Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2021

Search results for: Cognitive learning

2021 Problem-based Learning Approach to Human Computer Interaction

Authors: Oon-Seng Tan

Abstract:

Human Computer Interaction (HCI) has been an emerging field that draws in the experts from various fields to enhance the application of computer programs and the ease of computer users. HCI has much to do with learning and cognition and an emerging approach to learning and problem-solving is problembased learning (PBL). The processes of PBL involve important cognitive functions in the various stages. This paper will illustrate how closely related fields to HCI, PBL and cognitive psychology can benefit from informing each other through analysing various cognitive functions. Several cognitive functions from cognitive function disc (CFD) would be presented and discussed in relation to human-computer interface. This paper concludes with the implications of bridging the gaps amongst these disciplines.

Keywords: problem-based learning, human computerinteraction, cognitive psychology, Cognitive Function Disc (CFD)

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2020 The Effects of Visual Elements and Cognitive Styles on Students Learning in Hypermedia Environment

Authors: Rishi Ruttun

Abstract:

One of the major features of hypermedia learning is its non-linear structure, allowing learners, the opportunity of flexible navigation to accommodate their own needs. Nevertheless, such flexibility can also cause problems such as insufficient navigation and disorientation for some learners, especially those with Field Dependent cognitive styles. As a result students learning performance can be deteriorated and in turn, they can have negative attitudes with hypermedia learning systems. It was suggested that visual elements can be used to compensate dilemmas. However, it is unclear whether these visual elements improve their learning or whether problems still exist. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of students cognitive styles and visual elements on students learning performance and attitudes in hypermedia learning environment. Cognitive Style Analysis (CSA), Learning outcome in terms of pre and post-test, practical task, and Attitude Questionnaire (AQ) were administered to a sample of 60 university students. The findings revealed that FD students preformed equally to those of FI. Also, FD students experienced more disorientation in the hypermedia learning system where they depend a lot on the visual elements for navigation and orientation purposes. Furthermore, they had more positive attitudes towards the visual elements which escape them from experiencing navigation and disorientation dilemmas. In contrast, FI students were more comfortable, did not get disturbed or did not need some of the visual elements in the hypermedia learning system.

Keywords: Hypermedia learning, cognitive styles, visual elements, support, learning performance, attitudes and perceptions

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2019 Measuring Cognitive Load - A Solution to Ease Learning of Programming

Authors: Muhammed Yousoof, Mohd Sapiyan, Khaja Kamaluddin

Abstract:

Learning programming is difficult for many learners. Some researches have found that the main difficulty relates to cognitive load. Cognitive overload happens in programming due to the nature of the subject which is intrinisicly over-bearing on the working memory. It happens due to the complexity of the subject itself. The problem is made worse by the poor instructional design methodology used in the teaching and learning process. Various efforts have been proposed to reduce the cognitive load, e.g. visualization softwares, part-program method etc. Use of many computer based systems have also been tried to tackle the problem. However, little success has been made to alleviate the problem. More has to be done to overcome this hurdle. This research attempts at understanding how cognitive load can be managed so as to reduce the problem of overloading. We propose a mechanism to measure the cognitive load during pre instruction, post instruction and in instructional stages of learning. This mechanism is used to help the instruction. As the load changes the instruction is made to adapt itself to ensure cognitive viability. This mechanism could be incorporated as a sub domain in the student model of various computer based instructional systems to facilitate the learning of programming.

Keywords: Cognitive load, Working memory, Cognitive Loadmeasurement.

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2018 Reducing Cognitive Load in Learning Computer Programming

Authors: Muhammed Yousoof, Mohd Sapiyan, Khaja Kamaluddin

Abstract:

Many difficulties are faced in the process of learning computer programming. This paper will propose a system framework intended to reduce cognitive load in learning programming. In first section focus is given on the process of learning and the shortcomings of the current approaches to learning programming. Finally the proposed prototype is suggested along with the justification of the prototype. In the proposed prototype the concept map is used as visualization metaphor. Concept maps are similar to the mental schema in long term memory and hence it can reduce cognitive load well. In addition other method such as part code method is also proposed in this framework to can reduce cognitive load.

