Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 634

Search results for: Community kitchen gardens

634 Promoting Community Food Security and Empowerment among Somali Bantu Refugees: A Case for Community Kitchen Gardens

Authors: Michelle D. Hand, Michelle L. Kaiser

Abstract:

African refugees are among the fastest-growing populations in the United States and nearly half of these refugees come from Somalia, many of whom are Somali Bantus, the most marginalized group in Somali society. Yet limited research is available on Somali Bantu refugees. In this paper, Empowerment Theory is used to guide an in-depth exploration of the potential benefits of using community kitchen gardens to increase community food security among Somali Bantu refugees. In addition, recommendations for future research, policy and practice are offered following existing scholarly and grey source literature guidelines as informed by an Empowerment perspective to best meet the needs of this under-researched and underserved yet growing population.

Keywords: Community kitchen gardens, food insecurity, refugees, Somali Bantu.

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633 Review of the Characteristics of Mahan Garden:One Type of Persian Gardens

Authors: Ladan Tajaddini

Abstract:

Iranians- imagination of heaven, which is the reward of a person-s good deeds during their life, has shown itself in pleasant and green gardens where earthly gardens were made as representations of paradise. Iranians are also quite interested in making their earthly gardens and plantations around their buildings. With Iran-s hot and dry climate with a lack of sufficient water for plantation coverage, it becomes noticeable how important it is to Iranians- art in making gardens. This study, with regard to examples, documents and library studies, investigates the characteristics of Persian gardens. The result shows that elements such as soil, water, plants and layout have been used in forming a unique style of Persian gardens. Bagh-e Shah Zadeh Mahan (Mahan prince garden) is a typical example and has been carefully studied. In this paper I try to investigate and evaluate the characteristics of a Persian garden by means of a descriptive approach.

Keywords: environmental planning, Persian garden, landscape, shah zadeh garden, soil and water, gardening.

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632 Education Function of Botanical Gardens

Authors: Ruhugül Özge Ocak, Banu Öztürk Kurtaslan

Abstract:

Botanical gardens are very significant organizations which protect the environment against the increasing environmental problems, provide environmental education for people, offer recreation possibilities, etc. This article describes botanical gardens and their functions. The most important function of botanical garden is to provide environmental education for people and improve environmental awareness. Considering this function, some botanical gardens were examined and opinions were suggested about the subject.

Keywords: Botanical garden, environment, environmental education, recreation.

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631 Application of the Improved QFD Method Case Study: Kitchen Utensils Rack Design

Authors: Dini Endah Setyo Rahaju, Dian Retno Sari Dewi

Abstract:

This paper presents an application of the improved QFD method for determining the specifications of kitchen utensils rack. By using the improved method, the subjective nature in original QFD was reduced; particularly in defining the relationship between customer requirement and engineering characteristics. The regression analysis that was used for obtaining the relationship functions between customer requirement and engineering characteristics also accommodated the inaccurateness of the competitive assessment results. The improved method which is represented in the form of a mathematical model had become a formal guidance to allocate the resource for improving the specifications of kitchen utensils rack. The specifications obtained had led to the achievement of the highest feasible customer satisfaction.

Keywords: Customer satisfaction, kitchen utensils rack design, QFD, specifications.

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630 Utilization of Kitchen Waste inside Green House Chamber: A Community Level Biogas Programme

Authors: Ravi P. Agrahari

Abstract:

The present study was undertaken with the objective of evaluating kitchen waste as an alternative organic material for biogas production in community level biogas plant. The field study was carried out for one month (January 19, 2012– February 17, 2012) at Centre for Energy Studies, IIT Delhi, New Delhi, India.

This study involves the uses of greenhouse canopy to increase the temperature for the production of biogas in winter period. In continuation, a semi-continuous study was conducted for one month with the retention time of 30 days under batch system. The gas generated from the biogas plant was utilized for cooking (burner) and lighting (lamp) purposes. Gas productions in the winter season registered lower than other months. It can be concluded that the solar greenhouse assisted biogas plant can be efficiently adopted in colder region or in winter season because temperature plays a major role in biogas production. 

