried out at room temperature on the samples as-cast, solution treated, hot-rolled and recrystallized after rolling. After solid solution treatment, each alloy was annealed at temperatures of 180 and 200oC for time intervals from 1 min to 48 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak aging conditions were deduced as at the temperature of 200oC for 10 hrs. By addition of Zn by 10 weight percent, hardness and strength were enhanced.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Microstructure, Hardness, Mechanical Properties, Mg-Zn alloy

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370 Exergetic Comparison between Three Configurations of Two Stage Vapor Compression Refrigeration Systems

Authors: Wafa Halfaoui Mbarek, Khir Tahar, Ben Brahim Ammar

Abstract:

This study reports a comparison from an exergetic point of view between three configurations of vapor compression industrial refrigeration systems operating with R134a as working fluid. The performances of the different cycles are analyzed as function of several operating parameters such as condensing temperature and inter stage pressure. In addition, the contributions of component exergy destruction to the total exergy destruction are obtained for each system. The results are estimated to be used in the selection of the most advantageous configuration from an exergetic view point.

Keywords: Exergy, Efficiency, Vapor Compression, R134a, destruction

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369 Improvement of Parallel Compressor Model in Dealing Outlet Unequal Pressure Distribution

Authors: Jens Friedrich, Kewei Xu, Kevin Dwinger, Wei Fan, Xijin Zhang

Abstract:

Parallel Compressor Model (PCM) is a simplified approach to predict compressor performance with inlet distortions. In PCM calculation, it is assumed that the sub-compressors’ outlet static pressure is uniform and therefore simplifies PCM calculation procedure. However, if the compressor’s outlet duct is not long and straight, such assumption frequently induces error ranging from 10% to 15%. This paper provides a revised calculation method of PCM that can correct the error. The revised method employs energy equation, momentum equation and continuity equation to acquire needed parameters and replace the equal static pressure assumption. Based on the revised method, PCM is applied on two compression system with different blades types. The predictions of their performance in non-uniform inlet conditions are yielded through the revised calculation method and are employed to evaluate the method’s efficiency. Validating the results by experimental data, it is found that although little deviation occurs, calculated result agrees well with experiment data whose error ranges from 0.1% to 3%. Therefore, this proves the revised calculation method of PCM possesses great advantages in predicting the performance of the distorted compressor with limited exhaust duct.

Keywords: parallel compressor model (pcm), revised calculation method, inlet distortion, outlet unequal pressure distribution

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368 Prediction Modeling of Compression Properties of a Knitted Sportswear Fabric Using Response Surface Method

Authors: Tanveer Hussain, Jawairia Umar, Zulfiqar Ali, Muhammad Maqsood

Abstract:

Different knitted structures and knitted parameters play a vital role in the stretch and recovery management of compression sportswear in addition to the materials use to generate this stretch and recovery behavior of the fabric. The present work was planned to predict the different performance indicators of a compression sportswear fabric with some ground parameters i.e. base yarn stitch length (polyester as base yarn and spandex as plating yarn involve to make a compression fabric) and linear density of the spandex which is a key material of any sportswear fabric. The prediction models were generated by response surface method for performance indicators such as stretch & recovery percentage, compression generated by the garment on body, total elongation on application of high power force and load generated on certain percentage extension in fabric. Certain physical properties of the fabric were also modeled using these two parameters.

Keywords: Compression, Sportswear, statistical model, stretch and recovery, kikuhime

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367 Optimal Image Representation for Linear Canonical Transform Multiplexing

Authors: Navdeep Goel, Salvador Gabarda

Abstract:

Digital images are widely used in computer applications. To store or transmit the uncompressed images requires considerable storage capacity and transmission bandwidth. Image compression is a means to perform transmission or storage of visual data in the most economical way. This paper explains about how images can be encoded to be transmitted in a multiplexing time-frequency domain channel. Multiplexing involves packing signals together whose representations are compact in the working domain. In order to optimize transmission resources each 4 × 4 pixel block of the image is transformed by a suitable polynomial approximation, into a minimal number of coefficients. Less than 4 × 4 coefficients in one block spares a significant amount of transmitted information, but some information is lost. Different approximations for image transformation have been evaluated as polynomial representation (Vandermonde matrix), least squares + gradient descent, 1-D Chebyshev polynomials, 2-D Chebyshev polynomials or singular value decomposition (SVD). Results have been compared in terms of nominal compression rate (NCR), compression ratio (CR) and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) in order to minimize the error function defined as the difference between the original pixel gray levels and the approximated polynomial output. Polynomial coefficients have been later encoded and handled for generating chirps in a target rate of about two chirps per 4 × 4 pixel block and then submitted to a transmission multiplexing operation in the time-frequency domain.