Keywords: Cognitive load, concept maps, working memory, split attention effect, partial code programs.

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2017 Customer Churn Prediction: A Cognitive Approach

Authors: Damith Senanayake, Lakmal Muthugama, Laksheen Mendis, Tiroshan Madushanka

Abstract:

Customer churn prediction is one of the most useful areas of study in customer analytics. Due to the enormous amount of data available for such predictions, machine learning and data mining have been heavily used in this domain. There exist many machine learning algorithms directly applicable for the problem of customer churn prediction, and here, we attempt to experiment on a novel approach by using a cognitive learning based technique in an attempt to improve the results obtained by using a combination of supervised learning methods, with cognitive unsupervised learning methods.

Keywords: Growing Self Organizing Maps, Kernel Methods, Churn Prediction.

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2016 Stochastic Learning Algorithms for Modeling Human Category Learning

Authors: Toshihiko Matsuka, James E. Corter

Abstract:

Most neural network (NN) models of human category learning use a gradient-based learning method, which assumes that locally-optimal changes are made to model parameters on each learning trial. This method tends to under predict variability in individual-level cognitive processes. In addition many recent models of human category learning have been criticized for not being able to replicate rapid changes in categorization accuracy and attention processes observed in empirical studies. In this paper we introduce stochastic learning algorithms for NN models of human category learning and show that use of the algorithms can result in (a) rapid changes in accuracy and attention allocation, and (b) different learning trajectories and more realistic variability at the individual-level.

Keywords: category learning, cognitive modeling, radial basis function, stochastic optimization.

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2015 Learning Theories within Coaching Process

Authors: P. Fazel

Abstract:

These days we face with so many advertisements in magazines, those mentioned coaching is pragmatic specialties which help people make change in their lives. Up to know Specialty coaches are not necessarily therapists, consultants or psychologist, thus they may not know psychological theories. The International Coach Federation identifies "facilitating learning and results" as one of its four core coach competencies, without understanding learning theories coaching practice hangs in theoretical abyss. Thus the aim of this article is investigating learning theories within coaching process. Therefore, I reviewed some cognitive and behavioral learning theories and analyzed their contribution with coaching process which has been introduced in mentor coaches and ICF certified coaches' papers and books. The result demonstrated that coaching profession is strongly grounded in learning theories, and it will be strengthened by the validation of theories and evidence-based research as we move forward. Thus, it needs more research in order to applying effective theoretical frameworks.

Keywords: Coaching, Learning theories. Cognitive learning theories, behavioral learning theories.

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2014 A Cognitive Robot Collaborative Reinforcement Learning Algorithm

Authors: Amit Gil, Helman Stern, Yael Edan

Abstract:

A cognitive collaborative reinforcement learning algorithm (CCRL) that incorporates an advisor into the learning process is developed to improve supervised learning. An autonomous learner is enabled with a self awareness cognitive skill to decide when to solicit instructions from the advisor. The learner can also assess the value of advice, and accept or reject it. The method is evaluated for robotic motion planning using simulation. Tests are conducted for advisors with skill levels from expert to novice. The CCRL algorithm and a combined method integrating its logic with Clouse-s Introspection Approach, outperformed a base-line fully autonomous learner, and demonstrated robust performance when dealing with various advisor skill levels, learning to accept advice received from an expert, while rejecting that of less skilled collaborators. Although the CCRL algorithm is based on RL, it fits other machine learning methods, since advisor-s actions are only added to the outer layer.

Keywords: Robot learning, human-robot collaboration, motion planning, reinforcement learning.

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2013 Personalized Learning: An Analysis Using Item Response Theory

Authors: A. Yacob, N. Hj. Ali, M. H. Yusoff, M. Y. MohdSaman, W. M. A. F. W. Hamzah

Abstract:

Personalized learning becomes increasingly popular which not be restricted by time, place or any other barriers. This study proposes an analysis of Personalized Learning using Item Response Theory which considers course material difficulty and learner ability.The study investigates twenty undergraduate students at TATI University College, who are taking programming subject. By using the IRT,it was found that, finding the most appropriate problem levels to each student include high and low level test items together is not a problem. Thus, the student abilities can be asses more accurately and fairly. Learners who experience more anxiety will affect a heavier cognitive load and receive lower test scores.Instructors are encouraged to provide a supportive learning environment to enhance learning effectiveness because Cognitive Load Theory concerns the limited capacity of the brain to absorb new information.

