Search results for: Christopher G. Pretty
47 Pulse Oximeter Concept for Vascular Occlusion Test
Authors: Fatanah M. Suhaimi, J. Geoffrey Chase, Christopher G. Pretty, Rodney Elliott, Geoffrey M. Shaw
Microcirculatory dysfunction is very common in sepsis and may results in organ failure and increased risk of death. Analyzing oxygen utilization can potentially assess microcirculation function of an individual. In this study, a modified pulse oximeter is used to extract information signals due to absorption of red (R) and infrared (IR) light. IR and R signal are related to the overall blood volume and reduced hemoglobin, respectively. Differences between these two signals thus represent the amount of oxygenated hemoglobin. Avascular occlusion test has been conducted on healthy individuals to validate the pulse oximeter concept. In this test, both R and IR signals rapidly changed according to the occlusion process. The pulse oximeter concept presented is capable of extracting valuable information to assess microcirculation condition. Implementing this concept on ICU patients has the potential to aid sepsis diagnosis and provide more accurate tracking of patient state and sepsis status.
Keywords: Microcirculation, sepsis, sepsis diagnosis, oxygen extraction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1904
46 A Formatting Method for Transforming XML Data into HTML
Authors: Zhe JIN, Motomichi TOYAMA
In this paper, we propose a fixed formatting method of PPX(Pretty Printer for XML). PPX is a query language for XML database which has extensive formatting capability that produces HTML as the result of a query. The fixed formatting method is to completely specify the combination of variables and layout specification operators within the layout expression of the GENERATE clause of PPX. In the experiment, a quick comparison shows that PPX requires far less description compared to XSLT or XQuery programs doing the same tasks.
Keywords: PPX, XML, HTML, XSLT, XQuery, fixed formatting method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1256
45 A Proposal of an Automatic Formatting Method for Transforming XML Data
Authors: Zhe JIN, Motomichi TOYAMA
PPX(Pretty Printer for XML) is a query language that offers a concise description method of formatting the XML data into HTML. In this paper, we propose a simple specification of formatting method that is a combination description of automatic layout operators and variables in the layout expression of the GENERATE clause of PPX. This method can automatically format irregular XML data included in a part of XML with layout decision rule that is referred to DTD. In the experiment, a quick comparison shows that PPX requires far less description compared to XSLT or XQuery programs doing same tasks.
Keywords: PPX, Irregular XML data, Layout decision rule, HTML.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1305
44 OSGi in Cloud Environments
Authors: Irina Astrova, Arne Koschel, Björn Siekmann, Mark Starrach, Christopher Tebbe, StefanWolf, Marc Schaaf
Abstract:This paper deals with the combination of OSGi and cloud computing. Both technologies are mainly placed in the field of distributed computing. Therefore, it is discussed how different approaches from different institutions work. In addition, the approaches are compared to each other.
Keywords: Cloud computing, OSGi, distributed environments.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2325
43 On-Chip Aging Sensor Circuit Based on Phase Locked Loop Circuit
Authors: Ararat Khachatryan, Davit Mirzoyan
In sub micrometer technology, the aging phenomenon starts to have a significant impact on the reliability of integrated circuits by bringing performance degradation. For that reason, it is important to have a capability to evaluate the aging effects accurately. This paper presents an accurate aging measurement approach based on phase-locked loop (PLL) and voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) circuit. The architecture is rejecting the circuit self-aging effect from the characteristics of PLL, which is generating the frequency without any aging phenomena affects. The aging monitor is implemented in low power 32 nm CMOS technology, and occupies a pretty small area. Aging simulation results show that the proposed aging measurement circuit improves accuracy by about 2.8% at high temperature and 19.6% at high voltage.
Keywords: Nanoscale, aging, effect, NBTI, HCI.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 865
42 Key Based Text Watermarking of E-Text Documents in an Object Based Environment Using Z-Axis for Watermark Embedding
Authors: Mussarat Abdullah, Fazal Wahab
Abstract:Data hiding into text documents itself involves pretty complexities due to the nature of text documents. A robust text watermarking scheme targeting an object based environment is presented in this research. The heart of the proposed solution describes the concept of watermarking an object based text document where each and every text string is entertained as a separate object having its own set of properties. Taking advantage of the z-ordering of objects watermark is applied with the z-axis letting zero fidelity disturbances to the text. Watermark sequence of bits generated against user key is hashed with selected properties of given document, to determine the bit sequence to embed. Bits are embedded along z-axis and the document has no fidelity issues when printed, scanned or photocopied.
