Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 624

Search results for: Classifier generator.

624 An Experimental Study of a Self-Supervised Classifier Ensemble

Authors: Neamat El Gayar

Abstract:

Learning using labeled and unlabelled data has received considerable amount of attention in the machine learning community due its potential in reducing the need for expensive labeled data. In this work we present a new method for combining labeled and unlabeled data based on classifier ensembles. The model we propose assumes each classifier in the ensemble observes the input using different set of features. Classifiers are initially trained using some labeled samples. The trained classifiers learn further through labeling the unknown patterns using a teaching signals that is generated using the decision of the classifier ensemble, i.e. the classifiers self-supervise each other. Experiments on a set of object images are presented. Our experiments investigate different classifier models, different fusing techniques, different training sizes and different input features. Experimental results reveal that the proposed self-supervised ensemble learning approach reduces classification error over the single classifier and the traditional ensemble classifier approachs.

Keywords: Multiple Classifier Systems, classifier ensembles, learning using labeled and unlabelled data, K-nearest neighbor classifier, Bayes classifier.

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623 SVM Based Model as an Optimal Classifier for the Classification of Sonar Signals

Authors: Suresh S. Salankar, Balasaheb M. Patre

Abstract:

Research into the problem of classification of sonar signals has been taken up as a challenging task for the neural networks. This paper investigates the design of an optimal classifier using a Multi layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP NN) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). Results obtained using sonar data sets suggest that SVM classifier perform well in comparison with well-known MLP NN classifier. An average classification accuracy of 91.974% is achieved with SVM classifier and 90.3609% with MLP NN classifier, on the test instances. The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve for the proposed SVM classifier on test data set is found as 0.981183, which is very close to unity and this clearly confirms the excellent quality of the proposed classifier. The SVM classifier employed in this paper is implemented using kernel Adatron algorithm is seen to be robust and relatively insensitive to the parameter initialization in comparison to MLP NN.

Keywords: Classification, MLP NN, backpropagation algorithm, SVM, Receiver Operating Characteristics.

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622 Influence of Vortex Generator on Flow Behavior of Air Stream

Authors: Chakkapong Supasri, Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat, Atipoang Nuntaphan

Abstract:

 

This research studied the influence of delta wing and delta winglet vortex generators on air flow characteristic. Normally, the vortex generator has been used for enhancing the heat transfer performance by promote the helical flow of air stream. The vortex generator was setup in the wind tunnel and the flow pattern of air stream passing the vortex generator was observed by using smoke generator. The Reynolds number of air stream was between 30,000 and 80,000. It is found that the delta winglet having 20mm fin height and 30 degree of air stream contact angle generates the maximum helical flow of air stream.

Keywords: Vortex generator, Flow behavior, Visual study, Delta wing, Delta winglet, Smoke generator.

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621 Speaker Recognition Using LIRA Neural Networks

Authors: Nestor A. Garcia Fragoso, Tetyana Baydyk, Ernst Kussul

Abstract:

This article contains information from our investigation in the field of voice recognition. For this purpose, we created a voice database that contains different phrases in two languages, English and Spanish, for men and women. As a classifier, the LIRA (Limited Receptive Area) grayscale neural classifier was selected. The LIRA grayscale neural classifier was developed for image recognition tasks and demonstrated good results. Therefore, we decided to develop a recognition system using this classifier for voice recognition. From a specific set of speakers, we can recognize the speaker’s voice. For this purpose, the system uses spectrograms of the voice signals as input to the system, extracts the characteristics and identifies the speaker. The results are described and analyzed in this article. The classifier can be used for speaker identification in security system or smart buildings for different types of intelligent devices.

Keywords: Extreme learning, LIRA neural classifier, speaker identification, voice recognition.

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620 Relational Representation in XCSF

Authors: Mohammad Ali Tabarzad, Caro Lucas, Ali Hamzeh

Abstract:

Generalization is one of the most challenging issues of Learning Classifier Systems. This feature depends on the representation method which the system used. Considering the proposed representation schemes for Learning Classifier System, it can be concluded that many of them are designed to describe the shape of the region which the environmental states belong and the other relations of the environmental state with that region was ignored. In this paper, we propose a new representation scheme which is designed to show various relationships between the environmental state and the region that is specified with a particular classifier.

