Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 326

Search results for: Chin Kui Cheng

326 Using Printing Method and Post Heat Treatment to Fabricate CIS Absorber Layer

Authors: Mao-An Chen, Chien-Chen Diao, Chia-Cheng Huang, Chin-Guo Kuo, Cheng-Fu Yang, Yen-Lin Chen

Abstract:

In this study, the Mo-electrode thin films were deposited using two-stepped process and the high purity copper indium selenide-based powder (CuInSe2, CIS) was fabricated by using hydrothermal process by Nanowin Technology Co. Ltd. Because the CIS powder was aggregated into microscale particles, the CIS power was ground into nano-scale particles. 6 wt% CIS particles were mixed and dispersed into isopropyl alcohol (IPA). A new non-vacuum thin-film deposition process, spray coating method (SPM), was investigated to deposit the high-densified CIS absorber layers. 0.1 ml CIS solution was sprayed on the 20 mm×10 mm Mo/glass substrates and then the CuInSe2 thin films were annealed in a selenization furnace using N2 as atmosphere. The annealing temperature and time were set at 550oC and 5 min, and 0.0g~0.6g extra Se content was added in the furnace. The influences of extra Se content on the densification, crystallization, resistivity (ρ), hall mobility (μ), and carrier concentration of the CIS absorber layers were well investigated in this study.

Keywords: CuInSe2, isopropyl alcohol, spray coating method, annealing, selenization process.

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325 Robust Integrated Design for a Mechatronic Feed Drive System of Machine Tools

Authors: Chin-Yin Chen, Chi-Cheng Cheng

Abstract:

This paper aims at to develop a robust optimization methodology for the mechatronic modules of machine tools by considering all important characteristics from all structural and control domains in one single process. The relationship between these two domains is strongly coupled. In order to reduce the disturbance caused by parameters in either one, the mechanical and controller design domains need to be integrated. Therefore, the concurrent integrated design method Design For Control (DFC), will be employed in this paper. In this connect, it is not only applied to achieve minimal power consumption but also enhance structural performance and system response at same time. To investigate the method for integrated optimization, a mechatronic feed drive system of the machine tools is used as a design platform. Pro/Engineer and AnSys are first used to build the 3D model to analyze and design structure parameters such as elastic deformation, nature frequency and component size, based on their effects and sensitivities to the structure. In addition, the robust controller,based on Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT), will be applied to determine proper control parameters for the controller. Therefore, overall physical properties of the machine tool will be obtained in the initial stage. Finally, the technology of design for control will be carried out to modify the structural and control parameters to achieve overall system performance. Hence, the corresponding productivity is expected to be greatly improved.

Keywords: Machine tools, integrated structure and control design, design for control, multilevel decomposition, quantitative feedback theory.

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324 Characterization of the Dispersion Phenomenon in an Optical Biosensor

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chin-Ting Kuo, Yung-Chun Yang, Wen-Hsin Hsieh, Chiang-Ho Cheng

Abstract:

Optical biosensors have become a powerful detection and analysis tool for wide-ranging applications in biomedical research, pharmaceuticals and environmental monitoring. This study carried out the computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based simulations to explore the dispersion phenomenon in the micro channel of an optical biosensor. The predicted time sequences of concentration contours were utilized to better understand the dispersion development occurred in different geometric shapes of micro channels. The simulation results showed the surface concentrations at the sensing probe (with the best performance of a grating coupler) in respect of time to appraise the dispersion effect and therefore identify the design configurations resulting in minimum dispersion.

Keywords: CFD simulations, dispersion, microfluidic, optical waveguide sensors.

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323 Optimal Generation Expansion Planning Strategy with Carbon Trading

Authors: Tung-Sheng Zhan, Chih-Cheng Kao, Chin-Der Yang, Jong-Ian Tsai

Abstract:

Fossil fuel-firing power plants dominate electric power generation in Taiwan, which are also the major contributor to Green House gases (GHG). CO2 is the most important greenhouse gas that cause global warming. This paper penetrates the relationship between carbon trading for GHG reduction and power generation expansion planning (GEP) problem for the electrical utility. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Algorithm is presented to deal with the generation expansion planning strategy of the utility with independent power providers (IPPs). The utility has to take both the IPPs- participation and environment impact into account when a new generation unit is considering expanded from view of supply side.