Keywords: Digital Watermarking, Object Based Environment, Watermark, z-ordering.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1597
41 Deixis and Personalization in Ad Slogans
Authors: Anne A. Christopher
Abstract:This study examines the use of the persuasive strategy of deixis and personalization in advertising slogans. This rhetorical/ stylistic and linguistic strategy has been found to be widely used in advertising slogans for over a century. A total of five hundred advertising slogans of multinational companies in both product and service sectors were obtained. The analysis reveals the 3 main components of this strategy as being deictic words, absolute uniqueness and personal pronouns. The percentage and mean of the use of the 3 components are tabulated. The findings show that advertisers have used this persuasive strategy in creative ways to persuade consumers to buy their products and services.
Keywords: Advertising slogans, deixis, personalization, persuasive strategy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4069
40 The Ethics of Dissent: The Case of David Kelly
Authors: A. Kayes, D. Christopher Kayes
Abstract:In this paper, we rely on the story of the late British weapons inspector David Kelly to illustrate how sensemaking can inform the study of the ethics of suppression of dissent. Using archival data, we reconstruct Dr. Kelly-s key responsibilities as a weapons inspector and government employee. We begin by clarifying the concept of dissent and how it is a useful organizational process. We identify the various ways that dissent has been discussed in the organizational literature and reconsider the process of sensemaking. We conclude that suppression of opinions that deviate from the majority is part of the identity maintenance of the sensemaking process. We illustrate the prevention of dissent in organizations consists of a set of unsatisfactory trade-offs.
Keywords: ethics, dissent, suppression, sensemakingProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2100
39 Comparation Treatment Method for Industrial Tempeh Waste by Constructed Wetland and Activated Sludge
Authors: Imanda H. Pradana, Tillana Adilaviana, Christine Pretty Ballerena
Abstract:Ever since industrial revolution began, our ecosystem has changed. And indeed, the negatives outweigh the positives. Industrial waste usually released into all kinds of body of water, such as river or sea. Tempeh waste is one example of waste that carries many hazardous and unwanted substances that will affect the surrounding environment. Tempeh is a popular fermented food in Asia which is rich in nutrients and active substances. Tempeh liquid waste- in particular- can cause an air pollution, and if penetrates through the soil, it will contaminates ground-water, making it unavailable for the water to be consumed. Moreover, bacteria will thrive within the polluted water, which often responsible for causing many kinds of diseases. The treatment used for this chemical waste is biological treatment such as constructed wetland and activated sludge. These kinds of treatment are able to reduce both physical and chemical parameters altogether such as temperature, TSS, pH, BOD, COD, NH3-N, NO3-N, and PO4-P. These treatments are implemented before the waste is released into the water. The result is a comparation between constructed wetland and activated sludge, along with determining which method is better suited to reduce the physical and chemical subtances of the waste.
Keywords: activated sludge, constructed wetland, waste, watertreatmentProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1702
38 The Experimental Measurement of the LiBr Concentration of a Solar Absorption Machine
Authors: N. Hatraf, L. Merabeti, Z. Neffeh, W. Taane
The excessive consumption of fossil energies (electrical energy) during summer caused by the technological development involves more and more climate warming.
In order to reduce the worst impact of gas emissions produced from classical air conditioning, heat driven solar absorption chiller is pretty promising; it consists on using solar as motive energy which is clean and environmentally friendly to provide cold.
Solar absorption machine is composed by four components using Lithium Bromide /water as a refrigerating couple. LiBr- water is the most promising in chiller applications due to high safety, high volatility ratio, high affinity, high stability and its high latent heat. The lithium bromide solution is constitute by the salt lithium bromide which absorbs water under certain conditions of pressure and temperature however if the concentration of the solution is high in the absorption chillers; which exceed 70%, the solution will crystallize.
The main aim of this article is to study the phenomena of the crystallization and to evaluate how the dependence between the electric conductivity and the concentration which should be controlled.