Keywords: Classifier Systems, Reinforcement Learning, Relational Representation, XCSF.

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619 Comparing SVM and Naïve Bayes Classifier for Automatic Microaneurysm Detections

Authors: A. Sopharak, B. Uyyanonvara, S. Barman

Abstract:

Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by the development of retinal microaneurysms. The damage can be prevented if disease is treated in its early stages. In this paper, we are comparing Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Naïve Bayes (NB) classifiers for automatic microaneurysm detection in images acquired through non-dilated pupils. The Nearest Neighbor classifier is used as a baseline for comparison. Detected microaneurysms are validated with expert ophthalmologists’ hand-drawn ground-truths. The sensitivity, specificity, precision and accuracy of each method are also compared.

Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, microaneurysm, Naïve Bayes classifier, SVM classifier.

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618 Analyzing the Effect of Ambient Temperature and Loads Power Factor on Electric Generator Power Rating

Authors: Ahmed Elsebaay, Maged A. Abu Adma, Mahmoud Ramadan

Abstract:

This study presents a technique clarifying the effect of ambient air temperature and loads power factor changing from standard values on electric generator power rating. The study introduces an optimized technique for selecting the correct electric generator power rating for certain application and operating site ambient temperature. The de-rating factors due to the previous effects will be calculated to be applied on a generator to select its power rating accurately to avoid unsafe operation and save its lifetime. The information in this paper provides a simple, accurate, and general method for synchronous generator selection and eliminates common errors.

Keywords: Ambient temperature, de-rating factor, electric generator, power factor.

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617 A New Approach for Flexible Document Categorization

Authors: Jebari Chaker, Ounelli Habib

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a new approach for flexible document categorization according to the document type or genre instead of topic. Our approach implements two homogenous classifiers: contextual classifier and logical classifier. The contextual classifier is based on the document URL, whereas, the logical classifier use the logical structure of the document to perform the categorization. The final categorization is obtained by combining contextual and logical categorizations. In our approach, each document is assigned to all predefined categories with different membership degrees. Our experiments demonstrate that our approach is best than other genre categorization approaches.

Keywords: Categorization, combination, flexible, logicalstructure, genre, category, URL.

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616 Generator Damage Recognition Based on Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Chang-Hung Hsu, Chun-Yao Lee, Guan-Lin Liao, Yung-Tsan Jou, Jin-Maun Ho, Yu-Hua Hsieh, Yi-Xing Shen

Abstract:

This article simulates the wind generator set which has two fault bearing collar rail destruction and the gear box oil leak fault. The electric current signal which produced by the generator, We use Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) as well as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) obtains the frequency range-s signal figure and characteristic value. The last step is use a kind of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifies which determination fault signal's type and reason. The ANN purpose of the automatic identification wind generator set fault..

Keywords: Wind-driven generator, Fast Fourier Transform, Neural network

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615 Comparison of an Interior Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator with a Synchronous Reluctance Generator for a Wind Application

Authors: Poopak Roshanfekr, Torbjörn Thiringer, Sonja Lundmark, Mikael Alatalo

Abstract:

This article presents a performance comparison of an interior mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (IPMSG) with a synchronous reluctance generator (SynRG) with the same size for a wind application. It is found that using the same geometrical dimensions, a SynRG can convert 74 % of the power that an IPMSG can convert, while it has 80% of the IPMSG weight. Moreover it is found that the efficieny for the IMPSG is 99% at rated power compared to 98.7% for the SynRG.

Keywords: Interior mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (IPMSG), synchronous reluctance generator (SynRG), wind energy, annual energy efficiency.

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614 Feature-Driven Classification of Musical Styles

Authors: A. Buzzanca, G. Castellano, A.M. Fanelli

Abstract:

In this paper we address the problem of musical style classification, which has a number of applications like indexing in musical databases or automatic composition systems. Starting from MIDI files of real-world improvisations, we extract the melody track and cut it into overlapping segments of equal length. From these fragments, some numerical features are extracted as descriptors of style samples. We show that a standard Bayesian classifier can be conveniently employed to build an effective musical style classifier, once this set of features has been extracted from musical data. Preliminary experimental results show the effectiveness of the developed classifier that represents the first component of a musical audio retrieval system

Keywords: Musical style, Bayesian classifier.