Keywords: Biogas, Green house chamber, organic material, solar intensity.

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629 Garden Culture in Islamic Civilization: A Glance at the Birth, Development and Current Situation

Authors: Parisa Göker

Abstract:

With the birth of Islam, the definitions of paradise in Quran have spread across three continents since 7th century, showing itself in the palace gardens as a reflection of Islamic Culture. The design characteristics of Islamic gardens come forth with the influence of religious beliefs, as well as taking its form as per the cultural, climatic and soil characteristics of its geography, and showing its difference. It is possible to see these differences from the garden examples that survived to present time from the civilizations in the lands of Islamic proliferation. The main material of this research is the Islamic gardens in Iran and Spain. Field study was carried out in Alhambra Palace in Spain, Granada and Shah Goli garden in Iran, Tabriz. In this study, the birth of Islamic gardens, spatial perception of paradise, design principles, spatial structure, along with the structural/plantation materials used are examined. Also the characteristics and differentiation of the gardens examined in different cultures and geographies have been revealed. In the conclusion section, Iran and Spain Islamic garden samples were evaluated and their properties were determined.

Keywords: Islamic civilization, Islamic architecture, cultural landscape, Islamic garden.

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628 Identification of Anaerobic Microorganisms for Converting Kitchen Waste to Biogas

Authors: A. Malakahmad, S.M. Zain, N.E. Ahmad Basri, S. R. Mohamed Kutty, M. H. Isa

Abstract:

Anaerobic digestion process is one of the alternative methods to convert organic waste into methane gas which is a fuel and energy source. Activities of various kinds of microorganisms are the main factor for anaerobic digestion which produces methane gas. Therefore, in this study a modified Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with working volume of 50 liters was designed to identify the microorganisms through biogas production. The mixture of 75% kitchen waste and 25% sewage sludge was used as substrate. Observations on microorganisms in the ABR showed that there exists a small amount of protozoa (5%) and fungi (2%) in the system, but almost 93% of the microorganism population consists of bacteria. It is definitely clear that bacteria are responsible for anaerobic biodegradation of kitchen waste. Results show that in the acidification zone of the ABR (front compartments of reactor) fast growing bacteria capable of growth at high substrate levels and reduced pH was dominant. A shift to slower growing scavenging bacteria that grow better at higher pH was occurring towards the end of the reactor. Due to the ability of activity in acetate environment the percentages of Methanococcus, Methanosarcina and Methanotrix were higher than other kinds of methane former in the system.

Keywords: Anaerobic microorganism identification, Kitchenwaste, Biogas.

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627 The Study of Applying Models: House, Temple and School for Sufficiency Development to Participate in ASEAN Economic Community: A Case Study of Trimitra Temple (China Town) Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Saowapa Phaithayawat

Abstract:

The purposes of this study are 1) to study the impact of the 3-community-core model: House (H), Temple (T), and School (S) with the co-operation of official departments on community development to ASEAN economic community involvement and 2) to study the procedures and extension of the model. The research which is a qualitative research is based on the formal and informal interviews. Local people in a community are observed. Group interview is, also, operated by executors and cooperators in the school in the community. In terms of social and cultural dimension, the 3-community-core model consisting of house, temple and school is the base of Thai cultures bringing about understanding, happiness and unity to the community. The result of this research is that the official departments in accompanied with this model developers cooperatively work together in the community to support such factors as budget, plan, activities. Moreover, the need of community, and the continual result to sustain the community are satisfied by the model implementation. In terms of the procedures of the model implementation, executors and co-operators can work, coordinate, think, and launch their public relation altogether. Concerning the model development, this enables the community to achieve its goal to prepare the community’s readiness for ASEAN Economic Community involvement.

Keywords: ASEAN Economic Community, Community Development.

