Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 199

Search results for: Clay

19 Utilizing Dredged Sediment for Enhancing Growth of Eelgrass in Artificially Prepared Substrates

Authors: Amelia B. Hizon-Fradejas, Yoichi Nakano, Satoshi Nakai, Wataru Nishijima, Mitsumasa Okada

Abstract:

Dredged sediment (DS) was utilized as source of silt-clay and organic matter in artificially prepared eelgrass substrates with mountain sand (MS) as the sand media. Addition of DS showed improved growth of eelgrass in the mixed substrates. Increase in added DS up to 15% silt-clay showed increased shoot growth but additional DS in 20% silt-clay mixture didn-t result to further increase in eelgrass growth. Improved root establishment were also found for plants in pots with added DS as shown by the increased resistance to uprooting, increased number of rhizome nodes and longer roots. Results demonstrated that addition of DS may be beneficial to eelgrass up to a certain extent only and too much of it might be harmful to eelgrass plants.

Keywords: Dredged sediment, eelgrass, eelgrass bed restoration, mountain sand, Zostera marina.

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18 A Hydro-Mechanical Model for Unsaturated Soils

Authors: A. Uchaipichat

Abstract:

The hydro-mechanical model for unsaturated soils has been presented based on the effective stress principle taking into account effects of drying-wetting process. The elasto-plastic constitutive equations for stress-strain relations of the soil skeleton have been established. A plasticity model is modified from modified Cam-Clay model. The hardening rule has been established by considering the isotropic consolidation paths. The effect of dryingwetting process is introduced through the ¤ç parameter. All model coefficients are identified in terms of measurable parameters. The simulations from the proposed model are compared with the experimental results. The model calibration was performed to extract the model parameter from the experimental results. Good agreement between the results predicted using proposed model and the experimental results was obtained.

Keywords: Drying-wetting process, Effective stress, Elastoplasticmodel, Unsaturated soils

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17 Physical-Chemical Surface Characterization of Lake Nasser Sediments

Authors: Yousra M. Zakaria Helmy, Edward H. Smith

Abstract:

Lake Nasser is one of the largest reservoirs in the world. Over 120 million metric tons of sediments are deposited in its dead storage zone every year. The main objective of the present work was to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of Lake Nasser sediments. The sample had a relatively low surface area of 2.9 m2/g which increased more than 3-fold upon chemical activation. The main chemical elements of the raw sediments were C, O and Si with some traces of Al, Fe and Ca. The organic functional groups for the tested sample included O-H, C=C, C-H and C-O, with indications of Si-O and other metal-C and/or metal-O bonds normally associated with clayey materials. Potentiometric titration of the sample in different ionic strength backgrounds revealed an alkaline material with very strong positive surface charge at pH values just a little less than the pH of zero charge which is ~9. Surface interactions of the sediments with the background electrolyte were significant. An advanced surface complexation model was able to capture these effects, employing a single-site approach to represent protolysis reactions in aqueous solution, and to determine the significant surface species in the pH range of environmental interest.

Keywords: Lake Nasser, sediments, surface characterization

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16 Application of Natural Clay to Formulate Nontraditional Completion Fluid that Triples Oil Productivity

Authors: Munawar Khalil, Badrul Mohamed Jan, Abdul Aziz Abdul Raman

Abstract:

In the last decades, the problem of perforation damage has been considered as the major factor for the reduction of oil productivity. Underbalance perforation is considered as one of the best means to minimize or overcome this problem. By maintaining wellbore pressure lower than formation pressure, perforation damage could be minimize or eliminated. This can be achieved by the use of nontraditional lightweight completion fluid. This paper presents the effect of natural clay in formulating nontraditional completion fluid to ensure successful perforation job and increase of production rate. Natural clay is used as homogenizing agent to create a stable and non-damaging low-density completion fluid. Results indicate that the addition of natural clay dramatically increase the stability of the final fluids. In addition, field test has shown that the application of nontraditional completion fluid increases oil production by three folds.

Keywords: Completion fluid, underbalance, clay, oil production.