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613 A New Design of Permanent Magnets Reluctance Generator

Authors: Andi Pawawoi, Syafii

Abstract:

Instantaneous electromagnetic torque of simple reflectance generator can be positive at a time and negative at other time. It is utilized to design a permanent magnet reluctance generator specifically. Generator is designed by combining two simple reluctance generators, consists of two rotors mounted on the same shaft, two output-windings and a field source of the permanent magnet. By this design, the electromagnetic torque on both rotor will be eliminated each other, so the input torque generator can be smaller. Rotor is expected only to regulate the flux flow to both output windings alternately, until the magnetic energy is converted into electrical energy, such as occurs in the transformer energy conversion. ​​The prototype trials have been made to test this design. The test result show that the new design of permanent magnets reluctance generator able to convert energy from permanent magnets into electrical energy, this is proven by the existence 167% power output compared to the shaft input power.

Keywords: Energy, Magnet permanent, Reluctance generator.

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612 A New Method of Combined Classifier Design Based on Fuzzy Neural Network

Authors: Kexin Jia, Youxin Lu

Abstract:

To make the modulation classification system more suitable for signals in a wide range of signal to noise rate (SNR), a novel method of designing combined classifier based on fuzzy neural network (FNN) is presented in this paper. The method employs fuzzy neural network classifiers and interclass distance (ICD) to improve recognition reliability. Experimental results show that the proposed combined classifier has high recognition rate with large variation range of SNR (success rates are over 99.9% when SNR is not lower than 5dB).

Keywords: Modulation classification, combined classifier, fuzzy neural network, interclass distance.

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611 Using Swarm Intelligence for Improving Accuracy of Fuzzy Classifiers

Authors: Hassan M. Elragal

Abstract:

This paper discusses a method for improving accuracy of fuzzy-rule-based classifiers using particle swarm optimization (PSO). Two different fuzzy classifiers are considered and optimized. The first classifier is based on Mamdani fuzzy inference system (M_PSO fuzzy classifier). The second classifier is based on Takagi- Sugeno fuzzy inference system (TS_PSO fuzzy classifier). The parameters of the proposed fuzzy classifiers including premise (antecedent) parameters, consequent parameters and structure of fuzzy rules are optimized using PSO. Experimental results show that higher classification accuracy can be obtained with a lower number of fuzzy rules by using the proposed PSO fuzzy classifiers. The performances of M_PSO and TS_PSO fuzzy classifiers are compared to other fuzzy based classifiers

Keywords: Fuzzy classifier, Optimization of fuzzy systemparameters, Particle swarm optimization, Pattern classification.

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610 The Influence of Voltage Flicker for the Wind Generator upon Distribution System

Authors: Jin-Lung Guan, Jyh-Cherng Gu, Ming-Ta Yang, Hsin-Hung Chang, Chun-Wei Huang, Shao-Yu Huang

Abstract:

One of the most important power quality issues is voltage flicker. Nowadays this issue also impacts the power system all over the world. The fact of the matter is that the more and the larger capacity of wind generator has been installed. Under unstable wind power situation, the variation of output current and voltage have caused trouble to voltage flicker. Hence, the major purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of wind generator on voltage flicker of power system. First of all, digital simulation and analysis are carried out based on wind generator operating under various system short circuit capacity, impedance angle, loading, and power factor of load. The simulation results have been confirmed by field measurements.

Keywords: Wind Generator, Voltage Flicker

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609 Hardware Stream Cipher Based On LFSR and Modular Division Circuit

Authors: Deepthi P.P., P.S. Sathidevi

Abstract:

Proposal for a secure stream cipher based on Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSR) is presented here. In this method, shift register structure used for polynomial modular division is combined with LFSR keystream generator to yield a new keystream generator with much higher periodicity. Security is brought into this structure by using the Boolean function to combine state bits of the LFSR keystream generator and taking the output through the Boolean function. This introduces non-linearity and security into the structure in a way similar to the Non-linear filter generator. The security and throughput of the suggested stream cipher is found to be much greater than the known LFSR based structures for the same key length.