Keywords: chirp signals, image multiplexing, linear canonical transform, Image transformation, Polynomial approximation

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366 Production of Ultra-Low Temperature by the Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycles with Environment Friendly Working Fluids

Authors: Sameh Frikha, Mohamed Salah Abid

Abstract:

We investigate the performance of an integrated cascade (IC) refrigeration system which uses environment friendly zeotropic mixtures. Computational calculation has been carried out by varying pressure level at the evaporator and the condenser of the system. Effects of mass flow rate of the refrigerant on the coefficient of performance (COP) are presented. We show that the integrated cascade system produces ultra-low temperatures in the evaporator by using environment friendly zeotropic mixture.

Keywords: coefficient of performance, environment friendly zeotropic mixture, integrated cascade, ultra low temperature, vapor compression refrigeration cycles

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365 A Computational Study into the Effect of Design Parameters on Ignition Timing and Emission Characteristics of HCCI Engine in Internal Combustion Engines Fuelled with Isooctane

Authors: Omri Ahmed, Fridhi Hadia, Soua Wadhah, Hidouri Ammar

Abstract:

In order to understand the auto-ignition process in a HCCI engine better, the influence of some important parameters on the auto-ignition is investigated. The inlet temperature, the inlet pressure, and the compression ratio were varied and their influence on the ignition delays and emission characteristics were studied. The inlet temperature was changed from 400 K to 460 K (in step of 15 K), the inlet pressure from 0.9 to 3 atm, while the compression ratio varied from 15 to 23. The fuel that was investigated is isooctane. The inlet temperature, the inlet pressure, and the compression ratio appeared to decrease the ignition delays, with the inlet pressure having the least influence and the compression ratio the most. The effect of these parameters on emissions’ characteristics were also investigated. Results indicate that increasing the compression ratio results in increasing the concentration of all the species.

Keywords: compression ratio, intake temperature, intake pressure, HCCI engine, isooctane

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364 Subjective Versus Objective Assessment for Magnetic Resonance Images

Authors: Heshalini Rajagopal, Li Sze Chow, Raveendran Paramesran

Abstract:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most important medical imaging modality. Subjective assessment of the image quality is regarded as the gold standard to evaluate MR images. In this study, a database of 210 MR images which contains ten reference images and 200 distorted images is presented. The reference images were distorted with four types of distortions: Rician Noise, Gaussian White Noise, Gaussian Blur and DCT compression. The 210 images were assessed by ten subjects. The subjective scores were presented in Difference Mean Opinion Score (DMOS). The DMOS values were compared with four FR-IQA metrics. We have used Pearson Linear Coefficient (PLCC) and Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient (SROCC) to validate the DMOS values. The high correlation values of PLCC and SROCC shows that the DMOS values are close to the objective FR-IQA metrics.

Keywords: medical resonance (MR) images, Difference Mean Opinion Score (DMOS), Full Reference Image Quality Assessment (FR-IQA)

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363 Buckling Resistance of GFRP Sandwich Infill Panels with Different Cores under Increased Temperatures

Authors: Woo Young Jung, Viriyavudh Sim

Abstract:

This paper presents numerical analysis in terms of buckling resistance of GFRP sandwich infill panels system under the influence of increased temperature on the foam core. Failure mode under in-plane compression is studied by means of numerical analysis with ABAQUS platform. Parameters considered in this study are contact length and both the type of foam for core and the variation of its module elastic under the thermal influence. Increment of temperature is considered in static cases and only applied to core. Indeed, it is proven that the effect of temperature alters the mechanical properties of the entire panel system. Moreover, the rises of temperature result in a decrease in strength of the panel. This is due to the polymeric nature of this material. Additionally, the contact length also displays the effect on performance of infill panel. Their significance factors are based on type of polymer for core. Therefore, by comparing difference type of core material, the variation can be reducing.