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626 A Study on Roles of the Community Design in Crime Prevention: Focusing on Project called Root out Crime by Design in South Korea

Authors: Miyoun Won, Youngkyung Choi

Abstract:

In the meantime, there were lots of hardware solutions like products or urban facilities for crime prevention in the public design area. Meanwhile, people have growing interest in public design so by making a village; community design in public design is getting active by the society. The system for crime prevention is actively done by the citizens who created the community. Regarding the social situation, in this project, we saw it as a kind of community design practices and researched about 'how does community design influence Crime prevention?' The purpose of this study is to propose the community design as a way of preventing the crime in the city. First, we found out about the definition, elements and methods of community design by reviewing the theory. And then, this study analyzed the case that was enforced in Seoul and organize the elements and methods of community design. This study can be refer to Public Design based on civil participation and make the community design area contribute to expand the way of solving social problems.

Keywords: Public Design, Sustainable Community Design, Crime Prevention, Participatory Design.

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625 KM for Solving Economic Problem and Poverty in Community: a Case from Thailand

Authors: Usa Sutthisakorn, Samchai Jirapatarasil

Abstract:

This paper aims to present knowledge management for solving economic problem and poverty in Thai community. A community in Thailand is studied as a case study for master plan or social and economic plan which derived form the research people conducted by themselves in their community. The result shows that community uses knowledge management in recording income and expense, analyzing their consumption, and then systematic planning of the production, distribution and consumption in the community. Besides, community enterprises, that people create as the by-products of master plan, can facilitate diverse economic activities which are able to reduce economic problem and poverty. The knowledge that people gain from solving their problem through building community enterprises are both tacit and explicit knowledge. Four styles of knowledge conversion: socialization,externalization, combination and internalization, are used. Besides, knowledge sharing inside the organization, between organizations and its environment are found. Keywordsknowledge management, community enterprise, Thailand.

Keywords: knowledge management, community enterprise, Thailand

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624 Gated Communities and Sense of Community: A Review on the Social Features of Gated Communities

Authors: R. Rafiemanzelat

Abstract:

Since the mid-1970s, gated communities distributed in Latin America. They are a kind of residential development where there are privatized public spaces, and access to the area is restricted. They have specific impacts on the neighborhoods that located outside their walls such as threatening security, limiting access, and spreading social inequality. This research mainly focused on social features of gated community as; segregation, fragmentation, exclusion, specifically on sense of community and typology of gated communities. The conclusion will clarify the pros and cons of gated communities and how it could be successful or not.

Keywords: Walled community, gated community, urban development, urban sociology, sense of community.

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623 Intelligent Agent Communication by Using DAML to Build Agent Community Ontology

Authors: Cheng-Hsiung Hung, Hong-Jie Dai, Jason Jen-Yen Chen

Abstract:

This paper presents a new approach for intelligent agent communication based on ontology for agent community. DARPA agent markup language (DAML) is used to build the community ontology. This paper extends the agent management specification by the foundation for intelligent physical agents (FIPA) to develop an agent role called community facilitator (CF) that manages community directory and community ontology. CF helps build agent community. Precise description of agent service in this community can thus be achieved. This facilitates agent communication. Furthermore, through ontology update, agents with different ontology are capable of communicating with each other. An example of advanced traveler information system is included to illustrate practicality of this approach.

Keywords: Intelligent agent communication, DARPA agent markup language (DAML), Community ontology, Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS).

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622 A Preliminary Study on Effects of Community Structures on Epidemic Spreading and Detection in Complex Networks

Authors: Yi Yu, Gaoxi Xiao

Abstract:

Community structures widely exist in almost all real-life networks. Extensive researches have been carried out on detecting community structures in complex networks. However, many aspects of how community structures may affect the dynamics and properties of complex networks still remain unclear. In this work, we examine the impacts of community structures on the epidemic spreading and detection in complex networks. Extensive simulation results show that community structures may not help decrease the infection size at steady state, yet they could indeed help slow down the infection spreading. Also, networks with strong community structures may expect to have a smaller average infection size when equipped with a number of sparsely deployed monitors.

Keywords: Complex network, epidemic spreading, infection size, infection monitoring.