Keywords: Linear Feedback Shift Register, Stream Cipher, Filter generator, Keystream generator, Modular division circuit

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608 Techno-Economic Analysis of Motor-Generator Pair System and Virtual Synchronous Generator for Providing Inertia of Power System

Authors: Zhou Yingkun, Xu Guorui, Wei Siming, Huang Yongzhang

Abstract:

With the increasing of the penetration of renewable energy in power system, the whole inertia of the power system is declining, which will endanger the frequency stability of the power system. In order to enhance the inertia, virtual synchronous generator (VSG) has been proposed. In addition, the motor-generator pair (MGP) system is proposed to enhance grid inertia. Both of them need additional equipment to provide instantaneous energy, so the economic problem should be considered. In this paper, the basic working principle of MGP system and VSG are introduced firstly. Then, the technical characteristics and economic investment of MGP/VSG are compared by calculation and simulation. The results show that the MGP system can provide same inertia with less cost than VSG.

Keywords: High renewable energy penetration, inertia of power system, virtual synchronous generator, motor-generator pair system, techno-economic analysis.

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607 Design and Performance Analysis of a Hydro-Power Rim-Driven Superconducting Synchronous Generator

Authors: A. Hassannia, S. Ramezani

Abstract:

The technology of superconductivity has developed in many power system devices such as transmission cable, transformer, current limiter, motor and generator. Superconducting wires can carry high density current without loss, which is the capability that is used to design the compact, lightweight and more efficient electrical machines. Superconducting motors have found applications in marine and air propulsion systems as well as superconducting generators are considered in low power hydraulic and wind generators. This paper presents a rim-driven superconducting synchronous generator for hydraulic power plant. The rim-driven concept improves the performance of hydro turbine. Furthermore, high magnetic field that is produced by superconducting windings allows replacing the rotor core. As a consequent, the volume and weight of the machine is decreased significantly. In this paper, a 1 MW coreless rim-driven superconducting synchronous generator is designed. Main performance characteristics of the proposed machine are then evaluated using finite elements method and compared to an ordinary similar size synchronous generator.

Keywords: Coreless machine, electrical machine design, hydraulic generator, rim-driven machine, superconducting generator.

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606 Computer-aided Lenke Classification of Scoliotic Spines

Authors: Neila Mezghani, Philippe Phan, Hubert Labelle, Carl Eric Aubin, Jacques de Guise

Abstract:

The identification and classification of the spine deformity play an important role when considering surgical planning for adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis. The subject of this article is the Lenke classification of scoliotic spines using Cobb angle measurements. The purpose is two-fold: (1) design a rulebased diagram to assist clinicians in the classification process and (2) investigate a computer classifier which improves the classification time and accuracy. The rule-based diagram efficiency was evaluated in a series of scoliotic classifications by 10 clinicians. The computer classifier was tested on a radiographic measurement database of 603 patients. Classification accuracy was 93% using the rule-based diagram and 99% for the computer classifier. Both the computer classifier and the rule based diagram can efficiently assist clinicians in their Lenke classification of spine scoliosis.

Keywords: Scoliosis, Lenke model, decision-rules, computer aided classifier.

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605 A New Nonlinear Excitation Controller for Transient Stability Enhancement in Power Systems

Authors: M. Ouassaid, A. Nejmi, M. Cherkaoui, M. Maaroufi

Abstract:

The very nonlinear nature of the generator and system behaviour following a severe disturbance precludes the use of classical linear control technique. In this paper, a new approach of nonlinear control is proposed for transient and steady state stability analysis of a synchronous generator. The control law of the generator excitation is derived from the basis of Lyapunov stability criterion. The overall stability of the system is shown using Lyapunov technique. The application of the proposed controller to simulated generator excitation control under a large sudden fault and wide range of operating conditions demonstrates that the new control strategy is superior to conventional automatic voltage regulator (AVR), and show very promising results.

Keywords: Excitation control, Lyapunov technique, non linearcontrol, synchronous generator, transient stability, voltage regulation.

