Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 600

Search results for: Combustion Duration

600 Combustion Characteristics of Syngas and Natural Gas in Micro-pilot Ignited Dual-fuel Engine

Authors: Ulugbek Azimov, Eiji Tomita, Nobuyuki Kawahara, Sharul Sham Dol

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the combustion in a pilot-ignited supercharged dual-fuel engine, fueled with different types of gaseous fuels under various equivalence ratios. It is found that if certain operating conditions are maintained, conventional dual-fuel engine combustion mode can be transformed to the combustion mode with the two-stage heat release. This mode of combustion was called the PREMIER (PREmixed Mixture Ignition in the End-gas Region) combustion. During PREMIER combustion, initially, the combustion progresses as the premixed flame propagation and then, due to the mixture autoignition in the end-gas region, ahead of the propagating flame front, the transition occurs with the rapid increase in the heat release rate.

Keywords: Combustion, dual-fuel engine, end-gas autoignition, PREMIER.

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599 On Unburned Carbon in Coal Ash from Various Combustion Units

Authors: L. Bartonová, D. Juchelková, Z. Klika, B. Cech

Abstract:

Work is focused to the study of unburned carbon in ash from coal (and wastes) combustion in 8 combustion tests at 3 fluidised-bed power station, at co-combustion of coal and wastes (also at fluidized bed) and at bench-scale unit simulating coal combustion in small domestic furnaces. The attention is paid to unburned carbon contents in bottom ashes and fly ashes at these 8 combustion tests and to morphology of unburned carbons. Specific surface area of coals, unburned carbons and ashes and the relation of specific surface area of unburned carbon and the content of volatile combustibles in coal were studied as well.

Keywords: Coal combustion, emissions, toxic elements, unburned carbon.

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598 Influence of Valve Lift Timing on Producer Gas Combustion and Its Modeling Using Two-Stage Wiebe Function

Authors: M. Sreedhar Babu, Vishal Garg, S. B. Akella, Shibu Clement, N. K. S Rajan

Abstract:

Producer gas is a biomass derived gaseous fuel which is extensively used in internal combustion engines for power generation application. Unlike the conventional hydrocarbon fuels (Gasoline and Natural gas), the combustion properties of producer gas fuel are much different. Therefore, setting of optimal spark time for efficient engine operation is required. Owing to the fluctuating tendency of producer gas composition during gasification process, the heat release patterns (dictating the power output and emissions) obtained are quite different from conventional fuels. It was found that, valve lift timing is yet another factor which influences the burn rate of producer gas fuel, and thus, the heat release rate of the engine. Therefore, the present study was motivated to estimate the influence of valve lift timing analytically (Wiebe model) on the burn rate of producer gas through curve fitting against experimentally obtained mass fraction burn curves of several producer gas compositions. Furthermore, Wiebe models are widely used in zero-dimensional codes for engine parametric studies and are quite popular. This study also addresses the influence of hydrogen and methane concentration of producer gas on combustion trends, which are known to cause dynamics in engine combustion.

Keywords: Combustion Duration, crank angle, mass fraction burnt, producer gas, wiebe combustion model, wide open throttle.

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597 Low NOx Combustion Technology for Minimizing NOx

Authors: Sewon Kim, Changyeop Lee, Minjun Kwon

Abstract:

A noble low NOx combustion technology, based on partial oxidation combustion concept in a fuel rich combustion zone, is successfully applied in this research. The burner is designed such that a portion of fuel is heated and pre-vaporized in the furnace then injected into a fuel rich combustion zone so that a partial oxidation reaction occurs. The effects of equivalence ratio, thermal load, and fuel distribution ratio on the emissions of NOx and CO are experimentally investigated. This newly developed combustion technology showed very low NOx emission level, about 12 ppm, when light oil is used as a fuel.

Keywords: Burner, low NOx, liquid fuel, partial oxidation, fuel rich.