Keywords: buckling, contact length, foam core, temperature dependent

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362 A Proposed Hybrid Color Image Compression Based on Fractal Coding with Quadtree and Discrete Cosine Transform

Authors: Dibyendu Ghoshal, Shimal Das

Abstract:

Fractal based digital image compression is a specific technique in the field of color image. The method is best suited for irregular shape of image like snow bobs, clouds, flame of fire; tree leaves images, depending on the fact that parts of an image often resemble with other parts of the same image. This technique has drawn much attention in recent years because of very high compression ratio that can be achieved. Hybrid scheme incorporating fractal compression and speedup techniques have achieved high compression ratio compared to pure fractal compression. Fractal image compression is a lossy compression method in which selfsimilarity nature of an image is used. This technique provides high compression ratio, less encoding time and fart decoding process. In this paper, fractal compression with quad tree and DCT is proposed to compress the color image. The proposed hybrid schemes require four phases to compress the color image. First: the image is segmented and Discrete Cosine Transform is applied to each block of the segmented image. Second: the block values are scanned in a zigzag manner to prevent zero co-efficient. Third: the resulting image is partitioned as fractals by quadtree approach. Fourth: the image is compressed using Run length encoding technique.

Keywords: affine transformation, discrete cosine transform, Fractal coding, Iterated Function System (IFS), Run length encoding

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361 Assessing the Seismic Performance of Threaded Rebar Coupler System

Authors: Ho-Young Kim, Do-Kyu, Hwang, Ho-Hyeoung Choi, Gi-Beom Park, Jae-Hoon Lee

Abstract:

Currently there are many use of threaded reinforcing bars in construction fields because those do not need additional screw processing when connecting reinforcing bar by threaded coupler. In this study, reinforced concrete bridge piers using threaded rebar coupler system at the plastic hinge area were tested to evaluate seismic performance. The test results showed that threads of the threaded rebar coupler system could be loosened while under tension-compression cyclic loading because tolerance and rib face angle of a threaded rebar coupler system are greater than that of a conventional ribbed rebar coupler system. As a result, cracks were concentrated just outside of the mechanical coupler and stiffness of reinforced concrete bridge pier decreased. Therefore, it is recommended that connection ratio of mechanical couplers in one section shall be below 50% in order that cracks are not concentrated just outside of the mechanical coupler. Also, reduced stiffness of the specimen should be considered when using the threaded rebar coupler system.

Keywords: Seismic Performance, reinforced concrete column, threaded rebar coupler, threaded reinforcing bar

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360 Influence of Densification Process and Material Properties on Final Briquettes Quality from Fast-Growing Willows

Authors: Juraj Beniak, Peter Križan, Miloš Matúš, Ľubomír Šooš

Abstract:

Biomass treatment through densification is very suitable and helpful technology before its effective energy recovery. Densification process of biomass is significantly influenced by various technological and material variables, which are ultimately reflected on the final solid biofuels quality. The paper deals with the experimental research of the relationship between technological and material variables during densification of fast-growing trees, roundly fast-growing willows. The main goal of presented experimental research is to determine the relationship between compression pressure and raw material particle size from a final briquettes density point of view. Experimental research was realized by single-axis densification. The impact of particle size with interaction of compression pressure and stabilization time on the quality properties of briquettes was determined. These variables interaction affects the final solid biofuels (briquettes) quality. From briquettes production point of view and from densification machines constructions point of view is very important to know about mutual interaction of these variables on final briquettes quality. The experimental findings presented here are showing the importance of mentioned variables during the densification process. 