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604 Hand Written Digit Recognition by Multiple Classifier Fusion based on Decision Templates Approach

Authors: Reza Ebrahimpour, Samaneh Hamedi

Abstract:

Classifier fusion may generate more accurate classification than each of the basic classifiers. Fusion is often based on fixed combination rules like the product, average etc. This paper presents decision templates as classifier fusion method for the recognition of the handwritten English and Farsi numerals (1-9). The process involves extracting a feature vector on well-known image databases. The extracted feature vector is fed to multiple classifier fusion. A set of experiments were conducted to compare decision templates (DTs) with some combination rules. Results from decision templates conclude 97.99% and 97.28% for Farsi and English handwritten digits.

Keywords: Decision templates, multi-layer perceptron, characteristics Loci, principle component analysis (PCA).

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603 Determination of Regimes of the Equivalent Generator Based On Projective Geometry: The Generalized Equivalent Generator

Authors: A. A. Penin

Abstract:

Requirements that should be met when determining the regimes of circuits with variable elements are formulated. The interpretation of the variations in the regimes, based on projective geometry, enables adequate expressions for determining and comparing the regimes to be derived. It is proposed to use as the parameters of a generalized equivalent generator of an active two-pole with changeable resistor such load current and voltage which provide the current through this resistor equal to zero.

Keywords: Equivalent generator, geometric circuits theory, circuits regimes, load characteristics, variable elements.

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602 An Iterative Algorithm for KLDA Classifier

Authors: D.N. Zheng, J.X. Wang, Y.N. Zhao, Z.H. Yang

Abstract:

The Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) can be generalized into a nonlinear form - kernel LDA (KLDA) expediently by using the kernel functions. But KLDA is often referred to a general eigenvalue problem in singular case. To avoid this complication, this paper proposes an iterative algorithm for the two-class KLDA. The proposed KLDA is used as a nonlinear discriminant classifier, and the experiments show that it has a comparable performance with SVM.

Keywords: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), kernel LDA (KLDA), conjugate gradient algorithm, nonlinear discriminant classifier.

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601 Adaptive Naïve Bayesian Anti-Spam Engine

Authors: Wojciech P. Gajewski

Abstract:

The problem of spam has been seriously troubling the Internet community during the last few years and currently reached an alarming scale. Observations made at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research located in Geneva, Switzerland) show that spam mails can constitute up to 75% of daily SMTP traffic. A naïve Bayesian classifier based on a Bag Of Words representation of an email is widely used to stop this unwanted flood as it combines good performance with simplicity of the training and classification processes. However, facing the constantly changing patterns of spam, it is necessary to assure online adaptability of the classifier. This work proposes combining such a classifier with another NBC (naïve Bayesian classifier) based on pairs of adjacent words. Only the latter will be retrained with examples of spam reported by users. Tests are performed on considerable sets of mails both from public spam archives and CERN mailboxes. They suggest that this architecture can increase spam recall without affecting the classifier precision as it happens when only the NBC based on single words is retrained.

Keywords: Text classification, naïve Bayesian classification, spam, email.

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600 MPPT Operation for PV Grid-connected System using RBFNN and Fuzzy Classification

Authors: A. Chaouachi, R. M. Kamel, K. Nagasaka

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel methodology for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of a grid-connected 20 kW Photovoltaic (PV) system using neuro-fuzzy network. The proposed method predicts the reference PV voltage guarantying optimal power transfer between the PV generator and the main utility grid. The neuro-fuzzy network is composed of a fuzzy rule-based classifier and three Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBFNN). Inputs of the network (irradiance and temperature) are classified before they are fed into the appropriated RBFNN for either training or estimation process while the output is the reference voltage. The main advantage of the proposed methodology, comparing to a conventional single neural network-based approach, is the distinct generalization ability regarding to the nonlinear and dynamic behavior of a PV generator. In fact, the neuro-fuzzy network is a neural network based multi-model machine learning that defines a set of local models emulating the complex and non-linear behavior of a PV generator under a wide range of operating conditions. Simulation results under several rapid irradiance variations proved that the proposed MPPT method fulfilled the highest efficiency comparing to a conventional single neural network.

Keywords: MPPT, neuro-fuzzy, RBFN, grid-connected, photovoltaic.