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596 An Experimental Study on the Effect of EGR and Engine Speed on CO and HC Emissions of Dual Fuel HCCI Engine

Authors: M. Ghazikhani, M. R. Kalateh, Y. K. Toroghi, M. Dehnavi

Abstract:

In this study, effects of EGR on CO and HC emissions of a dual fuel HCCI-DI engine are investigated. Tests were conducted on a single-cylinder variable compression ratio (VCR) diesel engine with compression ratio of 17.5. Premixed gasoline is provided by a carburetor connected to intake manifold and equipped with a screw to adjust premixed air-fuel ratio, and diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder through an injector at pressure of 250 bars. A heater placed at inlet manifold is used to control the intake charge temperature. Optimal intake charge temperature was 110-115ºC due to better formation of a homogeneous mixture causing HCCI combustion. Timing of diesel fuel injection has a great effect on stratification of in-cylinder charge in HCCI combustion. Experiments indicated 35 BTDC as the optimum injection timing. Coolant temperature was maintained 50ºC during the tests. Results show that increasing engine speed at a constant EGR rate leads to increase in CO and UHC emissions due to the incomplete combustion caused by shorter combustion duration and less homogeneous mixture. Results also show that increasing EGR reduces the amount of oxygen and leads to incomplete combustion and therefore increases CO emission due to lower combustion temperature. HC emission also increases as a result of lower combustion temperatures.

Keywords: Dual fuel HCCI engine, EGR, engine speed, CO andUHC emissions.

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595 Combustion, Emission and Performance Characteristics of a Light Duty Diesel Engine Fuelled with Methanol Diesel Blends

Authors: Mishra Chinmaya, Pal Anuj, Tomar Vishvendra Singh, Kumar Naveen

Abstract:

Combustion, emission and performance characterization of a single cylinder diesel engine using methanol diesel blends was carried out. The blends were 5% (v/v) methanol in diesel (MD05) and 10% (v/v) methanol in diesel (MD10). The problem of solubility of methanol and diesel was addressed by an agitator placed inside the fuel tank to prevent phase separation. The results indicated that total combustion duration was reduced by15.8% for MD05 and 31.27% for MD10compared to the baseline data. Ignition delay was increased with increasing methanol volume fraction in the test fuel. Total cyclic heat release was reduced by 1.5% for MD05 and 6.7% for MD10 as compared to diesel baseline. Emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons along with smoke were reduced and that of nitrogen oxides were increased with rising methanol contents in the test fuel. Full load brake thermal efficiency was marginally reduced with increased methanol composition in the blend.

Keywords: Combustion, diesel engine, emission, methanol, performance.

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594 Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a Can-type Combustion Chamber

Authors: Selvakuma Kumaresh, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Combustion phenomenon will be accomplished effectively by the development of low emission combustor. One of the significant factors influencing the entire Combustion process is the mixing between a swirling angular jet (Primary Air) and the non-swirling inner jet (fuel). To study this fundamental flow, the chamber had to be designed in such a manner that the combustion process to sustain itself in a continuous manner and the temperature of the products is sufficiently below the maximum working temperature in the turbine. This study is used to develop the effective combustion with low unburned combustion products by adopting the concept of high swirl flow and motility of holes in the secondary chamber. The proper selection of a swirler is needed to reduce emission which can be concluded from the emission of Nox and CO2. The capture of CO2 is necessary to mitigate CO2 emissions from natural gas. Thus the suppression of unburned gases is a meaningful objective for the development of high performance combustor without affecting turbine blade temperature.

Keywords: Combustion, Emission, Can-type Combustion Chamber, CFD, Motility of Holes, Swirl Flow.