Keywords: Densification, particle size, briquettes density, stabilization time, compression pressure

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359 Nonlinear Transformation of Laser Generated Ultrasonic Pulses in Geomaterials

Authors: Elena B. Cherepetskaya, Alexander A. Karabutov, Natalia B. Podymova, Ivan Sas

Abstract:

Nonlinear evolution of broadband ultrasonic pulses passed through the rock specimens is studied using the apparatus “GEOSCAN-02M”. Ultrasonic pulses are excited by the pulses of Qswitched Nd:YAG laser with the time duration of 10 ns and with the energy of 260 mJ. This energy can be reduced to 20 mJ by some light filters. The laser beam radius did not exceed 5 mm. As a result of the absorption of the laser pulse in the special material – the optoacoustic generator–the pulses of longitudinal ultrasonic waves are excited with the time duration of 100 ns and with the maximum pressure amplitude of 10 MPa. The immersion technique is used to measure the parameters of these ultrasonic pulses passed through a specimen, the immersion liquid is distilled water. The reference pulse passed through the cell with water has the compression and the rarefaction phases. The amplitude of the rarefaction phase is five times lower than that of the compression phase. The spectral range of the reference pulse reaches 10 MHz. The cubic-shaped specimens of the Karelian gabbro are studied with the rib length 3 cm. The ultimate strength of the specimens by the uniaxial compression is (300±10) MPa. As the reference pulse passes through the area of the specimen without cracks the compression phase decreases and the rarefaction one increases due to diffraction and scattering of ultrasound, so the ratio of these phases becomes 2.3:1. After preloading some horizontal cracks appear in the specimens. Their location is found by one-sided scanning of the specimen using the backward mode detection of the ultrasonic pulses reflected from the structure defects. Using the computer processing of these signals the images are obtained of the cross-sections of the specimens with cracks. By the increase of the reference pulse amplitude from 0.1 MPa to 5 MPa the nonlinear transformation of the ultrasonic pulse passed through the specimen with horizontal cracks results in the decrease by 2.5 times of the amplitude of the rarefaction phase and in the increase of its duration by 2.1 times. By the increase of the reference pulse amplitude from 5 MPa to 10 MPa the time splitting of the phases is observed for the bipolar pulse passed through the specimen. The compression and rarefaction phases propagate with different velocities. These features of the powerful broadband ultrasonic pulses passed through the rock specimens can be described by the hysteresis model of Preisach- Mayergoyz and can be used for the location of cracks in the optically opaque materials.

Keywords: rock, Cracks, geological materials, nonlinear evolution of ultrasonic pulses

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358 Structural Investigation of Na2O–B2O3–SiO2 Glasses Doped with NdF3

Authors: M. S. Gaafar, S. Y. Marzouk

Abstract:

Sodium borosilicate glasses doped with different content of NdF3 mol % have been prepared by rapid quenching method. Ultrasonic velocities (both longitudinal and shear) measurements have been carried out at room temperature and at ultrasonic frequency of 4 MHz. Elastic moduli, Debye temperature, softening temperature and Poisson's ratio have been obtained as a function of NdF3 modifier content. Results showed that the elastic moduli, Debye temperature, softening temperature and Poisson's ratio have very slight change with the change of NdF3 mol % content. Based on FTIR spectroscopy and theoretical (Bond compression) model, quantitative analysis has been carried out in order to obtain more information about the structure of these glasses. The study indicated that the structure of these glasses is mainly composed of SiO4 units with four bridging oxygens (Q4), and with three bridging and one nonbridging oxygens (Q3).

Keywords: ultrasonic velocity, FTIR spectroscopy, borosilicate glasses, bond compression model, elastic moduli

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357 Harnessing Nigeria's Forestry Potential for Structural Applications: Structural Reliability of Nigerian Grown Opepe Timber

Authors: M. Abdullahi, S. Sadiku, J. I. Aguwa

Abstract:

This study examined the structural reliability of the Nigerian grown Opepe timber as bridge beam material. The strength of a particular specie of timber depends so much on some factors such as soil and environment in which it is grown. The steps involved are collection of the Opepe timber samples, seasoning/preparation of the test specimens, determination of the strength properties/statistical analysis, development of a computer programme in FORTRAN language and finally structural reliability analysis using FORM 5 software. The result revealed that the Nigerian grown Opepe is a reliable and durable structural bridge beam material for span of 5000mm, depth of 400mm, breadth of 250mm and end bearing length of 150mm. The probabilities of failure in bending parallel to the grain, compression perpendicular to the grain, shear parallel to the grain and deflection are 1.61 x 10-7, 1.43 x 10-8, 1.93 x 10-4 and 1.51 x 10-15 respectively. The paper recommends establishment of Opepe plantation in various Local Government Areas in Nigeria for structural applications such as in bridges, railway sleepers, generation of income to the nation as well as creating employment for the numerous unemployed youths.