Keywords: Analysis, Cognitive Load Theory, Item Response Theory, Learning, Motivation, Performance.

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2012 Self-Assembling Hypernetworks for Cognitive Learning of Linguistic Memory

Authors: Byoung-Tak Zhang, Chan-Hoon Park

Abstract:

Hypernetworks are a generalized graph structure representing higher-order interactions between variables. We present a method for self-organizing hypernetworks to learn an associative memory of sentences and to recall the sentences from this memory. This learning method is inspired by the “mental chemistry" model of cognition and the “molecular self-assembly" technology in biochemistry. Simulation experiments are performed on a corpus of natural-language dialogues of approximately 300K sentences collected from TV drama captions. We report on the sentence completion performance as a function of the order of word-interaction and the size of the learning corpus, and discuss the plausibility of this architecture as a cognitive model of language learning and memory.

Keywords: Linguistic recall memory, sentence completion task, self-organizing hypernetworks, cognitive learning and memory.

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2011 Disparity of Learning Styles and Cognitive Abilities in Vocational Education

Authors: Mimi Mohaffyza Mohamad, Yee Mei Heong, Nurfirdawati Muhammad Hanafi Tee Tze Kiong

Abstract:

This study is conducted to investigate the disparity of between learning styles and cognitive abilities specifically in Vocational Education.  Felder and Silverman Learning Styles Model (FSLSM) was applied to measure the students’ learning styles while the content in Building Construction Subject consists; knowledge, skills and problem solving were taken into account in constructing the elements of cognitive abilities. Building Construction is one of the vocational courses offered in Vocational Education structure. There are four dimension of learning styles proposed by Felder and Silverman intended to capture student learning preferences with regards to processing either active or reflective, perception based on sensing or intuitive, input of information used visual or verbal and understanding information represent with sequential or global learner. Felder-Solomon Learning Styles Index was developed based on FSLSM and the questions were used to identify what type of student learning preferences. The index consists 44 item-questions characterize for learning styles dimension in FSLSM. The achievement test was developed to determine the students’ cognitive abilities. The quantitative data was analyzed in descriptive and inferential statistic involving Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). The study discovered students are tending to be visual learners and each type of learner having significant difference whereas cognitive abilities there are different finding for each type of learners in knowledge, skills and problem solving. This study concludes the gap between type of learner and the cognitive abilities in few illustrations and it explained how the connecting made. The finding may help teachers to facilitate students more effectively and to boost the student’s cognitive abilities.

Keywords: Learning Styles, Cognitive Abilities, Dimension of Learning Styles, Learning Preferences.

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2010 Big Bang – Big Crunch Learning Method for Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

Authors: Engin Yesil, Leon Urbas

Abstract:

Modeling of complex dynamic systems, which are very complicated to establish mathematical models, requires new and modern methodologies that will exploit the existing expert knowledge, human experience and historical data. Fuzzy cognitive maps are very suitable, simple, and powerful tools for simulation and analysis of these kinds of dynamic systems. However, human experts are subjective and can handle only relatively simple fuzzy cognitive maps; therefore, there is a need of developing new approaches for an automated generation of fuzzy cognitive maps using historical data. In this study, a new learning algorithm, which is called Big Bang-Big Crunch, is proposed for the first time in literature for an automated generation of fuzzy cognitive maps from data. Two real-world examples; namely a process control system and radiation therapy process, and one synthetic model are used to emphasize the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed methodology.

Keywords: Big Bang-Big Crunch optimization, Dynamic Systems, Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, Learning.