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593 Reaction Rate of Olive Stone during Combustion in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed

Authors: A. Soria-Verdugo, M. Rubio-Rubio, J. Arrieta, N. García-Hernando

Abstract:

Combustion of biomass is a promising alternative to reduce the high pollutant emission levels associated to the combustion of fossil flues due to the net null emission of CO2 attributed to biomass. However, the biomass selected should also have low contents of nitrogen and sulfur to limit the NOx and SOx emissions derived from its combustion. In this sense, olive stone is an excellent fuel to power combustion reactors with reduced levels of pollutant emissions. In this work, the combustion of olive stone particles is analyzed experimentally in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor (BFB). The bubbling fluidized bed reactor was installed over a scale, conforming a macro-TGA. In both equipment, the evolution of the mass of the samples was registered as the combustion process progressed. The results show a much faster combustion process in the bubbling fluidized bed reactor compared to the thermogravimetric analyzer measurements, due to the higher heat transfer coefficient and the abrasion of the fuel particles by the bed material in the BFB reactor.

Keywords: Olive stone, combustion, reaction rate, thermogravimetric analysis, fluidized bed.

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592 Recent Advances and Challenges in the Catalytic Combustion at Micro-Scales

Authors: Junjie Chen, Deguang Xu

Abstract:

The high energy density of hydrocarbon fuels creates a great opportunity to develop catalytic combustion based micro-power generation systems to meet increasing demands for micro-scale devices. In this work, the recent technological development progress in fundamental understanding of the catalytic combustion at micro-scales are reviewed. The underlying fundamental mechanisms, flame stability, hetero-homogeneous interaction, catalytic ignition, and catalytic reforming are reviewed in catalytic micro-scale combustion systems. Catalytic combustion and its design, diagnosis, and modeling operation are highlighted for micro-combustion application purpose; these fundamental aspects are reviewed. Finally, an overview of future studies is made. The primary objective of this review is to present an overview of the development of micro-power generators by focusing more on the advances and challenges in the fundamental understanding of the catalytic combustion at micro-scales.

Keywords: Micro-combustion, catalytic combustion, flame stability, hetero-homogeneous interaction, catalytic ignition, catalytic reforming.

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591 CFD Modeling of Reduction in NOX Emission Using HiTAC Technique

Authors: Abbas Khoshhal, Masoud Rahimi, Sayed Reza Shabanian, Ammar Abdulaziz Alsairafi

Abstract:

In the present study, the rate of NOx emission in a combustion chamber working in conventional combustion and High Temperature Air Combustion (HiTAC) system are examined using CFD modeling. The effect of peak temperature, combustion air temperature and oxygen concentration on NOx emission rate was undertaken. Results show that in a fixed oxygen concentration, increasing the preheated air temperature will increase the peak temperature and NOx emission rate. In addition, it was observed that the reduction of the oxygen concentration in the fixed preheated air temperature decreases the peak temperature and NOx emission rate. On the other hand, the results show that increase of preheated air temperature at various oxygen concentrations increases the NOx emission rate. However, the rate of increase in HiTAC conditions is quite lower than the conventional combustion. The modeling results show that the NOx emission rate in HiTAC combustion is 133% less than that of the conventional combustion.

Keywords: CFD Modeling, HiTAC, NOx, Combustion.

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590 On a Pitch Duration Technique for Prosody Control

Authors: JongKuk Kim, HernSoo Hahn, Uei-Joong Yoo, MyungJin Bae

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a method of alter duration in frequency domain that control prosody in real time after pitch alteration. If there has a method to alteration duration freely among prosody information, that may used in several fields such as speech impediment person's pronunciation proof reading or language study. The pitch alteration method used control prosody altered by PSOLA synthesis method which is in time domain processing method. However, the duration of pitch alteration speech is changed by the frequency domain. In this paper, we altered the duration with the method of duration alteration by Fast Fourier Transformation in frequency domain. Consequently, the intelligibility of the pitch and duration are controlled has a slight decrease than the case when only pitch is changed, but the proposed algorithm obtained the higher MOS score about naturalness.

Keywords: PSOLA, Pitch Alteration, Duration Control.