Keywords: Compression, structural reliability, shear, bending and deflection, bridge beam, Nigerian Opepe

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356 An Analysis of Compression Methods and Implementation of Medical Images in Wireless Network

Authors: C. Rajan, K. Geetha, S. Geetha

Abstract:

The motivation of image compression technique is to reduce the irrelevance and redundancy of the image data in order to store or pass data in an efficient way from one place to another place. There are several types of compression methods available. Without the help of compression technique, the file size is knowingly larger, usually several megabytes, but by doing the compression technique, it is possible to reduce file size up to 10% as of the original without noticeable loss in quality. Image compression can be lossless or lossy. The compression technique can be applied to images, audio, video and text data. This research work mainly concentrates on methods of encoding, DCT, compression methods, security, etc. Different methodologies and network simulations have been analyzed here. Various methods of compression methodologies and its performance metrics has been investigated and presented in a table manner.

Keywords: JPEG, encoding, DCT, lossless compression, lossy compression, Image compression techniques

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355 Image Steganography Using Least Significant Bit Technique

Authors: Preeti Kumari, Ridhi Kapoor

Abstract:

 In any communication, security is the most important issue in today’s world. In this paper, steganography is the process of hiding the important data into other data, such as text, audio, video, and image. The interest in this topic is to provide availability, confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of data. The steganographic technique that embeds hides content with unremarkable cover media so as not to provoke eavesdropper’s suspicion or third party and hackers. In which many applications of compression, encryption, decryption, and embedding methods are used for digital image steganography. Due to compression, the nose produces in the image. To sustain noise in the image, the LSB insertion technique is used. The performance of the proposed embedding system with respect to providing security to secret message and robustness is discussed. We also demonstrate the maximum steganography capacity and visual distortion.

Keywords: Information Hiding, Steganography, color image, encoding, lsb

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354 Research for Hollow Reinforced Concrete Bridge Piers in Korea

Authors: Ho-Young Kim, Do-Kyu Hwang, Jae-Hoon Lee, Im-Jong Kwahk, Tae-Hoon Kim, Seung-Hoon Lee

Abstract:

Hollow section for bridge columns has some advantages. However, current seismic design codes do not provide design regulations for hollow bridge piers. There have been many experimental studied for hollow reinforced concrete piers in the world. But, Study for hollow section for bridge piers in Korea has been begun with approximately 2000s. There has been conducted experimental study for hollow piers of flexural controlled sections by Yeungnam University, Sung kyunkwan University, Korea Expressway Corporation in 2009. This study concluded that flexural controlled sections for hollow piers showed the similar behavior to solid sections. And there have been conducted experimental study for hollow piers of compression controlled sections by Yeungnam University, Korea Institute of Construction Technology in 2012. This study concluded that compression controlled sections for hollow piers showed compression fracture of concrete in inside wall face. Samsung Construction & Trading Corporation has been conducted study with Yeungnam University for reduce the quantity of reinforcement details about hollow piers. Reduce the quantity of reinforcement details are triangular cross tie. This study concluded that triangular reinforcement details showed the similar behavior as compared with existing reinforcement details.

Keywords: hollow pier, flexural controlled section, compression controlled section, reduce the quantity of reinforcement details

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353 Effects of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Addition in Diesel and Diesel-Biodiesel Blends on the Performance Characteristics of a CI Engine

Authors: Abbas Alli Taghipoor Bafghi, Hosein Bakhoda, Fateme Khodaei Chegeni

Abstract:

An experimental investigation is carried out to establish the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine while using cerium oxide nanoparticles as additive in neat diesel and diesel-biodiesel blends. In the first phase of the experiments, stability of neat diesel and diesel-biodiesel fuel blends with the addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles is analyzed. After series of experiments, it is found that the blends subjected to high speed blending followed by ultrasonic bath stabilization improves the stability. In the second phase, performance characteristics are studied using the stable fuel blends in a single cylinder four stroke engine coupled with an electrical dynamometer and a data acquisition system. The cerium oxide acts as an oxygen donating catalyst and provides oxygen for combustion. The activation energy of cerium oxide acts to burn off carbon deposits within the engine cylinder at the wall temperature and prevents the deposition of non-polar compounds on the cylinder wall results reduction in HC emissions. The tests revealed that cerium oxide nanoparticles can be used as additive in diesel and diesel-biodiesel blends to improve complete combustion of the fuel significantly.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Diesel Engine, cerium oxide, diesel-biodiesel blends