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2009 The Effects of the Impact of Instructional Immediacy on Cognition and Learning in Online Classes

Authors: Glenda A. Gunter

Abstract:

Current research has explored the impact of instructional immediacy, defined as those behaviors that help build close relationships or feelings of closeness, both on cognition and motivation in the traditional classroom and online classroom; however, online courses continue to suffer from higher dropout rates. Based on Albert Bandura-s Social Cognitive Theory, four primary relationships or interactions in an online course will be explored in light of how they can provide immediacy thereby reducing student attrition and improving cognitive learning. The four relationships are teacher-student, student-student, and student-content, and studentcomputer. Results of a study conducted with inservice teachers completing a 14-week online professional development technology course will be examined to demonstrate immediacy strategies that improve cognitive learning and reduce student attrition. Results of the study reveal that students can be motivated through various interactions and instructional immediacy behaviors which lead to higher completion rates, improved self-efficacy, and cognitive learning.

Keywords: Distance Learning, Self-Efficacy, Instructional immediacy, Student achievement.

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2008 Learners- Perceptions of Mobile Devices for Learning in Higher Education - Towards a Mobile Learning Pedagogical Framework

Authors: Conradie, P.W., Lombard, A., Moller, M.

Abstract:

The dramatic effect of information technology on society is undeniable. In education, it is evident in the use of terms like active learning, blended learning, electronic learning and mobile learning (ubiquitous learning). This study explores the perceptions of 54 learners in a higher education institution regarding the use of mobile devices in a third year module. Using semi-structured interviews, it was found that mobile devices had a positive impact on learner motivation, engagement and enjoyment. It also improved the consistency of learning material, and the convenience and flexibility (anywhere, anytime) of learning. User-interfacelimitation, bandwidth and cognitive overload, however, were of concern. The use of cloud based resources like Youtube and Google Docs, through mobile devices, positively influenced learner perceptions, making them prosumers (both consumers and producers) of education content.

Keywords: Active learning, education, mobile learning, pedagogy.

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2007 Improvement of Learning Motivation and Negotiation of Learning Disorders of Students Using Integrative Teaching Methodology

Authors: Juris Porozovs, Daina Voita, Anda Kauliņa, Toms Voits, Evita Vaļēviča

Abstract:

Integrative teaching methodology is based on connecting and summarizing knowledge from different subjects in order to create better understanding of different disciplines and improvement of competences in general. Integrative teaching methodology was implemented and realised during one academic year in 17 Latvian schools according with specially worked out programme by specialists of different fields for adaptation in social environment of children and young people with learning, cognitive functions and motor disorders. Implemented integrative teaching methodology consisted from three subsections which were specialised for adaptation in social environment, improvement of cognitive functions and improvement and harmonization of personality. The results of investigation showed that the use of integrative teaching methodology is an effective way for improvement of learning motivation and negotiation of learning disorders of different age schoolchildren.

Keywords: Adaptation in social environment, integrative teaching methodology, learning disorders, learning motivation.

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2006 Artificial Neural Networks for Cognitive Radio Network: A Survey

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

The main aim of a communication system is to achieve maximum performance. In Cognitive Radio any user or transceiver has ability to sense best suitable channel, while channel is not in use. It means an unlicensed user can share the spectrum of a licensed user without any interference. Though, the spectrum sensing consumes a large amount of energy and it can reduce by applying various artificial intelligent methods for determining proper spectrum holes. It also increases the efficiency of Cognitive Radio Network (CRN). In this survey paper we discuss the use of different learning models and implementation of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to increase the learning and decision making capacity of CRN without affecting bandwidth, cost and signal rate.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Cognitive Radio, Cognitive Radio Networks, Back Propagation, Spectrum Sensing.

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2005 Using Data Mining for Learning and Clustering FCM

Authors: Somayeh Alizadeh, Mehdi Ghazanfari, Mohammad Fathian

Abstract:

Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) have successfully been applied in numerous domains to show relations between essential components. In some FCM, there are more nodes, which related to each other and more nodes means more complex in system behaviors and analysis. In this paper, a novel learning method used to construct FCMs based on historical data and by using data mining and DEMATEL method, a new method defined to reduce nodes number. This method cluster nodes in FCM based on their cause and effect behaviors.