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589 Estimation Model of Dry Docking Duration Using Data Mining

Authors: Isti Surjandari, Riara Novita

Abstract:

Maintenance is one of the most important activities in the shipyard industry. However, sometimes it is not supported by adequate services from the shipyard, where inaccuracy in estimating the duration of the ship maintenance is still common. This makes estimation of ship maintenance duration is crucial. This study uses Data Mining approach, i.e., CART (Classification and Regression Tree) to estimate the duration of ship maintenance that is limited to dock works or which is known as dry docking. By using the volume of dock works as an input to estimate the maintenance duration, 4 classes of dry docking duration were obtained with different linear model and job criteria for each class. These linear models can then be used to estimate the duration of dry docking based on job criteria.

Keywords: Classification and regression tree (CART), data mining, dry docking, maintenance duration.

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588 Combustion Analysis of Suspended Sodium Droplet

Authors: T. Watanabe

Abstract:

Combustion analysis of suspended sodium droplet is performed by solving numerically the Navier-Stokes equations and the energy conservation equations. The combustion model consists of the pre-ignition and post-ignition models. The reaction rate for the pre-ignition model is based on the chemical kinetics, while that for the post-ignition model is based on the mass transfer rate of oxygen. The calculated droplet temperature is shown to be in good agreement with the existing experimental data. The temperature field in and around the droplet is obtained as well as the droplet shape variation, and the present numerical model is confirmed to be effective for the combustion analysis.

Keywords: Combustion, analysis, sodium, droplet.

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587 On the Catalytic Combustion Behaviors of CH4 in a MCFC Power Generation System

Authors: Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Catalytic combustion is generally accepted as an environmentally preferred alternative for the generation of heat and power from fossil fuels mainly due to its advantages related to the stable combustion under very lean conditions with low emissions of NOx, CO, and UHC at temperatures lower than those occurred in conventional flame combustion. Despite these advantages, the commercial application of catalytic combustion has been delayed because of complicated reaction processes and the difficulty in developing appropriate catalysts with the required stability and durability. To develop the catalytic combustors, detailed studies on the combustion characteristics of catalytic combustion should be conducted. To the end, in current research, quantitative studies on the combustion characteristics of the catalytic combustors, with a Pd-based catalyst for MCFC power generation systems, relying on numerical simulations have been conducted. In addition, data from experimental studies of variations in outlet temperatures and fuel conversion, taken after operating conditions have been used to validate the present numerical approach. After introducing the governing equations for mass, momentum, and energy equations as well as a description of catalytic combustion kinetics, the effects of the excess air ratio, space velocity, and inlet gas temperature on the catalytic combustion characteristics are extensively investigated. Quantitative comparisons are also conducted with previous experimental data. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented.

Keywords: Catalytic combustion, Methane, BOP, MCFC power generation system, Inlet temperature, Excess air ratio, Space velocity.

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586 Conical Spouted Bed Combustor for Combustion of Vine Shoots Wastes

Authors: M. J. San José, S. Alvarez, R. López

Abstract:

In order to prove the applicability of a conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal exploitation of vineyard pruning wastes, the flow regimes of beds consisting of vine shoot beds and an inert bed were established under different operating conditions. The effect of inlet air temperature on the minimum spouted velocity was evaluated. Batch combustion of vine shoots in a conical spouted bed combustor was conducted at temperatures in the range 425-550 ºC with an inert bed. The experimental values of combustion efficiency of vine shoot calculated from the concentration the exhaust gases were assessed. The high experimental combustion efficiency obtained evidenced the proper suitability of the conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal combustion of vine shoots.

Keywords: Biomass wastes, thermal combustion, conical spouted beds, vineyard wastes.

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585 Ethanol Fuelled HCCI Engine: A Review

Authors: B. Bahri, A. A. Aziz, M. Shahbakhti, M. F. Muhamad Said

Abstract:

The greenhouse effect and limitations on carbon dioxide emissions concern engine maker and the future of the internal combustion engines should go toward substantially and improved thermal efficiency engine. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is an alternative high-efficiency technology for combustion engines to reduce exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. However, there are still tough challenges in the successful operation of HCCI engines, such as controlling the combustion phasing, extending the operating range, and high unburned hydrocarbon and CO emissions. HCCI and the exploitation of ethanol as an alternative fuel is one way to explore new frontiers of internal combustion engines with an eye towards maintaining its sustainability. This study was done to extend database knowledge about HCCI with ethanol a fuel.