Keywords: Absorption chillers, crystallization, experimental results, Lithium Bromide solution.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3649
37 Beyond Possibilities: Re- Reading Republican Ankara
Authors: Zelal Çinar
This paper aims to expose the effects of the ideological program of Turkish Republic on city planning, through the first plan of Ankara. As the new capital, Ankara was planned to be the ‘showcase’ of modern Turkey. It was to represent all new ideologies and the country’s cultural similarities with the west. At the same time it was to underline the national identity and independence of Turkish republic. To this end, a new plan for the capital was designed by German city planner Carl Christopher Lörcher. Diametrically opposed with the existing fabric of the city, this plan was built on the basis of papers and plans, on ideological aims. On the contrary, this paper argues that the city is a machine of possibilities, rather than a clear, materialized system.
Keywords: Architecture, ideology, modernization, urban planning.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1658
36 Feasibility Study of Distributed Lightless Intersection Control with Level 1 Autonomous Vehicles
Authors: Bo Yang, Christopher Monterola
Urban intersection control without the use of the traffic light has the potential to vastly improve the efficiency of the urban traffic flow. For most proposals in the literature, such lightless intersection control depends on the mass market commercialization of highly intelligent autonomous vehicles (AV), which limits the prospects of near future implementation. We present an efficient lightless intersection traffic control scheme that only requires Level 1 AV as defined by NHTSA. The technological barriers of such lightless intersection control are thus very low. Our algorithm can also accommodate a mixture of AVs and conventional vehicles. We also carry out large scale numerical analysis to illustrate the feasibility, safety and robustness, comfort level, and control efficiency of our intersection control scheme.
Keywords: Intersection control, autonomous vehicles, traffic modelling, intelligent transport system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 989
35 Site Selection of Public Parking in Isfahan City, using AHP Model
Authors: M. Ahmadi Baseri, R. Mokhtari Malekabadi, A. Gandomkar
Abstract:Nowadays, one of the most important problems of the metropolises and the world large cities is the habitant traffic difficulty and lack of sufficient parking site for the vehicles. Esfahan city as the third metropolis of Iran has encountered with the vehicles parkingplace problems in the most parts of fourteen regions of the city. The non principled and non systematic dispersal and lack of parking sites in the city has created an unfavorable status for its traffic and has caused the air and sound pollutions increase; in addition, it wastes the most portions of the citizenship and travelers' charge and time in urban pathways and disturbs their mental and psychical calmness, thus leads to their intensive dissatisfaction. In this study, by the usage of AHP model in GIS environment, the effective criteria in selecting the public parking sites have been combined with each other, and the results of the created layers overlapping represent the parking utilitarian vastness and widths. The achieved results of this research indicate the pretty appropriate public parking sites selection in region number 3 of Esfahan; but inconsequential dispersal and lack of these parking sites in this region have caused abundant transportation problems in Esfahan city.
Keywords: Public parking lots, Parking site selection, Geographical Information System (GIS), Hierarchical Analysis Model, Isfahan city.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2234
34 Modeling and Control of a 4DoF Robotic Assistive Device for Hand Rehabilitation
Authors: Christopher Spiewak, M. R. Islam, Mohammad Arifur Rahaman, Mohammad H. Rahman, Roger Smith, Maarouf Saad
Abstract:For those who have lost the ability to move their hand, going through repetitious motions with the assistance of a therapist is the main method of recovery. We have been developed a robotic assistive device to rehabilitate the hand motions in place of the traditional therapy. The developed assistive device (RAD-HR) is comprised of four degrees of freedom enabling basic movements, hand function, and assists in supporting the hand during rehabilitation. We used a nonlinear computed torque control technique to control the RAD-HR. The accuracy of the controller was evaluated in simulations (MATLAB/Simulink environment). To see the robustness of the controller external disturbance as modelling uncertainty (±10% of joint torques) were added in each joints.
Keywords: Biorobotics, rehabilitation, nonlinear control, robotic assistive device, exoskeleton.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1406
33 Genetic Combined with a Simplex Algorithm as an Efficient Method for the Detection of a Depressed Ellipsoidal Flaw using the Boundary Element Method
Authors: Clio G. Vossou, Ioannis N. Koukoulis, Christopher G. Provatidis
The present work encounters the solution of the defect identification problem with the use of an evolutionary algorithm combined with a simplex method. In more details, a Matlab implementation of Genetic Algorithms is combined with a Simplex method in order to lead to the successful identification of the defect. The influence of the location and the orientation of the depressed ellipsoidal flaw was investigated as well as the use of different amount of static data in the cost function. The results were evaluated according to the ability of the simplex method to locate the global optimum in each test case. In this way, a clear impression regarding the performance of the novel combination of the optimization algorithms, and the influence of the geometrical parameters of the flaw in defect identification problems was obtained.