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352 Useful Lifetime Prediction of Chevron Rubber Spring for Railway Vehicle

Authors: Chang Su Woo, Hyun Sung Park

Abstract:

Useful lifetime evaluation of chevron rubber spring was very important in design procedure to assure the safety and reliability. It is, therefore, necessary to establish a suitable criterion for the replacement period of chevron rubber spring. In this study, we performed characteristic analysis and useful lifetime prediction of chevron rubber spring. Rubber material coefficient was obtained by curve fittings of uniaxial tension equibiaxial tension and pure shear test. Computer simulation was executed to predict and evaluate the load capacity and stiffness for chevron rubber spring. In order to useful lifetime prediction of rubber material, we carried out the compression set with heat aging test in an oven at the temperature ranging from 50°C to 100°C during a period 180 days. By using the Arrhenius plot, several useful lifetime prediction equations for rubber material was proposed.

Keywords: useful lifetime prediction, chevron rubber spring, material coefficient, Finite Element analysis

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351 A Comparative Study of Image Segmentation Algorithms

Authors: Mehdi Hosseinzadeh, Parisa Khoshvaght

Abstract:

In some applications, such as image recognition or compression, segmentation refers to the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments. Image segmentation is typically used to locate objects and boundaries (lines, curves, etc.) in images. Image segmentation is to classify or cluster an image into several parts (regions) according to the feature of image, for example, the pixel value or the frequency response. More precisely, image segmentation is the process of assigning a label to every pixel in an image such that pixels with the same label share certain visual characteristics. The result of image segmentation is a set of segments that collectively cover the entire image, or a set of contours extracted from the image. Several image segmentation algorithms were proposed to segment an image before recognition or compression. Up to now, many image segmentation algorithms exist and be extensively applied in science and daily life. According to their segmentation method, we can approximately categorize them into region-based segmentation, data clustering, and edge-base segmentation. In this paper, we give a study of several popular image segmentation algorithms that are available.

Keywords: Image Segmentation, density estimation, hierarchical segmentation, partitional segmentation

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350 Aging Effect on Mechanical Behavior of Duplex Satinless Steel

Authors: Jungho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Effect of alloying on the microstructure and mechanical properties of heat-resisting duplex stainless steel (DSS) for Mg production was investigated in this study. 25Cr-8Ni based DSS’s were cast into rectangular ingots of which the dimension was 350×350×100 mm3 . Nitrogen and Yttrium were added in the range within 0.3 in weight percent. Phase equilibrium was calculated using the FactSage®, thermodynamic software. Hot exposure, high temperature tensile and compression tests were conducted on the ingots at 1230oC, which is operation temperature employed for Mg production by Silico-thermic reduction. The steel with N and Y showed much higher strength than 310S alloy in both tensile and compression tests. By thermal exposition at 1230oC for 200 hrs, hardness of DSS containing N and Y was found to increase. Hot workability of the heat-resisting DSS was evaluated by employing hot rolling at 1230 oC. Hot shortness was observed in the ingot with N and found to disappear after addition of Y.

Keywords: Microstructure, duplex stainless steel, alloying elements, eutectic carbides, aging treatment

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349 An Analysis of Genetic Algorithm Based Test Data Compression Using Modified PRL Coding

Authors: K. B. Jayanthi, K. S. Neelukumari

Abstract:

In this paper genetic based test data compression is targeted for improving the compression ratio and for reducing the computation time. The genetic algorithm is based on extended pattern run-length coding. The test set contains a large number of X value that can be effectively exploited to improve the test data compression. In this coding method, a reference pattern is set and its compatibility is checked. For this process, a genetic algorithm is proposed to reduce the computation time of encoding algorithm. This coding technique encodes the 2n compatible pattern or the inversely compatible pattern into a single test data segment or multiple test data segment. The experimental result shows that the compression ratio and computation time is reduced.