Keywords: Clustering, Data Mining, Fuzzy Cognitive Map(FCM), Learning.

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2004 A Cognitive Model of Character Recognition Using Support Vector Machines

Authors: K. Freedman

Abstract:

In the present study, a support vector machine (SVM) learning approach to character recognition is proposed. Simple feature detectors, similar to those found in the human visual system, were used in the SVM classifier. Alphabetic characters were rotated to 8 different angles and using the proposed cognitive model, all characters were recognized with 100% accuracy and specificity. These same results were found in psychiatric studies of human character recognition.

Keywords: Character recognition, cognitive model, support vector machine learning.

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2003 Services-Oriented Model for the Regulation of Learning

Authors: Mohamed Bendahmane, Brahim Elfalaki, Mohammed Benattou

Abstract:

One of the major sources of learners' professional difficulties is their heterogeneity. Whether on cognitive, social, cultural or emotional level, learners being part of the same group have many differences. These differences do not allow to apply the same learning process at all learners. Thus, an optimal learning path for one, is not necessarily the same for the other. We present in this paper a model-oriented service to offer to each learner a personalized learning path to acquire the targeted skills.

Keywords: Service-oriented architecture, learning path, web service, personalization, trace analysis.

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2002 Evaluation Pattern of Cognitive Processes in Language in Written Comprehension

Authors: Agnès Garletti

Abstract:

Our research aims at helping the tutor on line to evaluate the student-s cognitive processes. The student is a learner in French as a Second Language who studies an on-line socio-cognitive scenario in written communication. In our method, these cognitive processes are defined. For that, the language abilities and learning tasks are associated to cognitive operation. Moreover, the found cognitive processes are named with specific terms. The result was to create an instrumental pattern to question the learner about the cognitive processes used to build an item of written comprehension. Our research follows the principles of the third historical generation of studies on the cognitive activity of the text comprehension. The strength of our instrumental pattern stands in the precision and the logical articulation of the questions to the learner. However, the learner-s answers can still be subjective but the precision of the instrument restricts it.

Keywords: Cognitive processes, Evaluation pattern, French as asecond language, Socio-cognitive scenario, Written comprehension.

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2001 Socioculture and Cognitivist Perspectives on Language and Communication Barriers in Learning

Authors: David Hallberg

Abstract:

It is believed that major account on language diversity must be taken in learning, and especially in learning using ICT. This paper-s objective is to exhibit language and communication barriers in learning, to approach the topic from socioculture and cognitivist perspectives, and to give exploratory solutions of handling such barriers. The review is mainly conducted by approaching the journal Computers & Education, but also an initially broad search was conducted. The results show that not much attention is paid on language and communication barriers in an immediate relation to learning using ICT. The results shows, inter alia, that language and communication barriers are caused because of not enough account is taken on both the individual-s background and the technology.

Keywords: communication barriers, cognitive, ICT, language barriers, learning, socioculture

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2000 Learning a Song: an ACT-R Model

Authors: Belkacem Chikhaoui, Helene Pigot, Mathieu Beaudoin, Guillaume Pratte, Philippe Bellefeuille, Fernando Laudares

Abstract:

The way music is interpreted by the human brain is a very interesting topic, but also an intricate one. Although this domain has been studied for over a century, many gray areas remain in the understanding of music. Recent advances have enabled us to perform accurate measurements of the time taken by the human brain to interpret and assimilate a sound. Cognitive computing provides tools and development environments that facilitate human cognition simulation. ACT-R is a cognitive architecture which offers an environment for implementing human cognitive tasks. This project combines our understanding of the music interpretation by a human listener and the ACT-R cognitive architecture to build SINGER, a computerized simulation for listening and recalling songs. The results are similar to human experimental data. Simulation results also show how it is easier to remember short melodies than long melodies which require more trials to be recalled correctly.

Keywords: Computational model, cognitive modeling, simulation, learning, song, music.