Keywords: Ethanol combustion, Ethanol fuel, HCCI.

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584 Numerical Simulation of Flow and Combustionin an Axisymmetric Internal Combustion Engine

Authors: Nureddin Dinler, Nuri Yucel

Abstract:

Improving the performance of internal combustion engines is one of the major concerns of researchers. Experimental studies are more expensive than computational studies. Also using computational techniques allows one to obtain all the required data for the cylinder, some of which could not be measured. In this study, an axisymmetric homogeneous charged spark ignition engine was modeled. Fluid motion and combustion process were investigated numerically. Turbulent flow conditions were considered. Standard k- ε turbulence model for fluid flow and eddy break-up model for turbulent combustion were utilized. The effects of valve angle on the fluid flow and combustion are analyzed for constant air/fuel and compression ratios. It is found that, velocities and strength of tumble increases in-cylinder flow and due to increase in turbulence strength, the flame propagation is faster for small valve angles.

Keywords: CFD simulation, eddy break-up model, k-εturbulence model, reciprocating engine flow and combustion.

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583 Preliminary Investigation on Combustion Characteristics of Rice Husk in FBC

Authors: W. Permchart, S. Tanatvanit

Abstract:

The experimental results on combustion of rice husk in a conical fluidized bed combustor (referred to as the conical FBC) using silica sand as the bed material are presented in this paper. The effects of excess combustion air and combustor loading as well as the sand bed height on the combustion pattern in FBC were investigated. Temperatures and gas concentrations (CO and NO) along over the combustor height as well as in the flue gas downstream from the ash collecting cyclone were measured. The results showed that the axial temperature profiles in FBC were explicitly affected by the combustor loading whereas the excess air and bed height were found to have minor influences on the temperature pattern. Meanwhile, the combustor loading and the excess air significantly affected the axial CO and NO concentration profiles; however, these profiles were almost independent of the bed height. The combustion and thermal efficiencies for this FBC were quantified for different operating conditions.

Keywords: Temperature, Combustor loading, Excess air, Bed height.

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582 Ignition Time Delay in Swirling Supersonic Flow Combustion

Authors: A. M. Tahsini

Abstract:

Supersonic hydrogen-air cylindrical mixing layer is numerically analyzed to investigate the effect of inlet swirl on ignition time delay in scramjets. Combustion is treated using detail chemical kinetics. One-equation turbulence model of Spalart and Allmaras is chosen to study the problem and advection upstream splitting method is used as computational scheme. The results show that swirling both fuel and oxidizer streams may drastically decrease the ignition distance in supersonic combustion, unlike using the swirl just in fuel stream which has no helpful effect.

Keywords: Ignition delay, Supersonic combustion, Swirl, Numerical simulation, Turbulence.

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581 Simultaneously Reduction of NOx and Soot Emissions in a DI Heavy Duty diesel Engine Operating at High Cooled EGR Rates

Authors: Sh. Khalilarya, S. Jafarmadar, H. Khatamnezhad, Gh. Javadirad, M. Pourfallah

Abstract:

One promising way to achieve low temperature combustion regime is the use of a large amount of cooled EGR. In this paper, the effect of injection timing on low temperature combustion process and emissions were investigated via three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) procedures in a DI diesel engine using high EGR rates. The results show when increasing EGR from low levels to levels corresponding to reduced temperature combustion, soot emission after first increasing, is decreased beyond 40% EGR and get the lowest value at 58% EGR rate. Soot and NOx emissions are simultaneously decreased at advanced injection timing before 20.5 ºCA BTDC in conjunction with 58% cooled EGR rate in compared to baseline case.