Keywords: Backtracking, test data compression (TDC), x-filling, x-propagating and genetic algorithm

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348 Development of Piezoelectric Gas Micro Pumps with the PDMS Check Valve Design

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chiang-Ho Cheng, Hong-Yih Cheng, Ming-Yu Lai

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and fabrication of a novel piezoelectric actuator for a gas micro pump with check valve having the advantages of miniature size, light weight and low power consumption. The micro pump is designed to have eight major components, namely a stainless steel upper cover layer, a piezoelectric actuator, a stainless steel diaphragm, a PDMS chamber layer, two stainless steel channel layers with two valve seats, a PDMS check valve layer with two cantilever-type check valves and an acrylic substrate. A prototype of the gas micro pump, with a size of 52 mm × 50 mm × 5.0 mm, is fabricated by precise manufacturing. This device is designed to pump gases with the capability of performing the self-priming and bubble-tolerant work mode by maximizing the stroke volume of the membrane as well as the compression ratio via minimization of the dead volume of the micro pump chamber and channel. By experiment apparatus setup, we can get the real-time values of the flow rate of micro pump and the displacement of the piezoelectric actuator, simultaneously. The gas micro pump obtained higher output performance under the sinusoidal waveform of 250 Vpp. The micro pump achieved the maximum pumping rates of 1185 ml/min and back pressure of 7.14 kPa at the corresponding frequency of 120 and 50 Hz.

Keywords: piezoelectric, PDMS, check valve, Micro pump

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347 Mechanical Behavior of Recycled Pet Fiber Reinforced Concrete Matrix

Authors: Comingstarful Marthong, Deba Kumar Sarma

Abstract:

Concrete is strong in compression however weak in tension. The tensile strength as well as ductile property of concrete could be improved by addition of short dispersed fibers. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber obtained from hand cutting or mechanical slitting of plastic sheets generally used as discrete reinforcement in substitution of steel fiber. PET fiber obtained from the former process is in the form of straight slit sheet pattern that impart weaker mechanical bonding behavior in the concrete matrix. To improve the limitation of straight slit sheet fiber the present study considered two additional geometry of fiber namely (a) flattened end slit sheet and (b) deformed slit sheet. The mix for plain concrete was design for a compressive strength of 25 MPa at 28 days curing time with a watercement ratio of 0.5. Cylindrical and beam specimens with 0.5% fibers volume fraction and without fibers were cast to investigate the influence of geometry on the mechanical properties of concrete. The performance parameters mainly studied include flexural strength, splitting tensile strength, compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV). Test results show that geometry of fiber has a marginal effect on the workability of concrete. However, it plays a significant role in achieving a good compressive and tensile strength of concrete. Further, significant improvement in term of flexural and energy dissipation capacity were observed from other fibers as compared to the straight slit sheet pattern. Also, the inclusion of PET fiber improved the ability in absorbing energy in the post-cracking state of the specimen as well as no significant porous structures.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, Concrete matrix, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers, mechanical bonding, UPV

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346 Effect of Non-Crimp Fabric Structure on Mechanical Properties of Laminates

Authors: Hireni R. Mankodi, D. J. Chudasama

Abstract:

The textile preforms play a key role in providing the mechanical properties and gives the idea about selection parameter of preforms to improve the quality and performance of laminates. The main objectives of this work are to study the effect of non-crimp fabric preform structure in final properties of laminates. It has been observed that the multi-axial preform give better mechanical properties of laminates as compared to woven and biaxial fabrics. This study investigated the effect of different non-crimp glass preform structure on tensile strength, bending and compression properties of glass laminates. The different woven, bi-axial and multi-axial fabrics with similar GSM used to manufacture the laminates using polyester resin. The structural and mechanical properties of preform and laminates were studied using standard methods. It has been observed that the glass fabric geometry, including type of weaves, warps and filling density and number of layer plays significant role in deciding mechanical properties of laminates.