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621 Development of a Bacterial Resistant Concrete for Use in Low Cost Kitchen Floors

Authors: S. S. Mahlangu, R. K. K. Mbaya, D. D. Delport, H. Van. Zyl

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The degrading effect due to bacterial growth on the structural integrity of concrete floor surfaces is predictable; this consequently cause development of surface micro cracks in which organisms penetrate through resulting in surface spalling. Hence, the need to develop mix design meeting the requirement of floor surfaces exposed to aggressive agent to improve certain material properties with good workability, extended lifespan and low cost is essential. In this work, tests were performed to examine the microbial activity on kitchen floor surfaces and the effect of adding admixtures. The biochemical test shows the existence of microorganisms (E.coli, Streptococcus) on newly casted structure. Of up to 6% porosity was reduced and improvement on structural integrity was observed upon adding mineral admixtures from the concrete mortar. The SEM result after 84 days of curing specimens, shows that chemical admixtures have significant role to enable retard bacterial penetration and good quality structure is achieved.

Keywords: Admixture, organisms, porosity and strength.

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620 The Wheel Garden: Project-Based Learning for Cross Curriculum Education

Authors: Sherry S. Herron, Douglas Magomo, Paula Gossard

Abstract:

In this article, we discuss project-based learning in the context of a wheel garden as an instructional tool in science and mathematics education. A wheel garden provides multiple opportunities to teach across the curriculum, to integrate disciplines, and to promote community involvement. Grounded in the theoretical framework of constructivism, the wheel garden provides a multidisciplined educational tool that provides a hands-on, non-traditional arena for learning. We will examine some of the cultural, art, science, and mathematics connections made with this project.

Keywords: Art education, cross-curriculum instruction, multicultural education, project-based learning, school gardens, task based learning.

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619 Community Innovation in Sustainable Development: A Cross Case Study

Authors: Tingan Tang, Kimmo Karhu, Matti Hamalainen

Abstract:

Although in sustainable development field, innovative solutions have been sought worldwide by environmental groups, academia, governments and companies for many years, recently, citizens and communities have emerged as a new group and taken more and more active role in this field. Many scholars call for more research on the role of community and community innovation in sustainable development. This paper is to respond to the calls. In this paper, we first summarize a comprehensive set of innovation principles. Then, we do a qualitative cross case study by comparing three community innovation cases in three different areas of sustainable development according to the innovation principles. Finally, we summarize the case comparison and discuss the implications to sustainable development. A unified role model and innovation distribution map of community innovation are developed to better understand community innovation in sustainable development..

Keywords: Community innovation, grassroots innovation, sustainable development, sustainability.

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618 Characterization and Predictors of Community Integration of People with Psychiatric Problems: Comparisons with the General Population

Authors: J. Cabral, C. Barreto Carvalho, C. da Motta, M. Sousa

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Community integration is a construct that an increasing body of research has shown to have a significant impact on the wellbeing and recovery of people with psychiatric problems. However, there are few studies that explore which factors can be associated and predict community integration. Moreover, community integration has been mostly studied in minority groups, and current literature on the definition and manifestation of community integration in the general population is scarcer. Thus, the current study aims to characterize community integration and explore possible predictor variables in a sample of participants with psychiatric problems (PP, N=183) and a sample of participants from the general population (GP, N=211). Results show that people with psychiatric problems present above average values of community integration, but are significantly lower than their healthy counterparts. It was also possible to observe that community integration does not vary in terms of the sociodemographic characteristics of both groups in this study. Correlation and multiple regression showed that, among several variables that literature present as relevant in the community integration process, only three variables emerged as having the most explanatory value in community integration of both groups: sense of community, basic needs satisfaction and submission. These results also shown that those variables have increased explanatory power in the PP sample, which leads us to emphasize the need to address this issue in future studies and increase the understanding of the factors that can be involved in the promotion of community integration, in order to devise more effective interventions in this field.

Keywords: Community integration, mental illness, predictors.

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617 A Study on Local Wisdom towards Career Building of People in Kamchanoad Community

Authors: Phusit Phukamchanoad, Thananya Santithammakul, Suwaree Yordchim, Pennapa Palapin

Abstract:

This research gathered local wisdom towards career building of people in Kamchanoad Community, Baan Muang sub-district, Baan Dung district, Udon Thani province. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with village headmen, community board, teachers, monks, Kamchanoad forest managers and revered elderly aged over 60 years old. All of these 30 interviewees have resided in Kamchanoad Community for more than 40. Descriptive data analysis result revealed that the most prominent local wisdom of Kamchanoad community is their beliefs and religion. Most people in the community have strongly maintained local tradition, the festival of appeasing Chao Pu Sri Suttho on the middle of the 6th month of Thai lunar calendar which falls on the same day with Vesak Day. 100 percent of the people in this community are Buddhist. They believe that Naga, an entity or being, taking the form of a serpent, named “Sri Suttho” lives in Kamchanoad forest. The local people worship the serpent and ask for blessings. Another local wisdom of this community is Sinh fabric weaving.