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15 Adsorption of Crystal Violet onto BTEA- and CTMA-bentonite from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Ren Jian-min, Wu Si-wei, Jin Wei

Abstract:

CTMA-bentonite and BTEA-Bentonite prepared by Na-bentonite cation exchanged with cetyltrimethylammonium(CTMA) and benzyltriethylammonium (BTEA). Products were characterized by XRD and IR techniques.The d001 spacing value of CTMA-bentonite and BTEA-bentonite are 7.54Å and 3.50Å larger than that of Na-bentonite at 100% cation exchange capacity, respectively. The IR spectrum showed that the intensities of OH stretching and bending vibrations of the two organoclays decreased greatly comparing to untreated Na-bentonite. Batch experiments were carried out at 303 K, 318 K and 333 K to obtain the sorption isotherms of Crystal violet onto the two organoclays. The results show that the sorption isothermal data could be well described by Freundlich model. The dynamical data for the two organoclays fit well with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption capacity of CTMA-bentonite was found higher than that of BTEA-Bentonite. Thermodynamic parameters such as changes in the free energy (ΔG°), the enthalpy (ΔH°) and the entropy (ΔS°) were also evaluated. The overall adsorption process of Crystal violet onto the two organoclays were spontaneous, endothermic physisorption. The CTMA-bentonite and BTEA-Bentonite could be employed as low-cost alternatives to activated carbon in wastewater treatment for the removal of color which comes from textile dyes.

Keywords: Characterization, Adsorption, Crystal violet, Bentonite, BTEA, CTMA

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14 Synthesis and Properties of Biobased Polyurethane/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

Authors: Teuku Rihayat, Suryani

Abstract:

Polyurethanes (PURs) are very versatile polymeric materials with a wide range of physical and chemical properties. PURs have desirable properties such as high abrasion resistance, tear strength, shock absorption, flexibility and elasticity. Although they have relatively poor thermal stability, this can be improved by using treated clay. Polyurethane/clay nanocomposites have been synthesized from renewable sources. A polyol for the production of polyurethane by reaction with an isocyanate was obtained by the synthesis of palm oil-based oleic acid with glycerol. Dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) was used as catalyst and emulsifier. The unmodified clay (kunipia-F) was treated with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB-mont) and octadodecylamine (ODAmont). The d-spacing in CTAB-mont and ODA-mont were 1.571 nm and 1.798 nm respectively and larger than that of the pure-mont (1.142 nm). The organoclay was completely intercalated in the polyurethane, as confirmed by a wide angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD) pattern. The results showed that adding clay demonstrated better thermal stability in comparison with the virgin polyurethane. Onset degradation of pure PU is at 200oC, and is lower than that of the CTAB-mont PU and ODA-mont PU which takes place at about 318oC and 330oC, respectively. The mechanical properties (including the dynamic mechanical properties) of pure polyurethane (PU) and PU/clay nanocomposites, were measured. The modified organoclay had a remarkably beneficial effect on the strength and elongation at break of the nanocomposites, which both increased with increasing clay content with the increase of the tensile strength of more than 214% and 267% by the addition of only 5 wt% of the montmorillonite CTAB-mont PU and ODA-mont PU, respectively.

Keywords: Polyurethane, Clay nanocomposites, Biobase

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13 Molecular Characteristics of Phosphoric Acid Treated Soils

Authors: Amin Eisazadeh, Khairul Anuar Kassim, Hadi Nur

Abstract:

The expansive nature of soils containing high amounts of clay minerals can be altered through chemical stabilization, resulting in a material suitable for construction purposes. The primary objective of this investigation was to study the changes induced in the molecular structure of phosphoric acid stabilized bentonite and lateritic soil using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Based on the obtained data, it was found that a surface alteration mechanism was the main reason responsible for the improvement of treated soils. Furthermore, the results indicated that the Al present in the octahedral layer of clay minerals were more amenable to chemical attacks and also partly responsible for the formation of new products.