Keywords: Laminates, preform, bi-axial, multiaxial, non-crimp

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345 Effect of Hydrogen-Diesel Dual Fuel Combustion on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Four Stroke-Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

Authors: RAHUL BANERJEE, Madhujit Deb, G. R. K. Sastry, R. S. Panua, P. K. Bose

Abstract:

The present work attempts to investigate the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of an existing single-cylinder four-stroke compression-ignition engine operated in dual-fuel mode with hydrogen as an alternative fuel. Environmental concerns and limited amount of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the development of alternative fuels like hydrogen for internal combustion (IC) engines. In this experimental investigation, a diesel engine is made to run using hydrogen in dual fuel mode with diesel, where hydrogen is introduced into the intake manifold using an LPGCNG injector and pilot diesel is injected using diesel injectors. A Timed Manifold Injection (TMI) system has been developed to vary the injection strategies. The optimized timing for the injection of hydrogen was 10^0 CA after top dead center (ATDC). From the study it was observed that with increasing hydrogen rate, enhancement in brake thermal efficiency (BTHE) of the engine has been observed with reduction in brake specific energy consumption (BSEC). Furthermore, Soot contents decrease with an increase in indicated specific NOx emissions with the enhancement of hydrogen flow rate.

Keywords: Hydrogen, Diesel Engine, NOx, soot, BTHE, BSEC

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344 Analysis of Surface Hardness, Surface Roughness, and Near Surface Microstructure of AISI 4140 Steel Worked with Turn-Assisted Deep Cold Rolling Process

Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. M. Kulkarni, S. S. Sharma, K. Jagannath, Achutha Kini U.

Abstract:

In the present study, response surface methodology has been used to optimize turn-assisted deep cold rolling process of AISI 4140 steel. A regression model is developed to predict surface hardness and surface roughness using response surface methodology and central composite design. In the development of predictive model, deep cold rolling force, ball diameter, initial roughness of the workpiece, and number of tool passes are considered as model variables. The rolling force and the ball diameter are the significant factors on the surface hardness and ball diameter and numbers of tool passes are found to be significant for surface roughness. The predicted surface hardness and surface roughness values and the subsequent verification experiments under the optimal operating conditions confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The absolute average error between the experimental and predicted values at the optimal combination of parameter settings for surface hardness and surface roughness is calculated as 0.16% and 1.58% respectively. Using the optimal processing parameters, the surface hardness is improved from 225 to 306 HV, which resulted in an increase in the near surface hardness by about 36% and the surface roughness is improved from 4.84µm to 0.252 µm, which resulted in decrease in the surface roughness by about 95%. The depth of compression is found to be more than 300µm from the microstructure analysis and this is in correlation with the results obtained from the microhardness measurements. Taylor hobson talysurf tester, micro vickers hardness tester, optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometer are used to characterize the modified surface layer. 

Keywords: Microstructure, response surface methodology, central composite design, surface hardness, deep cold rolling, Surface Roughness

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343 Geometrical Structure and Layer Orientation Effects on Strength, Material Consumption and Building Time of FDM Rapid Prototyped Samples

Authors: Mum Wai Yip, Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, M. Sayuti, Chong Feng Duan

Abstract:

Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies enable physical parts to be produced from various materials without depending on the conventional tooling. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of the famous RP processes used at present. Tensile strength and compressive strength resistance will be identified for different sample structures and different layer orientations of ABS rapid prototype solid models. The samples will be fabricated by a FDM rapid prototyping machine in different layer orientations with variations in internal geometrical structure. The 0° orientation where layers were deposited along the length of the samples displayed superior strength and impact resistance over all the other orientations. The anisotropic properties were probably caused by weak interlayer bonding and interlayer porosity.

Keywords: Tensile Strength, compression strength, building orientation, rapid prototyping

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342 Optimized Vector Quantization for Bayer Color Filter Array

Authors: M. Lakshmi, J. Senthil Kumar

Abstract:

Digital cameras to reduce cost, use an image sensor to capture color images. Color Filter Array (CFA) in digital cameras permits only one of the three primary (red-green-blue) colors to be sensed in a pixel and interpolates the two missing components through a method named demosaicking. Captured data is interpolated into a full color image and compressed in applications. Color interpolation before compression leads to data redundancy. This paper proposes a new Vector Quantization (VQ) technique to construct a VQ codebook with Differential Evolution (DE) Algorithm. The new technique is compared to conventional Linde- Buzo-Gray (LBG) method.

Keywords: differential evolution (DE), vector quantization (VQ), Color Filter Array (CFA), Biorthogonal Wavelet

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