Keywords: Local Wisdom, Careers, Kamchanoad Community.

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616 The Ecological Footprint of Tourism in Jalapão/TO/Brazil

Authors: Mary L. G. S. Senna, Afonso R. Aquino

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The development of tourism causes negative impacts on the environment. It is in this context, through the Ecological Footprint (EF) method that this study aimed to characterize the impacts of ecotourism on the community of Mateiros, Jalapão, Brazil. The EF, which consisted in its original a method to construct a land use matrix, considering some major categories of human consumption such as food, housing, transportation, consumer goods and services, and six other categories from the main land use which are divided into the topics: land use, degraded environment, gardens, fertile land, pasture and forests protected by the government. The main objective of this index is to calculate the land area required for the production and maintenance of goods and services consumed by a community. The field research was conducted throughout the year of 2014 until July 2015. After the calculations of each category, these components were added according to the presented method in order to determine the annual EF of the tourism sector in Mateiros. The results show that the EF resulting from tourism in Mateiros is 2,194.22 hectares of land required for tourism activities in the region. The EF of tourism was considered high, nevertheless, if it is added the total of hectares needed annually for tourism activities, the result found would be 2,194.22 hectares needed to absorb the CO2 emissions generated in the region directly from the tourism sector.

Keywords: Sustainable tourism, tourism ecological footprint, Jalapão/TO/Brazil.

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615 Applying Transformative Service Design to Develop Brand Community Service in Women, Children and Infants Retailing

Authors: Shian Wan, Yi-Chang Wang, Yu-Chien Lin

Abstract:

This research discussed the various theories of service design, the importance of service design methodology, and the development of transformative service design framework. In this study, transformative service design is applied while building a new brand community service for women, children and infants retailing business. The goal is to enhance the brand recognition and customer loyalty, effectively increase the brand community engagement by embedding the brand community in social network and ultimately, strengthen the impact and the value of the company brand.

Keywords: Service design, transformative service design, brand community.

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614 Assessing Community Participation in Decision-Making Process under Co-Management: A Case Study on Hail Haor, Bangladesh

Authors: R. Ferdous

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Power, responsibility sharing, and democratic decision-making are the central ethos to co-management. It is assumed that involving local community in the decision-making process can create a sense of ownership and responsibility of that community and motivate the community towards collective action. But this paper demonstrated that the process to involve local community is not simple and straightforward as it is influenced by structural aspects, power relations among the actors, and social embedded institutions. These factors shape the process in that way who will participate, how they will participate and how the local community maneuvers their agency in the decision-making process. To grasp the complexities that materialize in the process of participation and to understand the inclusionary and exclusionary nature of participation, this paper examines the subjective understanding of different stakeholders concerning participation and furthermore observes the enabling or constraining factors that affect the community to exercise their agency.

Keywords: Participation, social embeddedness, power, structure.

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613 Military Families’ Attachment to the Royal Guards Community of Dusit District, Bangkok Metropolitan

Authors: Kaniknun Photchong, Phusit Phukamchanoad

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The objective of this research is to study the people’s level of participation in activities of the community, their satisfaction towards the community, the attachment they have to the community, factors that influence the attachment, as well as the characteristics of the relationships of military families’ of the Royal Guards community of Dusit District. The method used was non-probability sampling by quota sampling according to people’s age. The determined age group was 18 years or older.