Keywords: Bentonite, Laterite clay, Molecularcharacterization, Phosphoric acid, Stabilization

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12 Estimating Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity from Soil Physical Properties using Neural Networks Model

Authors: B. Ghanbarian-Alavijeh, A.M. Liaghat, S. Sohrabi

Abstract:

Saturated hydraulic conductivity is one of the soil hydraulic properties which is widely used in environmental studies especially subsurface ground water. Since, its direct measurement is time consuming and therefore costly, indirect methods such as pedotransfer functions have been developed based on multiple linear regression equations and neural networks model in order to estimate saturated hydraulic conductivity from readily available soil properties e.g. sand, silt, and clay contents, bulk density, and organic matter. The objective of this study was to develop neural networks (NNs) model to estimate saturated hydraulic conductivity from available parameters such as sand and clay contents, bulk density, van Genuchten retention model parameters (i.e. r θ , α , and n) as well as effective porosity. We used two methods to calculate effective porosity: : (1) eff s FC φ =θ -θ , and (2) inf φ =θ -θ eff s , in which s θ is saturated water content, FC θ is water content retained at -33 kPa matric potential, and inf θ is water content at the inflection point. Total of 311 soil samples from the UNSODA database was divided into three groups as 187 for the training, 62 for the validation (to avoid over training), and 62 for the test of NNs model. A commercial neural network toolbox of MATLAB software with a multi-layer perceptron model and back propagation algorithm were used for the training procedure. The statistical parameters such as correlation coefficient (R2), and mean square error (MSE) were also used to evaluate the developed NNs model. The best number of neurons in the middle layer of NNs model for methods (1) and (2) were calculated 44 and 6, respectively. The R2 and MSE values of the test phase were determined for method (1), 0.94 and 0.0016, and for method (2), 0.98 and 0.00065, respectively, which shows that method (2) estimates saturated hydraulic conductivity better than method (1).

Keywords: Neural network, Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Soil physical properties.

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11 Modeling of Plasticity of Clays Submitted to Compression Test

Authors: Otávio J.U. Flores, Fernando A. Andrade, Dachamir Hotza, Hazim A. Al-Qureshi

Abstract:

In the forming of ceramic materials the plasticity concept is commonly used. This term is related to a particular mechanical behavior when clay is mixed with water. A plastic ceramic material shows a permanent strain without rupture when a compressive load produces a shear stress that exceeds the material-s yield strength. For a plastic ceramic body it observes a measurable elastic behavior before the yield strength and when the applied load is removed. In this work, a mathematical model was developed from applied concepts of the plasticity theory by using the stress/strain diagram under compression.

Keywords: Plasticity, clay, modeling, coefficient of friction.

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10 Density, Strength, Thermal Conductivity and Leachate Characteristics of Light-Weight Fired Clay Bricks Incorporating Cigarette Butts

Authors: Aeslina Abdul Kadir, Abbas Mohajerani, Felicity Roddick, John Buckeridge

Abstract:

Several trillion cigarettes produced worldwide annually lead to many thousands of kilograms of toxic waste. Cigarette butts (CBs) accumulate in the environment due to the poor biodegradability of the cellulose acetate filters. This paper presents some of the results from a continuing study on recycling CBs into fired clay bricks. Physico-mechanical properties of fired clay bricks manufactured with different percentages of CBs are reported and discussed. The results show that the density of fired bricks was reduced by up to 30 %, depending on the percentage of CBs incorporated into the raw materials. Similarly, the compressive strength of bricks tested decreased according to the percentage of CBs included in the mix. The thermal conductivity performance of bricks was improved by 51 and 58 % for 5 and 10 % CBs content respectively. Leaching tests were carried out to investigate the levels of possible leachates of heavy metals from the manufactured clay-CB bricks. The results revealed trace amounts of heavy metals.