Keywords: Defect identification, genetic algorithms, optimization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1182
32 The Path to Wellbeing: The Role of Work-Family Conflict, Family-Work Conflict and Psychological Strain
Authors: Thomas Kalliath, Parveen Kalliath, Christopher C. A. Chan, Geetha Thachil
Although considerable amount of research has attested to the link between work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC) and psychological strain and wellbeing, there is a paucity of research investigating the phenomenon in the context of social workers. Moreover, very little is known about the impact of WFC and FWC in developing countries. The present study investigated the mediating effect of psychological strain on the relationship between WFC and FWC with wellbeing of social workers in India. Our findings show that WFC and FWC are influential antecedents of wellbeing; their influence is both direct on psychological strain, and indirect on wellbeing transmitted through psychological strain. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Keywords: Family-to-work conflict, psychological strain, wellbeing, work-to-family conflict.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2750
31 Effect of Sand Particle Transportation in Oil and Gas Pipeline Erosion
Authors: Christopher Deekia Nwimae, Nigel Simms, Liyun Lao
Erosion in a pipe bends caused by particles is a major concern in the oil and gas fields and might cause breakdown to production equipment. This work investigates the effect of sand particle transport in an elbow using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. Two-way coupled Euler-Lagrange and discrete phase model is employed to calculate the air/solid particle ﬂow in the elbow. Generic erosion model in Ansys fluent and three particle rebound models are used to predict the erosion rate on the 90° elbows. The model result is compared with experimental data from the open literature validating the CFD-based predictions which reveals that due to the sand particles impinging on the wall of the elbow at high velocity, a point on the pipe elbow were observed to have started turning red due to velocity increase and the maximum erosion locations occur at 48°.
Keywords: Erosion, prediction, elbow, computational fluid dynamics, CFD.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 9
30 Analysis of Stress and Strain in Head Based Control of Cooperative Robots through Tetraplegics
Authors: Jochen Nelles, Susanne Kohns, Julia Spies, Friederike Schmitz-Buhl, Roland Thietje, Christopher Brandl, Alexander Mertens, Christopher M. Schlick
Industrial robots as part of highly automated manufacturing are recently developed to cooperative (light-weight) robots. This offers the opportunity of using them as assistance robots and to improve the participation in professional life of disabled or handicapped people such as tetraplegics. Robots under development are located within a cooperation area together with the working person at the same workplace. This cooperation area is an area where the robot and the working person can perform tasks at the same time. Thus, working people and robots are operating in the immediate proximity. Considering the physical restrictions and the limited mobility of tetraplegics, a hands-free robot control could be an appropriate approach for a cooperative assistance robot. To meet these requirements, the research project MeRoSy (human-robot synergy) develops methods for cooperative assistance robots based on the measurement of head movements of the working person. One research objective is to improve the participation in professional life of people with disabilities and, in particular, mobility impaired persons (e.g. wheelchair users or tetraplegics), whose participation in a self-determined working life is denied. This raises the research question, how a human-robot cooperation workplace can be designed for hands-free robot control. Here, the example of a library scenario is demonstrated. In this paper, an empirical study that focuses on the impact of head movement related stress is presented. 12 test subjects with tetraplegia participated in the study. Tetraplegia also known as quadriplegia is the worst type of spinal cord injury. In the experiment, three various basic head movements were examined. Data of the head posture were collected by a motion capture system; muscle activity was measured via surface electromyography and the subjective mental stress was assessed via a mental effort questionnaire. The muscle activity was measured for the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), the upper trapezius (UT) or trapezius pars descendens, and the splenius capitis (SPL) muscle. For this purpose, six non-invasive surface electromyography sensors were mounted on the head and neck area. An analysis of variance shows differentiated muscular strains depending on the type of head movement. Systematically investigating the influence of different basic head movements on the resulting strain is an important issue to relate the research results to other scenarios. At the end of this paper, a conclusion will be drawn and an outlook of future work will be presented.