One set of a sample group was done per family. The questionnaires were conducted by 287 people. Snowball sampling was also used by interviewing people of the community, starting from the Royal Guards Community’s leader, then by 20 of the community’s well-respected persons. The data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics, such as arithmetic mean and standard deviation, as well as by inferential statistics, such as Independent - Samples T test (T-test), One-Way ANOVA (F-test), Chi-Square. Descriptive analysis according to the structure of the interview content was also used. The results of the research is that the participation of the population in the Royal Guards Community in various activities is at a medium level, with the average participation level during Mother’s and Father’s Days. The people’s general level of satisfaction towards the premises of the Royal Guards Community is at the highest level.

The people were most satisfied with the transportation within the community and in contacting with people from outside the premises. The access to the community is convenient and there are various entrances. The attachment of the people to the Royal Guards Community in general and by each category is at a high level. The feeling that the community is their home rated the highest average. Factors that influence the attachment of the people of the Royal Guards Community are age, status, profession, income, length of stay in the community, membership of social groups, having neighbors they feel close and familiar with, and as well as the benefits they receive from the community. In addition, it was found that people that participate in activities have a high level of positive relationship towards the attachment of the people to the Royal Guards Community. The satisfaction of the community has a very high level of positive relationship with the attachment of the people to the Royal Guards Community.

The characteristics of the attachment of military families’ is that they live in big houses that everyone has to protect and care for, starting from the leader of the family as well as all members. Therefore, they all love the community they live in. The characteristics that show the participation of activities within the community and the high level of satisfaction towards the premises of the community will enable the people to be more attached to the community. The people feel that everyone is close neighbors within the community, as if they are one big family.

Keywords: Activities, Attachment, Community, Royal Guards, Satisfaction.

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612 Community‐Based Participatory Research in Elderly Health Care of Paisanee Ramintra 65 Community, Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: A. Kulprasutidilok

Abstract:

In order to address the social factors of elderly health care, researcher and community members have turned to more inclusive and participatory approaches to research and interventions. One such approach, community-based participatory research (CBPR) in public health, has received increased attention as the academic and public health communities struggle to address the persistent problems of disparities in the use of health care and health outcomes for several over the past decade. As Thailand becomes an ageing society, health services and proper care systems specifically for the elderly group need to be prepared and well established. The purpose of this assignment was to study the health problems and was to explore the process of community participation in elderly health care. Participants in this study were member of elderly group of Paisanee Ramintra 65 community in Bangkok, Thailand. The results indicated two important components of community participation process in elderly health care: 1) a process to develop community participation in elderly health care, and 2) outcomes resulting from such process. The development of community participation consisted of four processes. As for the outcomes of the community participation development process, they consisted of elderly in the community got jointly and formulated a group, which strengthened the project because of collaborative supervision among themselves. Moreover, inactive health care services have changed to being energetic and focus on health promotion rather than medical achievement and elderly association of community can perform health care activities for chronically illness through the achievement of this development; consequently, they increasingly gained access to physical, cognitive, and social activity.

Keywords: Community-based participatory research, elderly health care, Thailand.

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611 Gated Community: The Past and Present in China

Authors: Qiong Yao, Wei Wei

Abstract:

Gated community has gained its dominant in residential areas development that it has become the standard development pattern of the newly built residential areas in contemporary China. The form of gated community has its own advantages and rationality that meet the needs of quite a lot of residents, but it-s also believed by researchers that the form has great damage to the urban morphology and development, and has a negative impact on residents- living style. However, there is still a considerable controversy of the origins and outcomes. Though recognized as a global phenomenon, gated community developed in China is greatly to do with the specific local forces, respect to the unique historical, political and socio-cultural momentums. A historical review of the traditional settlements in China and the trends that how Gated community has gained its contemporary form, is indispensable for comprehending the local forces, and provide a new perspective to solve the controversy.

Keywords: Gated community, Traditional form of settlements, modeling process.