Keywords: Cigarette butts, Fired clay bricks, Light bricks, Recycling waste, Thermal conductivity, Leachates, Leaching test

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9 Paleoclimate Reconstruction during Pabdeh, Gurpi, Kazhdumi and Gadvan Formations (Cretaceous-Tertiary) Based on Clay Mineral Distribution

Authors: B. Soleimani

Abstract:

Paleoclimate was reconstructed by the clay mineral assemblages of shale units of Pabdeh (Paleocene- Oligocene), Gurpi (Upper Cretaceous), Kazhdumi (Albian-Cenomanian) and Gadvan (Aptian-Neocomian) formations in the Bangestan anticline. To compare with clay minerals assemblages in these formations, selected samples also taken from available formations in drilled wells in Ahvaz, Marun, Karanj, and Parsi oil fields. Collected samples prepared using standard clay mineral methodology. They were treated as normal, glycolated and heated oriented glass slides. Their identification was made on X-Ray diffractographs. Illite % varies from 8 to 36. Illite quantity increased from Pabdeh to Gurpi Formation. This may be due to dominant dry climate. Kaolinite is in range of 12-49%. Its variation style in different formations could be a marker of climate changes from wet to dry which is supported by the lithological changes. Chlorite (4-28%) can also be detected in those samples without any kaolinite. Mixed layer minerals as the mixture of illite-chlorite and illite-vermiculite-montmorillonite are varied from 6 to 36%, decreased during Kazhdumi deposition from the base to the top. This result may be according to decreasing of illite leaching process. Vermiculite was also determined in very less quantity and found in those units without kaolinite. Montmorillonite varies from 8 to 43%, and its presence is due to terrestrial depositional condition. Stratigraphical documents is also supported this idea that clay mineral distribution is a function of the climate changes. It seems, thus, the present results can be indicated a possible procedure for ancient climate changes evaluation.

Keywords: Clay Minerals, Paleoclimate, XRD, oriented slide

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8 Leachate Generation from Landfill Lysimeter using Different Types of Soil Cover

Authors: S. Karnchanawong, P. Yongpisalpop

Abstract:

The objectives of this study are to determine the effects of soil cover type on characteristics of leachates generated from landfill lysimeters. Four lysimeters with diameter and height of 0.15 and 3.00 m, respectively, were prepared. Three lysimeters were filled with municipal waste and three different cover soil types i.e. sandy loam soil, silty loam soil and clay soil while another lysimeter was filled solely with municipal waste. The study was conducted in the rainy season. Leachate quantities were measured every day and leachate characteristics were determined once a week. The cumulative leachate quantity from the lysimeter filled solely with municipal waste was found to be around 27% higher than the lysimeters using cover soils. There were no any differences of the cumulative leachate amounts generated from the lysimeters using three types of soils. The comparison of the total mass of pollutants generated from all lysimeters showed that the lysimeter filled solely with municipal waste generated the maximum quantities of pollutants. Among the lysimeters using different types of soils, the lysimeter using sandy loam soil generated the lowest amount of most of pollutants, compared with the lysimeters using silty loam and clay soils. It can be concluded that in term of pollutant attenuation in the leachate, a sandy loam is the most suitable soil to be used as a cover soil in the landfill.

Keywords: cover soil, leachate, sandy loam soil, silty loam soil, clay soil.

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7 Effect of Azespirilium Bacteria in Reducing Nitrogen Fertilizers (Urea) and the Interaction of it with Stereptomyces Sp due the Biological Control on the Wheat (Triticum Asstivum) Sustinibelation Culture

Authors: Omid Alizadeh, Ali Parsaeimehr, Barmak.jaefary Hagheghy

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted in October 2008 due the ability replacement plant associate biofertilizers by chemical fertilizers and the qualifying rate of chemical N fertilizers at the moment of using this biofertilizers and the interaction of this biofertilizer on each other. This field experiment has been done in Persepolis (Throne of Jamshid) and arrange by using factorial with the basis of randomized complete block design, in three replication Azespirilium SP bacteria has been admixed with consistence 108 cfu/g and inoculated with seeds of wheat, The streptomyces SP has been used in amount of 550 gr/ha and concatenated on clay and for the qualifying range of chemical fertilizer 4 level of N chemical fertilizer from the source of urea (N0=0, N1=60, N2=120, N3=180) has been used in this experiment. The results indicated there were Significant differences between levels of Nitrogen fertilizer in the entire characteristic which has been measured in this experiment. The admixed Azespirilium SP showed significant differences between their levels in the characteristics such as No. of fertile ear, No. of grain per ear, grain yield, grain protein percentage, leaf area index and the agronomic fertilizer use efficiency. Due the interaction streptomyses with Azespirilium SP bacteria this actinomycet didn-t show any statistically significant differences between it levels.