Keywords: Diesel Engine, Low Temperature Combustion, High Cooled EGR Rates, Combustion, Emissions

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580 Production of Sr-Ferrite Sub-Micron Powder by Conventional and Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Methods

Authors: M. Ghobeiti-Hasab

Abstract:

Magnetic powder of Sr-ferrite was prepared by conventional and sol-gel auto-combustion methods. In conventional method, strontium carbonate and ferric oxide powders were mixed together and then mixture was calcined. In sol-gel auto-combustion method, a solution containing strontium nitrate, ferric nitrate and citric acid was heated until the combustion took place automatically; then, as-burnt powder was calcined. Thermal behavior, phase identification, morphology and magnetic properties of powders obtained by these two methods were compared by DTA, XRD, SEM and VSM techniques. According to the results of DTA analysis, formation temperature of Sr-ferrite obtained by conventional and solgel auto-combustion methods were 1300°C and 1000°C, respectively. XRD results confirmed the formation of pure Sr-ferrite at the mentioned temperatures. Plate and hexagonal-shape particles of Srferrite were observed using SEM. The Sr-ferrite powder obtained by sol-gel auto-combustion method had saturation magnetization of 66.03 emu/g and coercivity of 5731 Oe in comparison with values of 58.20 emu/g and 4378 Oe obtained by conventional method.

Keywords: Sr-ferrite, Sol-gel, Magnetic properties, Calcination.

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579 Computational Modeling of Combustion Wave in Nanoscale Thermite Reaction

Authors: Kyoungjin Kim

Abstract:

Nanoscale thermites such as the composite mixture of nano-sized aluminum and molybdenum trioxide powders possess several technical advantages such as much higher reaction rate and shorter ignition delay, when compared to the conventional energetic formulations made of micron-sized metal and oxidizer particles. In this study, the self-propagation of combustion wave in compacted pellets of nanoscale thermite composites is modeled and computationally investigated by utilizing the activation energy reduction of aluminum particles due to nanoscale particle sizes. The present computational model predicts the speed of combustion wave propagation which is good agreement with the corresponding experiments of thermite reaction. Also, several characteristics of thermite reaction in nanoscale composites are discussed including the ignition delay and combustion wave structures.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Thermite reaction, Combustion wave, Numerical modeling.

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578 Effects of Injection Conditions on Flame Structures in Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Injector

Authors: Wooseok Song, Sunjung Park, Jongkwon Lee, Jaye Koo

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to observe the effects of injection conditions on flame structures in gas-centered swirl coaxial injector. Gaseous oxygen and liquid kerosene were used as propellants. For different injection conditions, two types of injector, which only differ in the diameter of the tangential inlet, were used in this study. In addition, oxidizer injection pressure was varied to control the combustion chamber pressure in different types of injector. In order to analyze the combustion instability intensity, the dynamic pressure was measured in both the combustion chamber and propellants lines. With the increase in differential pressure between the propellant injection pressure and the combustion chamber pressure, the combustion instability intensity increased. In addition, the flame structure was recorded using a high-speed camera to detect CH* chemiluminescence intensity. With the change in the injection conditions in the gas-centered swirl coaxial injector, the flame structure changed.

Keywords: Liquid rocket engine, flame structure, combustion instability, dynamic pressure.

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577 Fluidized-Bed Combustion of Biomass with Elevated Alkali Content: A Comparative Study between Two Alternative Bed Materials

Authors: P. Ninduangdee, V. I. Kuprianov

Abstract:

Palm kernel shell is an important bioenergy resource in Thailand. However, due to elevated alkali content in biomass ash, this oil palm residue shows high tendency to bed agglomeration in a fluidized-bed combustion system using conventional bed material (silica sand). In this study, palm kernel shell was burned in the conical fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) using alumina and dolomite as alternative bed materials to prevent bed agglomeration. For each bed material, the combustion tests were performed at 45kg/h fuel feed rate with excess air within 20–80%. Experimental results revealed rather weak effects of the bed material type but substantial influence of excess air on the behavior of temperature, O2, CO, CxHy, and NO inside the reactor, as well as on the combustion efficiency and major gaseous emissions of the conical FBC. The optimal level of excess air ensuring high combustion efficiency (about 98.5%) and acceptable level of the emissions was found to be about 40% when using alumina and 60% with dolomite. By using these alternative bed materials, bed agglomeration can be prevented when burning the shell in the proposed conical FBC. However, both bed materials exhibited significant changes in their morphological, physical and chemical properties in the course of the time.