Keywords: Assistance robot, human-robot-interaction, motion capture, stress-strain-concept, surface electromyography, tetraplegia.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1208
29 Jet-Stream Airsail: Study of the Shape and the Behavior of the Connecting Cable
Authors: Christopher Frank, Yoshiki Miyairi
A Jet-stream airsail concept takes advantage of aerology in order to fly without propulsion. Weather phenomena, especially jet streams, are relatively permanent high winds blowing from west to east, located at average altitudes and latitudes in both hemispheres. To continuously extract energy from the jet-stream, the system is composed of a propelled plane and a wind turbine interconnected by a cable. This work presents the aerodynamic characteristics and the behavior of the cable that links the two subsystems and transmits energy from the turbine to the aircraft. Two ways of solving this problem are explored: numerically and analytically. After obtaining the optimal shape of the cross-section of the cable, its behavior is analyzed as a 2D problem solved numerically and analytically. Finally, a 3D extension could be considered by adding lateral forces. The results of this work can be further used in the design process of the overall system: aircraft-turbine.
Keywords: Jet-stream, cable, tether, aerodynamics, aircraft, airsail, wind.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1648
28 Potentials and Influencing Factors of Dynamic Pricing in Business: Empirical Insights of European Experts
Authors: Christopher Reichstein, Ralf-Christian Härting, Martina Häußler
Abstract:With a continuously increasing speed of information exchange on the World Wide Web, retailers in the E-Commerce sector are faced with immense possibilities regarding different online purchase processes like dynamic price settings. By use of Dynamic Pricing, retailers are able to set short time price changes in order to optimize producer surplus. The empirical research illustrates the basics of Dynamic Pricing and identifies six influencing factors of Dynamic Pricing. The results of a structural equation modeling approach show five main drivers increasing the potential of dynamic price settings in the E-Commerce. Influencing factors are the knowledge of customers’ individual willingness to pay, rising sales, the possibility of customization, the data volume and the information about competitors’ pricing strategy.
Keywords: E-commerce, empirical research, experts, Dynamic Pricing (DP), influencing factors, potentials.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1246
27 Boosting Method for Automated Feature Space Discovery in Supervised Quantum Machine Learning Models
Authors: Vladimir Rastunkov, Jae-Eun Park, Abhijit Mitra, Brian Quanz, Steve Wood, Christopher Codella, Heather Higgins, Joseph Broz
Quantum Support Vector Machines (QSVM) have become an important tool in research and applications of quantum kernel methods. In this work we propose a boosting approach for building ensembles of QSVM models and assess performance improvement across multiple datasets. This approach is derived from the best ensemble building practices that worked well in traditional machine learning and thus should push the limits of quantum model performance even further. We find that in some cases, a single QSVM model with tuned hyperparameters is sufficient to simulate the data, while in others - an ensemble of QSVMs that are forced to do exploration of the feature space via proposed method is beneficial.
Keywords: QSVM, Quantum Support Vector Machines, quantum kernel, boosting, ensemble.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 114
26 A Pattern Language for Software Debugging
Authors: Mehdi Amoui, Mohammad Zarafshan, Caro Lucas
Abstract:In spite of all advancement in software testing, debugging remains a labor-intensive, manual, time consuming, and error prone process. A candidate solution to enhance debugging process is to fuse it with testing process. To achieve this integration, a possible solution may be categorizing common software tests and errors followed by the effort on fixing the errors through general solutions for each test/error pair. Our approach to address this issue is based on Christopher Alexander-s pattern and pattern language concepts. The patterns in this language are grouped into three major sections and connect the three concepts of test, error, and debug. These patterns and their hierarchical relationship shape a pattern language that introduces a solution to solve software errors in a known testing context. Finally, we will introduce our developed framework ADE as a sample implementation to support a pattern of proposed language, which aims to automate the whole process of evolving software design via evolutionary methods.