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1999 Distributed Relay Selection and Channel Choice in Cognitive Radio Network

Authors: Hao He, Shaoqian Li

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the cooperative communications where multiple cognitive radio (CR) transmit-receive pairs competitive maximize their own throughputs. In CR networks, the influences of primary users and the spectrum availability are usually different among CR users. Due to the existence of multiple relay nodes and the different spectrum availability, each CR transmit-receive pair should not only select the relay node but also choose the appropriate channel. For this distributed problem, we propose a game theoretic framework to formulate this problem and we apply a regret-matching learning algorithm which is leading to correlated equilibrium. We further formulate a modified regret-matching learning algorithm which is fully distributed and only use the local information of each CR transmit-receive pair. This modified algorithm is more practical and suitable for the cooperative communications in CR network. Simulation results show the algorithm convergence and the modified learning algorithm can achieve comparable performance to the original regretmatching learning algorithm.

Keywords: cognitive radio, cooperative communication, relay selection, channel choice, regret-matching learning, correlated equilibrium.

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1998 Learning FCM by Tabu Search

Authors: Somayeh Alizadeh, Mehdi Ghazanfari, Mostafa Jafari, Salman Hooshmand

Abstract:

Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) is a causal graph, which shows the relations between essential components in complex systems. Experts who are familiar with the system components and their relations can generate a related FCM. There is a big gap when human experts cannot produce FCM or even there is no expert to produce the related FCM. Therefore, a new mechanism must be used to bridge this gap. In this paper, a novel learning method is proposed to construct causal graph based on historical data and by using metaheuristic such Tabu Search (TS). The efficiency of the proposed method is shown via comparison of its results of some numerical examples with those of some other methods.

Keywords: Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM), Learning, Meta heuristic, Genetic Algorithm, Tabu search.

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1997 A Constructivist Approach and Tool for Autonomous Agent Bottom-up Sequential Learning

Authors: Jianyong Xue, Olivier L. Georgeon, Salima Hassas

Abstract:

During the initial phase of cognitive development, infants exhibit amazing abilities to generate novel behaviors in unfamiliar situations, and explore actively to learn the best while lacking extrinsic rewards from the environment. These abilities set them apart from even the most advanced autonomous robots. This work seeks to contribute to understand and replicate some of these abilities. We propose the Bottom-up hiErarchical sequential Learning algorithm with Constructivist pAradigm (BEL-CA) to design agents capable of learning autonomously and continuously through interactions. The algorithm implements no assumption about the semantics of input and output data. It does not rely upon a model of the world given a priori in the form of a set of states and transitions as well. Besides, we propose a toolkit to analyze the learning process at run time called GAIT (Generating and Analyzing Interaction Traces). We use GAIT to report and explain the detailed learning process and the structured behaviors that the agent has learned on each decision making. We report an experiment in which the agent learned to successfully interact with its environment and to avoid unfavorable interactions using regularities discovered through interaction.

Keywords: Cognitive development, constructivist learning, hierarchical sequential learning, self-adaptation.

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1996 Different Multimedia Presentation Types and Students' Interpretation Achievement

Authors: Cenk Akbiyik, Gonul Altin Akbiyik

Abstract:

The main purpose of the study was to determine whether students- interpretation achievement differed with the use of various multimedia presentation types. Four groups of students, text only (T), audio only (A), text and audio (TA), text and image (TI), were arranged and they were presented the same story via different types of multimedia presentations. Inference achievement was measured by a critical thinking inference test. Higher mean scores for the TA group compared to the other three groups were found. Also when compared pairwise, interpretation achievement of the TA group differed significantly from scores of the T and TI groups. These differences were interpreted with the increased cognitive load. Increased cognitive load for the TA group may have invited students to put more effort into comprehending the text, thus resulting in better test scores. Findings of the study can be seen as a sign of the importance of learning situations and learning outcomes in multimedia-supported learning environments and may have practical benefits for instructional designers.

Keywords: Multimedia, cognitive multimedia, dual coding, cognitive load, critical thinking.