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599 Integration of Support Vector Machine and Bayesian Neural Network for Data Mining and Classification

Authors: Essam Al-Daoud

Abstract:

Several combinations of the preprocessing algorithms, feature selection techniques and classifiers can be applied to the data classification tasks. This study introduces a new accurate classifier, the proposed classifier consist from four components: Signal-to- Noise as a feature selection technique, support vector machine, Bayesian neural network and AdaBoost as an ensemble algorithm. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed classifier, seven well known classifiers are applied to four datasets. The experiments show that using the suggested classifier enhances the classification rates for all datasets.

Keywords: AdaBoost, Bayesian neural network, Signal-to-Noise, support vector machine, MCMC.

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598 Analysis of a Singular Perturbed Synchronous Generator with a Bond Graph Approach

Authors: Gilberto Gonzalez-A, Noe Barrera-G

Abstract:

An analysis of a synchronous generator in a bond graph approach is proposed. This bond graph allows to determine the simplified models of the system by using singular perturbations. Firstly, the nonlinear bond graph of the generator is linearized. Then, the slow and fast state equations by applying singular perturbations are obtained. Also, a bond graph to get the quasi-steady state of the slow dynamic is proposed. In order to verify the effectiveness of the singularly perturbed models, simulation results of the complete system and reduced models are shown.

Keywords: Bond graph modelling, synchronous generator, singular perturbations

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597 Numerical Analysis for the Performance of a Thermoelectric Generator According to Engine Exhaust Gas Thermal Conditions

Authors: Jinkyu Park, Yungjin Kim, Byungdeok In, Sangki Park, Kihyung Lee

Abstract:

Internal combustion engines rejects 30-40% of the energy supplied by fuel to the environment through exhaust gas. thus, there is a possibility for further significant improvement of efficiency with the utilization of exhaust gas energy and its conversion to mechanical energy or electrical energy. The Thermo-Electric Generator (TEG) will be located in the exhaust system and will make use of an energy flow between the warmer exhaust gas and the external environment. Predict to th optimum position of temperature distribution and the performance of TEG through numerical analysis. The experimental results obtained show that the power output significantly increases with the temperature difference between cold and hot sides of a thermoelectric generator.

Keywords: Thermoelectric generator, Numerical analysis, Seebeck coefficient, Figure of merit

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596 Improved Tropical Wood Species Recognition System based on Multi-feature Extractor and Classifier

Authors: Marzuki Khalid, RubiyahYusof, AnisSalwaMohdKhairuddin

Abstract:

An automated wood recognition system is designed to classify tropical wood species.The wood features are extracted based on two feature extractors: Basic Grey Level Aura Matrix (BGLAM) technique and statistical properties of pores distribution (SPPD) technique. Due to the nonlinearity of the tropical wood species separation boundaries, a pre classification stage is proposed which consists ofKmeans clusteringand kernel discriminant analysis (KDA). Finally, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) classifier and KNearest Neighbour (KNN) are implemented for comparison purposes. The study involves comparison of the system with and without pre classification using KNN classifier and LDA classifier.The results show that the inclusion of the pre classification stage has improved the accuracy of both the LDA and KNN classifiers by more than 12%.

Keywords: Tropical wood species, nonlinear data, featureextractors, classification

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595 Emergency Generator Sizing and Motor Starting Analysis

Authors: Mukesh Kumar Kirar, Ganga Agnihotri

Abstract:

This paper investigates the preliminary sizing of generator set to design electrical system at the early phase of a project, dynamic behavior of generator-unit, as well as induction motors, during start-up of the induction motor drives fed from emergency generator unit. The information in this paper simplifies generator set selection and eliminates common errors in selection. It covers load estimation, step loading capacity test, transient analysis for the emergency generator set. The dynamic behavior of the generator-unit, power, power factor, voltage, during Direct-on-Line start-up of the induction motor drives fed from stand alone gene-set is also discussed. It is important to ensure that plant generators operate safely and consistently, power system studies are required at the planning and conceptual design stage of the project. The most widely recognized and studied effect of motor starting is the voltage dip that is experienced throughout an industrial power system as the direct online result of starting large motors. Generator step loading capability and transient voltage dip during starting of largest motor is ensured with the help of Electrical Transient Analyzer Program (ETAP).

Keywords: Sizing, induction motor starting, load estimation, Transient Analyzer Program (ETAP).

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