Keywords: Coding Errors, Software debugging, Testing, Patterns, Pattern LanguageProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1264
25 A Comparative Study of Rigid and Modified Simplex Methods for Optimal Parameter Settings of ACO for Noisy Non-Linear Surfaces
Authors: Seksan Chunothaisawat, Pongchanun Luangpaiboon
There are two common types of operational research techniques, optimisation and metaheuristic methods. The latter may be defined as a sequential process that intelligently performs the exploration and exploitation adopted by natural intelligence and strong inspiration to form several iterative searches. An aim is to effectively determine near optimal solutions in a solution space. In this work, a type of metaheuristics called Ant Colonies Optimisation, ACO, inspired by a foraging behaviour of ants was adapted to find optimal solutions of eight non-linear continuous mathematical models. Under a consideration of a solution space in a specified region on each model, sub-solutions may contain global or multiple local optimum. Moreover, the algorithm has several common parameters; number of ants, moves, and iterations, which act as the algorithm-s driver. A series of computational experiments for initialising parameters were conducted through methods of Rigid Simplex, RS, and Modified Simplex, MSM. Experimental results were analysed in terms of the best so far solutions, mean and standard deviation. Finally, they stated a recommendation of proper level settings of ACO parameters for all eight functions. These parameter settings can be applied as a guideline for future uses of ACO. This is to promote an ease of use of ACO in real industrial processes. It was found that the results obtained from MSM were pretty similar to those gained from RS. However, if these results with noise standard deviations of 1 and 3 are compared, MSM will reach optimal solutions more efficiently than RS, in terms of speed of convergence.
Keywords: Ant colony optimisation, metaheuristics, modified simplex, non-linear, rigid simplex.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1492
24 A Parametric Study of an Inverse Electrostatics Problem (IESP) Using Simulated Annealing, Hooke & Jeeves and Sequential Quadratic Programming in Conjunction with Finite Element and Boundary Element Methods
Authors: Ioannis N. Koukoulis, Clio G. Vossou, Christopher G. Provatidis
The aim of the current work is to present a comparison among three popular optimization methods in the inverse elastostatics problem (IESP) of flaw detection within a solid. In more details, the performance of a simulated annealing, a Hooke & Jeeves and a sequential quadratic programming algorithm was studied in the test case of one circular flaw in a plate solved by both the boundary element (BEM) and the finite element method (FEM). The proposed optimization methods use a cost function that utilizes the displacements of the static response. The methods were ranked according to the required number of iterations to converge and to their ability to locate the global optimum. Hence, a clear impression regarding the performance of the aforementioned algorithms in flaw identification problems was obtained. Furthermore, the coupling of BEM or FEM with these optimization methods was investigated in order to track differences in their performance.
Keywords: Elastostatic, inverse problem, optimization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1491
23 Environmental Sanitation and Health Risks in Tropical Urban Settings: Case Study of Household Refuse and Diarrhea in Yaoundé-Cameroon
Authors: H. B. Nguendo Yongsi, Thora M. Herrmann, A. Lutumba Ntetu, Rémy Sietchiping, Christopher Bryant
Abstract:Health problems linked to urban growth are current major concerns of developing countries. In 2002 and 2005, an interdisciplinary program “Populations et Espaces ├á Risques SANitaires" (PERSAN) was set up under the patronage of the Development and Research Institute. Centered on health in Cameroon-s urban environment, the program mainly sought to (i) identify diarrhoea risk factors in Yaoundé, (ii) to measure their prevalence and apprehend their spatial distribution. The crosssectional epidemiological study that was carried out revealed a diarrheic prevalence of 14.4% (437 cases of diarrhoea on the 3,034 children examined). Also, among risk factors studied, household refuse management methods used by city dwellers were statistically associated to these diarrhoeas. Moreover, it happened that levels of diarrhoeal attacks varied consistently from one neighbourhood to another because of the discrepancy urbanization process of the Yaoundé metropolis.
Keywords: Diarrhea, health risk, household refuses handling, sanitation, Yaoundé.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3535
22 Short Term Tests on Performance Evaluation of Water-washed and Dry-washed Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil
Authors: Shumani Ramuhaheli, Christopher C. Enweremadu, Hilary L. Rutto
In this study, biodiesel from used cooking oil was produced as purified by washing with water (water wash) and amberlite (dry wash). The work presents the results of short term tests on performance characteristics of diesel engine using both biodiesel-fuel samples. In this investigation, the water wash biodiesel and dry wash biodiesel and diesel were compared for performance using a four-cylinder diesel engine. The torque, brake power, specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency were analyzed. The tests showed that in all cases, dry wash biodiesel performed marginally poorer compared to water wash biodiesel. Except for brake thermal efficiency, diesel fuel had better engine performance characteristics compared to the biodiesel-fuel samples. According to these results, dry washing of biodiesel has a marginal effect on engine performance.