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1995 A Neuroscience-Based Learning Technique: Framework and Application to STEM

Authors: Dante J. Dorantes-González, Aldrin Balsa-Yepes

Abstract:

Existing learning techniques such as problem-based learning, project-based learning, or case study learning are learning techniques that focus mainly on technical details, but give no specific guidelines on learner’s experience and emotional learning aspects such as arousal salience and valence, being emotional states important factors affecting engagement and retention. Some approaches involving emotion in educational settings, such as social and emotional learning, lack neuroscientific rigorousness and use of specific neurobiological mechanisms. On the other hand, neurobiology approaches lack educational applicability. And educational approaches mainly focus on cognitive aspects and disregard conditioning learning. First, authors start explaining the reasons why it is hard to learn thoughtfully, then they use the method of neurobiological mapping to track the main limbic system functions, such as the reward circuit, and its relations with perception, memories, motivations, sympathetic and parasympathetic reactions, and sensations, as well as the brain cortex. The authors conclude explaining the major finding: The mechanisms of nonconscious learning and the triggers that guarantee long-term memory potentiation. Afterward, the educational framework for practical application and the instructors’ guidelines are established. An implementation example in engineering education is given, namely, the study of tuned-mass dampers for earthquake oscillations attenuation in skyscrapers. This work represents an original learning technique based on nonconscious learning mechanisms to enhance long-term memories that complement existing cognitive learning methods.

Keywords: Emotion, emotion-enhanced memory, learning technique, STEM.

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1994 Impact of Behavioral Aspects of Autism on Cognitive Abilities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Rana M. Zeina, Laila AL-Ayadhi, Shahid Bashir

Abstract:

Cognitive symptoms and behavioral symptoms may, in fact, overlap and be related to the level of the general cognitive function. We have measured the behavioral aspects of autism and its correlation to the cognitive ability in 30 children with ASD. We used a neuropsychological Battery CANTAB eclipse to evaluate the ASD children's cognitive ability. Individuals with ASD and challenging behaviors showed significant correlation between some cognitive abilities and Motor aspects. Based on these findings, we can conclude that the motor behavioral problems in autism affect specific cognitive abilities in ASDs such as comprehension, learning, reversal, acquisition, attention set shifting, and speed of reaction to one stimulus. Future researches should also focus on the relationship between motor stereotypes and other subtypes of repetitive behaviors, such as verbal stereotypes, ritual routine adherence, and the use of different types of CANTAB tests.

Keywords: Autism, Cognitive ability, Motor Behavior, and Neuropsychological battery.

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1993 Web Information System for e-Learning

Authors: Anna Angelini, Enrica Gentile, Paola Plantamura, Vito Leonardo Plantamura

Abstract:

A suitable e-learning system management needs to carry out a web-information system in order to allow integrated fruition of data and metadata concerning the activities typical of elearning environment. The definition of a “web information system" for e-learning takes advantage of the potentialities of Web technologies both as for the access to metadata present on the several platforms, and as for the implementation of courseware which make up the relative didactic environment. What information systems have in common is the technological environment on which they are generally implemented and the use of metadata in order to structure information at all cognitive and organization levels. In this work we are going to define a methodology for the implementation of a specific web information system for an e-learning environment.

Keywords: e-learning, information systems, coursemanagement, web-based system.

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1992 Explanatory of Relationship between Learning Motivation and Learning Performance

Authors: Chih Chin Yang

Abstract:

In this paper, the relationship between learning motivation and learning performance is explored by using exchange theory. The relationship is concluded that external performance can raise learning motivation and then increase learning performance. The internal performance should be not completely neglected and the external performance should be not attached important excessively. The parents need self-study and must be also reeducated. The existing education must be improved in raise of internal performance. The incorrect learning thinking will mislead the students, parents, and educators of next generation, when the students obtain good learning performance in the learning environment with excess stimulants. Over operation of external performance will result abnormal learning thinking and violating learning goal. Learning is not only to obtain performance. Learning quality and learning performance will be limited as without learning motivation. The best learning motivation is, the best learning performance is. The learning for reward is not good for learning performance. Strategies of promoting life-long learning are including the encouraging for learner, establishment of good interaction learning environment, and the advertisement of the merit and the importance of life-long learning, which can let the learner with the correct learning motivation.

Keywords: exchange theory, learning motivation, learning performance, learning quality

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