Keywords: Carbon Trading, CO2 Emission, GenerationExpansion Planning (GEP), Green House gases (GHG), ParticleSwarm Optimization (PSO).

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322 A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis of e-Learning Acceptance Model

Authors: David W.S. Tai, Ren-Cheng Zhang, Sheng-Hung Chang, Chin-Pin Chen, Jia-Ling Chen

Abstract:

This study reports results of a meta-analytic path analysis e-learning Acceptance Model with k = 27 studies, Databases searched included Information Sciences Institute (ISI) website. Variables recorded included perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude toward behavior, and behavioral intention to use e-learning. A correlation matrix of these variables was derived from meta-analytic data and then analyzed by using structural path analysis to test the fitness of the e-learning acceptance model to the observed aggregated data. Results showed the revised hypothesized model to be a reasonable, good fit to aggregated data. Furthermore, discussions and implications are given in this article.

Keywords: E-learning, Meta Analytic Path Analysis, Technology Acceptance Model

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321 Color Image Enhancement Using Multiscale Retinex and Image Fusion Techniques

Authors: Chang-Hsing Lee, Cheng-Chang Lien, Chin-Chuan Han

Abstract:

In this paper, an edge-strength guided multiscale retinex (EGMSR) approach will be proposed for color image contrast enhancement. In EGMSR, the pixel-dependent weight associated with each pixel in the single scale retinex output image is computed according to the edge strength around this pixel in order to prevent from over-enhancing the noises contained in the smooth dark/bright regions. Further, by fusing together the enhanced results of EGMSR and adaptive multiscale retinex (AMSR), we can get a natural fused image having high contrast and proper tonal rendition. Experimental results on several low-contrast images have shown that our proposed approach can produce natural and appealing enhanced images.

Keywords: Image Enhancement, Multiscale Retinex, Image Fusion.

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320 Preparation and Characterization of Photocatalyst for the Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol

Authors: D. M. Reddy Prasad, Nur Sabrina Binti Rahmat, Huei Ruey Ong, Chin Kui Cheng, Maksudur Rahman Khan, D. Sathiyamoorthy

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission to the environment is inevitable which is responsible for global warming. Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to fuel, such as methanol, methane etc. is a promising way to reduce greenhouse gas CO2 emission. In the present work, Bi2S3/CdS was synthesized as an effective visible light responsive photocatalyst for CO2 reduction into methanol. The Bi2S3/CdS photocatalyst was prepared by hydrothermal reaction. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument. The photocatalytic activity of the catalyst has been investigated for methanol production as a function of time. Gas chromatograph flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was employed to analyze the product. The yield of methanol was found to increase with higher CdS concentration in Bi2S3/CdS and the maximum yield was obtained for 45 wt% of Bi2S3/CdS under visible light irradiation was 20 μmole/g. The result establishes that Bi2S3/CdS is favorable catalyst to reduce CO2 to methanol.

Keywords: Photocatalyst, Carbon dioxide reduction, visible light, Irradiation.

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319 Efficiency Improvements of GaAs-based Solar Cells by Hydrothermally-deposited ZnO Nanostructure Array

Authors: Chun-Yuan Huang, Chiao-Yang Cheng, Chun-Yem Huang, Yan-Kuin Su, James Chin-Lung Fang

Abstract:

ZnO nanostructures including nanowires, nanorods, and nanoneedles were successfully deposited on GaAs substrates, respectively, by simple two-step chemical method for the first time. A ZnO seed layer was firstly pre-coated on the O2-plasma treated substrate by sol-gel process, followed by the nucleation of ZnO nanostructures through hydrothermal synthesis. Nanostructures with different average diameter (15-250 nm), length (0.9-1.8 μm), density (0.9-16×109 cm-2) were obtained via adjusting the growth time and concentration of precursors. From the reflectivity spectra, we concluded ordered and taper nanostructures were preferential for photovoltaic applications. ZnO nanoneedles with an average diameter of 106 nm, a moderate length of 2.4 μm, and the density of 7.2×109 cm-2 could be synthesized in the concentration of 0.04 M for 18 h. Integrated with the nanoneedle array, the power conversion efficiency of single junction solar cell was increased from 7.3 to 12.2%, corresponding to a 67% improvement.