Keywords: Biodiesel, engine performance, used cooking oil, water wash, dry wash.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1961
21 An Investigation on Organisation Cyber Resilience
Authors: Arniyati Ahmad, Christopher Johnson, Timothy Storer
Abstract:Cyber exercises used to assess the preparedness of a community against cyber crises, technology failures and Critical Information Infrastructure (CII) incidents. The cyber exercises also called cyber crisis exercise or cyber drill, involved partnerships or collaboration of public and private agencies from several sectors. This study investigates Organisation Cyber Resilience (OCR) of participation sectors in cyber exercise called X Maya in Malaysia. This study used a principal based cyber resilience survey called CSuite Executive checklist developed by World Economic Forum in 2012. To ensure suitability of the survey to investigate the OCR, the reliability test was conducted on C-Suite Executive checklist items. The research further investigates the differences of OCR in ten Critical National Infrastructure Information (CNII) sectors participated in the cyber exercise. The One Way ANOVA test result showed a statistically significant difference of OCR among ten CNII sectors participated in the cyber exercise.
Keywords: Critical Information Infrastructure, Cyber Resilience, Organisation Cyber Resilience, Reliability Test.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2056
20 Investigation of Heat Loss in Ethanol-Water Distillation Column with Direct Vapour Recompression Heat Pump
Authors: Christopher C. Enweremadu, Hilary L. Rutto
Abstract:Vapour recompression system has been used to enhance reduction in energy consumption and improvement in energy effectiveness of distillation columns. However, the effects of certain parameters have not been taken into consideration. One of such parameters is the column heat loss which has either been assumed to be a certain percent of reboiler heat transfer or negligible. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the heat loss from an ethanol-water vapour recompression distillation column with pressure increase across the compressor (VRCAS) and compare the results obtained and its effect on some parameters in similar system (VRCCS) where the column heat loss has been assumed or neglected. Results show that the heat loss evaluated was higher when compared with that obtained for the column VRCCS. The results also showed that increase in heat loss could have significant effect on the total energy consumption, reboiler heat transfer, the number of trays and energy effectiveness of the column.
Keywords: Compressor, distillation column, heat loss, vapourrecompression.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4793
19 Effects of a Recreational Workout Program on Task-Analyzed Exercise Performance of Adults with Severe Cognitive Impairments
Authors: Jiabei Zhang, Amanda Rapelje, Christopher Farr, Kristin Colwell, Zezhao Chen
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a recreational workout program for adults with disabilities over two semesters. This investigation was an action study conducted in a naturalistic setting. Participants included equal numbers of adults with severe cognitive impairments (n = 35) and adults without disabilities (n = 35). Adults with disabilities severe cognitive impairments were trained 6 self-initiated workout activities over two semesters by adults without disabilities. The numbers of task-analyzed steps of each activity performed correctly by each participant at the first and last weeks of each semester were used for data analysis. Results of the paired t-tests indicate that across two semesters, significant differences between the first and last weeks were found on 4 out of the 6 task-analyzed workout activities at a statistical level of significance p < .05. The recreational workout program developed in this study was effective.
Keywords: Workout program, exercise performance, adults, sever cognitive impairment.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1128
18 Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, and Performance in the English Language among Middle-School Students in English Language Program in Satri Si Suriyothai School, Bangkok
Authors: Christopher C. Anyadubalu
Abstract:This study investigated students- perception of self efficacy and anxiety in acquiring English language, and consequently examined the relationship existing among the independent variables, confounding variables and students- performances in the English language. The researcher tested the research hypotheses using a sample group of 318 respondents out of the population size of 400 students. The results obtained revealed that there was a significant moderate negative relationship between English language anxiety and performance in English language, but no significant relationship between self-efficacy and English language performance, among the middle-school students. There was a significant moderate negative relationship between English language anxiety and self-efficacy. It was discovered that general self-efficacy and English language anxiety represented a significantly more powerful set of predictors than the set of confounding variables. Thus, the study concluded that English language anxiety and general self-efficacy were significant predictors of English language performance among middle-school students in Satri Si Suriyothai School.
Keywords: Anxiety, English Language Anxiety, Performance inEnglish Language, Self Efficacy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4512