Keywords: AzetobacterSP, AzespiriliumSP, StreptomycesSP

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6 Possible Utilization of Cigarette Butts in Light- Weight Fired Clay Bricks

Authors: Aeslina Abdul Kadir, Abbas Mohajerani

Abstract:

Over a million tonnes of cigarette butts (CBs) are produced worldwide annually. These CBs accumulate in the environment due to the poor biodegradability of the cellulose acetate filters and pose a serious environmental risk. This paper presents some of the results from a continuing study on recycling CBs into fired clay bricks. Properties including compressive strength, flexural strength, density, water absorption and thermal conductivity of fired clay bricks are reported and discussed. Furthermore, leaching of heavy metals from the manufactured clay bricks was tested. The results show that the density of fired bricks was reduced by about 8 – 30 %, depending on the percentage of CBs incorporated into the raw materials. The compressive strength of bricks tested was 12.57, 5.22 and 3.00 MPa for 2.5, 5.0 and 10 % CB content respectively. Water absorption and initial rate of absorption values increased as density, and hence porosity, of bricks decreased with increasing CB volume. The leaching test results revealed trace amounts of heavy metals.

Keywords: Cigarette butts, Fired clay bricks, Light bricks, Recycling waste, Thermal conductivity.

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5 Sediment Fixation of Arsenic in the Ash Lagoon of a Coal-Fired Power Plant, Philippines

Authors: Joselito P. Duyanen, Aries Milay

Abstract:

Arsenic in the sediments of the ash lagoons of the coal-fired power plant in Pagbilao, Quezon Province in the Philippines was sequentially extracted to determine its potential for leaching to the groundwater and the adjacent marine environment. Results show that 89% of the As is bound to the quasi-crystalline Fe/Mn oxides and hydroxide matrix in the sediments, whereas, the adsorbed and exchangeable As hosted by the clay minerals, representing those that are easiest to release from the sediment matrix, is below 10% of the acid leachable As. These As in these sediment matrices represent the possible maximum amount of As that can be released and supplied to the groundwater and the adjacent marine environment. Of the 89% reducible As, up to 4% is associated with the easily reducible variety, whereas, the rest is more strongly bonded by the moderately reducible variety. Based on the long-term As content of the lagoon water, the average desorption rate of As is calculated to be very low -- 0.3-0.5% on the average and 0.6% on the maximum. This indicates that As is well-fixed by its sediment matrices in the ash lagoon, attenuating the influx of As into the adjacent groundwater and marine environments.

Keywords: Arsenic, natural attenuation, coal-fired power plant, Philippines.

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4 Microbiological and Physicochemical Studies of Wetland Soils in Eket, Nigeria

Authors: Ime R. Udotong, Ofonime U. M. John, Justina I. R. Udotong

Abstract:

The microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of wetland soils in Eket Local Government Area were studied between May 2001 and June 2003. Total heterotrophic bacterial counts (THBC), total fungal counts (TFC), and total actinomycetes counts (TAC) were determined from soil samples taken from four locations at two depths in the wet and dry seasons. Microbial isolates were characterized and identified. Particle size and chemical parameters were also determined using standard methods. THBC ranged from 5.2 (+0.17) x106 to 1.7 (+0.18) x107 cfu/g and from 2.4 (+0.02) x106 to 1.4 (+0.04) x107cfu/g in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. TFC ranged from 1.8 (+0.03) x106 to 6.6 (+ 0.18) x106 cfu/g and from 1.0 (+0.04) x106 to 4.2 (+ 0.01) x106 cfu/g in the wet and dry seasons, respectively .TAC ranged from 1.2 (+0.53) x106 to 6.0 (+0.05) x106 cfu/g and from 0.6 (+0.01) x106 to 3.2 (+ 0.12) x106 cfu/g in the wet and dry season, respectively. Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Beijerinckja, Enterobacter, Micrococcus, Flavobacterium, Serratia, Enterococcus, and Pseudomonas species were predominant bacteria while Aspergillus, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, and Rhizopus were the dominant fungal genera isolated. Streptomyces and Norcadia were the actinomycetes genera isolated. The particle size analysis showed high sand fraction but low silt and clay. The pH and % organic matter were generally acidic and low, respectively at all locations. Calcium dominated the exchangeable bases with low electrical conductivity and micronutrients. These results provide the baseline data of Eket wetland soils for its management for sustainable agriculture.