Keywords: Palm kernel shell, fluidized-bed combustion, alternative bed materials, combustion and emission performance, bed agglomeration prevention.

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576 Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage: A General Review on Adsorbents

Authors: Mohammad Songolzadeh, Maryam Takht Ravanchi, Mansooreh Soleimani

Abstract:

CO2 is the primary anthropogenic greenhouse gas, accounting for 77% of the human contribution to the greenhouse effect in 2004. In the recent years, global concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing rapidly. CO2 emissions have an impact on global climate change. Anthropogenic CO2 is emitted primarily from fossil fuel combustion. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one option for reducing CO2 emissions. There are three major approaches for CCS: post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture and oxyfuel process. Post-combustion capture offers some advantages as existing combustion technologies can still be used without radical changes on them. There are several post combustion gas separation and capture technologies being investigated, namely; (a) absorption, (b) cryogenic separation, (c) membrane separation (d) micro algal biofixation and (e) adsorption. Apart from establishing new techniques, the exploration of capture materials with high separation performance and low capital cost are paramount importance. However, the application of adsorption from either technology, require easily regenerable and durable adsorbents with a high CO2 adsorption capacity. It has recently been reported that the cost of the CO2 capture can be reduced by using this technology. In this paper, the research progress (from experimental results) in adsorbents for CO2 adsorption, storage, and separations were reviewed and future research directions were suggested as well.

Keywords: Carbon capture and storage, pre-combustion, postcombustion, adsorption

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575 Wall Heat Flux Mapping in Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber with Different Jet Impingement Angles

Authors: O. S. Pradeep, S. Vigneshwaran, K. Praveen Kumar, K. Jeyendran, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

The influence of injector attitude on wall heat flux plays an important role in predicting the start-up transient and also determining the combustion chamber wall durability of liquid rockets. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out on an idealized liquid rocket combustion chamber to examine the transient wall heat flux during its start-up transient at different injector attitude. Numerical simulations have been carried out with the help of a validated 2d axisymmetric, double precision, pressure-based, transient, species transport, SST k-omega model with laminar finite rate model for governing turbulent-chemistry interaction for four cases with different jet intersection angles, viz., 0o, 30o, 45o, and 60o. We concluded that the jets intersection angle is having a bearing on the time and location of the maximum wall-heat flux zone of the liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient. We also concluded that the wall heat flux mapping in liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient is a meaningful objective for the chamber wall material selection and the lucrative design optimization of the combustion chamber for improving the payload capability of the rocket.  

Keywords: Combustion chamber, injector, liquid rocket, rocket engine wall heat flux.

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574 Aspects Concerning Flame Propagation of Various Fuels in Combustion Chamber of Four Valve Engines

Authors: Zoran Jovanovic, Zoran Masonicic, S. Dragutinovic, Z. Sakota

Abstract:

In this paper, results concerning flame propagation of various fuels in a particular combustion chamber with four tilted valves were elucidated. Flame propagation was represented by the evolution of spatial distribution of temperature in various cut-planes within combustion chamber while the flame front location was determined by dint of zones with maximum temperature gradient. The results presented are only a small part of broader on-going scrutinizing activity in the field of multidimensional modeling of reactive flows in combustion chambers with complicated geometries encompassing various models of turbulence, different fuels and combustion models. In the case of turbulence two different models were applied i.e. standard k-ε model of turbulence and k-ξ-f model of turbulence. In this paper flame propagation results were analyzed and presented for two different hydrocarbon fuels, such as CH4 and C8H18. In the case of combustion all differences ensuing from different turbulence models, obvious for non-reactive flows are annihilated entirely. Namely the interplay between fluid flow pattern and flame propagation is invariant as regards turbulence models and fuels applied. Namely the interplay between fluid flow pattern and flame propagation is entirely invariant as regards fuel variation indicating that the flame propagation through unburned mixture of CH4 and C8H18 fuels is not chemically controlled.