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610 The Social Area Disclosure to Reduce Conflicts between Community and the State: A Case of Mahakan Fortress, Bangkok

Authors: Saowapa Phaithayawat

Abstract:

The purposes of this study are 1) to study the over 20-year attempt of Mahakan fort community to negotiate with Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) to remain in their residential area belonging to the state, and 2) to apply the new social and cultural dimension between the state and the community as an alternative for local participation in keeping their residential area. This is a qualitative research, and the findings reveal that the community claimed their ancestors’ right as owners of this piece of land for over 200 years. The community, therefore, requested to take part in the preservation of land, culture and local intellect and the area management in terms of being a learning resource on the cultural road in Rattanakosin Island. However, BMA imposed the law concerning the community area relocation in Rattanakosin Island. The result of law enforcement led to the failure of the area relocation, and the hard hit on physical structure of the area including the overall deterioration of the cultural road renovated in the year 1982, the 200 years’ celebration of Bangkok. The enforcement of law by the state required the move of the community, and the landscape improvement based on the capital city plan. However, this enforcement resulted in the unending conflicts between the community and the state, and the solution of this problem was unclear. At the same time the community has spent a long time opposing the state’s action, and preparing themselves by administrating the community behind Mahakan fortress with community administrative committee under the suggestion of external organization by registering all community members, providing funds for community administration. At the meantime the state lacked the continuation of the enforcement due to political problem and BMA’s administration problem. It is, therefore, suggested that an alternative solution to this problem lie at the negotiation between the state and the community with the purpose of the collaboration between the two to develop the area under the protective law of each side.

Keywords: Pom-Mahakan Community, The Reduction of Conflicts, The Social Area Disclosure.

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609 Transmitting a Distance Training Model to the Community in the Upper Northeastern Region

Authors: Teerawach Khamkorn, Laongtip Mathurasa, Savittree Rochanasmita Arnold, Witthaya Mekhum

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The objective of this research seeks to transmit a distance training model to the community in the upper northeastern region. The group sampling consists of 60 community leaders in the municipality of sub-district Kumphawapi, Kumphawapi Disrict, Udonthani Province. The research tools rely on the following instruments, they are : 1) the achievement test of community leaders- training and 2) the satisfaction questionnaires of community leaders. The statistics used in data analysis takes the statistical mean, percentage, standard deviation, and statistical T-test. The resulted findings reveal : 1) the efficiency of the distance training developed by the researcher for the community leaders joining in the training received the average score between in-training and post-training period higher than the setup criterion, 2) the two groups of participants in the training achieved higher knowledge than their pre-training state, 3) the comparison of the achievements between the two group presented no different results, 4) the community leaders obtained the high-to-highest satisfaction.

Keywords: Distance Training, Management, Technology, Transmitting.

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608 A Retrospective Analysis of a Professional Learning Community: How Teachers- Capacities Shaped It

Authors: S.Pancucci

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The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of setting up a learning community within an elementary school in Ontario, Canada. The description is provided through reflection and examination of field notes taken during the yearlong training and implementation process. Specifically the impact of teachers- capacity on the creation of a learning community was of interest. This paper is intended to inform and add to the debate around the tensions that exist in implementing a bottom-up professional development model like the learning community in a top-down organizational structure. My reflections of the process illustrate that implementation of the learning community professional development model may be difficult and yet transformative in the professional lives of the teachers, students, and administration involved in the change process. I conclude by suggesting the need for a new model of professional development that requires a transformative shift in power dynamics and a shift in the view of what constitutes effective professional learning.

Keywords: Learning community model, professionaldevelopment, teacher capacity, teacher leadership.

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607 Social and Cultural Capital in Patthana Soi Ranongklang Community, Dusit District, Bangkok

Authors: Phusit Phukamchanoad, Bua Srikos

Abstract:

This research aimed to study the characteristics of a community in the social, economic and cultural context. This research used interviews and surveys of the members in the Patthana Soi Ranongklang community, Dusit District, Bangkok. The results are as follows: In terms of overall conditions and characteristics, the Patthana Soi Ranongklang community is located on the property of the Treasury Department. 50 years ago, the location of this community consisted of paddy fields with limited convenience in terms of transportation. Rama V Road was only a small narrow road accessed only by three-wheelers there were no buses. The majority of community members moved in from Mak Khawan Rangsan Bridge. Thus, most community members were either workers or government officials as they were routers not the owners of the land. Therefore, there were no primary occupations within the 7 acres of this community. The development of the community started in 1981. At present, the community is continuously being developed and modernization is rapidly flowing in. One of the reasons was because the main roads were widened, especially Rama V Road that allows more convenient transportation, leading to heightened citizens’ convenience. In terms of the economy and society, Rama V Road causes the research to find out the development and expansion of change in the conditions of the area and buildings. Some buildings were improved and changed along the time, as well as the development of new facilities that caused the community members to continually become more materialistic. In the community, it has well organized and managed jobs to each part of community members, and areas were improved to allow the new buildings and apartments. The trend of jobs became more varied, in terms of both jobs at home, such as workers, merchandizing and small own businesses, and the community jobs outside, which became much more convenient to car drivers as they got used to the narrow roads inside the community. The location of the community next to Rama V Road also allows assistance from government agencies to reach the community with ease. Moreover, the welfare of the community was well taken care of by the community committee. In terms of education, the research found that there are two schools: Wat Pracharabuedham School and Wat Noi Noppakun School that are providing education within the community. The majority in the community have received Bachelor degrees. In areas of culture, the research found that the culture, traditions and beliefs of people in the community were mainly transferred from the old community: the majorities are Buddhists, so especially beliefs in Buddhism; the main reason for this is because the old community was situated near Wat Makut Kasattriyaram. Therefore, the community members have always had Buddhist temples as the centre of the community. Later years, more citizens moved along culture in and bring traditions and beliefs with them. The community members also took part in building a Dharma hall named Wat Duang Jai which is 72 year old.

Keywords: Social Capital, Patthana Soi Ranongklang community, Way of Life.

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606 A Proposal of a Method to Measure the Satisfaction Indicator of the Local Community Concerning Tourism: A Case Study of Jalapão State Park, Tocantins

Authors: Veruska C. Dutra, Mary L. G. S. Senna, Afonso R. Aquino

Abstract:

Tourists bring many benefits to a local community, encouraging it to be involved in that activity; however, it may also have detrimental effects like garbage, noise, violence, external culture and the damaging of the natural environment among others, which may promote community dissatisfaction. The contact between the tourist and the local community is a concern, especially when the community is located near protected areas. In this case, the community must know the tourist destination well, so it can collaborate in the tourism development without harming the environment. In this context, the present article aims to demonstrate the results of a research study conducted as part of a doctorate program in Sciences from the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. It had as an objective to elaborate a methodology proposal to measure the local community satisfaction indicator, with applicability on a case study in the Mateiros community located in the surrounding area of the Parque Estadual do Jalapão –PEJ conservation unit in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. This is a study of an interdisciplinary nature that had the deductive method as its guide. The indicator result is going to be presented in this study. It pointed out as negative factors: there is no involvement between the local community and the tourism sector, and there is also dissatisfaction with regard to the town’s basic services. The study showed as positive the local community knowledge about the various attractions in the surrounding area and that the group recognizes the importance of the tourism for the town and life. Concerning the methodology that was used, the results showed that it can collaborate in seeking actions of improvement and involvement of the community in the planning and development of the local tourism. It comes out as an efficient analysis tool, thus enabling the perceiving of the local community point of view.

Keywords: Satisfaction indicator, tourism, community, Jalapão.

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605 Auspicious Meaning for Community Souvenir Products

Authors: Somsakul Jerasilp, Jong Boonpracha

Abstract:

The objective of this research was to find the relationship between auspicious meaning in eastern wisdom and the interpretation as a guideline for the design and development of community souvenirs. The sample group included 400 customers in Bangkok who used to buy community souvenir products. The information was applied to design the souvenirs which were considered for the appropriateness by 5 design specialists. The data were analyzed to find frequency, percentage, and SD with the results as follows. 1) The best factor referring to the auspicious meaning is color. The application of auspicious meaning can make the value added to the product and bring the fortune to the receivers. 2) The effectiveness of the auspicious meaning integration on the design of community souvenir product was in high level. When considering in each aspect, it was found that the interpretation aspect was in high level, the congruency of the auspicious meaning and the utility of the product was in high level. The attractiveness and the good design were in very high level while the potential of the value added in the product design was in high level. The suitable application to the design of community souvenir product was in high level.

Keywords: Auspicious meaning, community products, souvenirs.

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