Keywords: Wetland soils, Microbial counts, physicochemicalcharacteristics, Sustainable agriculture.

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3 Curing Time Effect on Behavior of Cement Treated Marine Clay

Authors: H. W. Xiao, F. H. Lee

Abstract:

Cement stabilization has been widely used for improving the strength and stiffness of soft clayey soils. Cement treated soil specimens used to investigate the stress-strain behaviour in the laboratory study are usually cured for 7 days. This paper examines the effects of curing time on the strength and stress strain behaviour of cement treated marine clay under triaxial loading condition. Laboratory-prepared cement treated Singapore marine clay with different mix proportion S-C-W (soil solid-cement solid-water) and curing time (7 days to 180 days) was investigated through conducting unconfined compressive strength test and triaxial test. The results show that the curing time has a significant effect on the unconfined compressive strength u q , isotropic compression behaviour and stress strain behaviour. Although the primary yield loci of the cement treated soil specimens with the same mix proportion expand with curing time, they are very narrowly banded and have nearly the same shape after being normalized by isotropic compression primary stress ' py p . The isotropic compression primary yield stress ' py p was shown to be linearly related to unconfined compressive strength u q for specimens with different curing time and mix proportion. The effect of curing time on the hardening behaviour will diminish with consolidation stress higher than isotropic compression primary yield stress but its damping rate is dependent on the cement content.

Keywords: Cement treated soil, curing time effect, hardening behaviour, isotropic compression primary yield stress, unconfined compressive strength.

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2 Classification of Discharges Initiated by Liquid Droplet on Insulation Material under AC Voltages Adopting UHF Technique

Authors: R. Sarathi, G. Nagesh, K. Vasudevan

Abstract:

In the present work, an attempt has been made to understand the feasibility of using UHF technique for identification of any corona discharges/ arcing in insulating material due to water droplets. The sensors of broadband type are useful for identification of such discharges. It is realised that arcing initiated by liquid droplet radiates UHF signals in the entire bandwidth up to 2 GHz. The frequency content of the UHF signal generated due to corona/arcing is not much varied in epoxy nanocomposites with different weight percentage of clay content. The exfoliated/intercalated properties were analysed through TEM studies. It is realized that corona initiated discharges are of intermittent process. The hydrophobicity of the material characterized through contact angle measurement. It is realized that low Wt % of nanoclay content in epoxy resin reduces the surface carbonization due to arcing/corona discharges. The results of the study with gamma irradiated specimen indicates that contact angle, discharge inception time and evaporation time of the liquid are much lower than the virgin epoxy nanocomposite material.

Keywords: Arcing, Corona, epoxy resin, insulation, nanocomposites, UHF signal, water droplet.

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1 Response Surface Based Optimization of Toughness of Hybrid Polyamide 6 Nanocomposites

Authors: E. Hajizadeh, H. Garmabi

Abstract:

Toughening of polyamide 6 (PA6)/ Nanoclay (NC) nanocomposites with styrene-ethylene/butadiene-styrene copolymer (SEBS) using maleated styrene-ethylene/butadiene-styrene copolymer (mSEBS)/ as a compatibilizer were investigated by blending them in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Response surface method of experimental design was used for optimizing the material and processing parameters. Effect of four factors, including SEBS, mSEBS and NC contents as material variables and order of mixing as a processing factor, on toughness of hybrid nanocomposites were studied. All the prepared samples showed ductile behavior and low temperature Izod impact toughness of some of the hybrid nanocomposites demonstrated 900% improvement compared to the PA6 matrix while the modulus showed maximum enhancement of 20% compared to the pristine PA6 resin.

Keywords: Hybrid nanocomposites, PA6, SEBS rubber, toughness.

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