Keywords: Automotive flows, flame propagation, combustion modelling.

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573 Comparison between Post- and Oxy-Combustion Systems in a Petroleum Refinery Unit Using Modeling and Optimization

Authors: Farooq A. Al-Sheikh, Ali Elkamel, William A. Anderson

Abstract:

A fluidized catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) is one of the effective units in many refineries. Modeling and optimization of FCCU were done by many researchers in past decades, but in this research, comparison between post- and oxy-combustion was studied in the regenerator-FCCU. Therefore, a simplified mathematical model was derived by doing mass/heat balances around both reactor and regenerator. A state space analysis was employed to show effects of the flow rates variables such as air, feed, spent catalyst, regenerated catalyst and flue gas on the output variables. The main aim of studying dynamic responses is to figure out the most influencing variables that affect both reactor/regenerator temperatures; also, finding the upper/lower limits of the influencing variables to ensure that temperatures of the reactors and regenerator work within normal operating conditions. Therefore, those values will be used as side constraints in the optimization technique to find appropriate operating regimes. The objective functions were modeled to be maximizing the energy in the reactor while minimizing the energy consumption in the regenerator. In conclusion, an oxy-combustion process can be used instead of a post-combustion one.

Keywords: FCCU modeling, optimization, oxy-combustion post-combustion.

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572 Control-Oriented Enhanced Zero-Dimensional Two-Zone Combustion Modelling of Internal Combustion Engines

Authors: Razieh Arian, Hadi Adibi-Asl

Abstract:

This paper investigates an efficient combustion modeling for cycle simulation of internal combustion engine (ICE) studies. The term “efficient model” means that the models must generate desired simulation results while having fast simulation time. In other words, the efficient model is defined based on the application of the model. The objective of this study is to develop math-based models for control applications or shortly control-oriented models. This study compares different modeling approaches used to model the ICEs such as mean-value models, zero dimensional, quasi-dimensional, and multi-dimensional models for control applications. Mean-value models have been widely used for model-based control applications, but recently by developing advanced simulation tools (e.g. Maple/MapleSim) the higher order models (more complex) could be considered as control-oriented models. This paper presents the enhanced zero-dimensional cycle-by-cycle modeling and simulation of a spark ignition engine with a two-zone combustion model. The simulation results are cross-validated against the simulation results from GT-Power package and show a good agreement in terms of trends and values.

Keywords: Two-zone combustion, control-oriented model, wiebe function, internal combustion engine.

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571 Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis of a Combustion Chamber using ANSYS Computational Fluid Dynamics to Estimate the Thermocouple Positioning in a Chamber Wall

Authors: Muzna Tariq, Ihtzaz Qamar

Abstract:

In most engineering cases, the working temperatures inside a combustion chamber are high enough that they lie beyond the operational range of thermocouples. Furthermore, design and manufacturing limitations restrict the use of internal thermocouples in many applications. Heat transfer inside a combustion chamber is caused due to interaction of the post-combustion hot fluid with the chamber wall. Heat transfer that involves an interaction between the fluid and solid is categorized as Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT). Therefore, to satisfy the needs of CHT, CHT Analysis is performed by using ANSYS CFD tool to estimate theoretically precise thermocouple positions at the combustion chamber wall where excessive temperatures (beyond thermocouple range) can be avoided. In accordance with these Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results, a combustion chamber is designed, and a prototype is manufactured with multiple thermocouple ports positioned at the specified distances so that the temperature of hot gases can be measured on the chamber wall where the temperatures do not exceed the thermocouple working range.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD, conduction, conjugate heat transfer, CHT, convection, fluid flow, thermocouples.

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