Keywords: Anti-reflection, Chemical synthesis, Solar cells, ZnO nanostructures.

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318 Learning of Class Membership Values by Ellipsoidal Decision Regions

Authors: Leehter Yao, Chin-Chin Lin

Abstract:

A novel method of learning complex fuzzy decision regions in the n-dimensional feature space is proposed. Through the fuzzy decision regions, a given pattern's class membership value of every class is determined instead of the conventional crisp class the pattern belongs to. The n-dimensional fuzzy decision region is approximated by union of hyperellipsoids. By explicitly parameterizing these hyperellipsoids, the decision regions are determined by estimating the parameters of each hyperellipsoid.Genetic Algorithm is applied to estimate the parameters of each region component. With the global optimization ability of GA, the learned decision region can be arbitrarily complex.

Keywords: Ellipsoid, genetic algorithm, decision regions, classification.

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317 Acceptance of Mobile Learning: a Respecification and Validation of Information System Success

Authors: Chin-Cheh Yi, Pei-Wen Liao, Chin-Feng Huang, I-Hui Hwang

Abstract:

With the proliferation of mobile computing technology, mobile learning (m-learning) will play a vital role in the rapidly growing electronic learning market. However, the acceptance of m-learning by individuals is critical to the successful implementation of m-learning systems. Thus, there is a need to research the factors that affect users- intention to use m-learning. Based on an updated information system (IS) success model, data collected from 350 respondents in Taiwan were tested against the research model using the structural equation modeling approach. The data collected by questionnaire were analyzed to check the validity of constructs. Then hypotheses describing the relationships between the identified constructs and users- satisfaction were formulated and tested.

Keywords: m-learning, information system success, users' satisfaction, perceived value.

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316 An Intelligent Fuzzy-Neural Diagnostic System for Osteoporosis Risk Assessment

Authors: Chin-Ming Hong, Chin-Teng Lin, Chao-Yen Huang, Yi-Ming Lin

Abstract:

In this article, we propose an Intelligent Medical Diagnostic System (IMDS) accessible through common web-based interface, to on-line perform initial screening for osteoporosis. The fundamental approaches which construct the proposed system are mainly based on the fuzzy-neural theory, which can exhibit superiority over other conventional technologies in many fields. In diagnosis process, users simply answer a series of directed questions to the system, and then they will immediately receive a list of results which represents the risk degrees of osteoporosis. According to clinical testing results, it is shown that the proposed system can provide the general public or even health care providers with a convenient, reliable, inexpensive approach to osteoporosis risk assessment.

Keywords: BMD, osteoporosis, IMDS, fuzzy-neural theory, web interface.

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315 Measuring Creativity in Die Products for Technological Education

Authors: Ching-Yi Lee, Dyi-Cheng Chen, Bo-Yan Lai, Chin-Pin Chen

Abstract:

Creative design requires new approaches to assessment in vocational and technological education. To date, there has been little discussion on instruments used to evaluate dies produced by students in vocational and technological education. Developing a generic instrument has been very difficult due to the diversity of creative domains, the specificity of content, and the subjectivity involved in judgment. This paper presents an instrument for measuring the creativity in the design of products by expanding the Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT). The content-based scale was evaluated for content validity by 5 experts. The scale comprises 5 criteria: originality; practicability; precision; aesthetics; and exchangeability. Nine experts were invited to evaluate the dies produced by 38 college students who enrolled in a Product Design and Development course. To further explore the degree of rater agreement, inter-rater reliability was calculated for each dimension using Kendall's coefficient of concordance test. The inter-judge reliability scores achieved significance, with coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.71.

Keywords: Design education, die creative product, vocational and technological education, Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT).

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314 Neural Networks-Based Acoustic Annoyance Model for Laptop Hard Disk Drive

Authors: Yi Chao Ma, Cheng Siong Chin, Wai Lok Woo

Abstract:

Since the last decade, there has been a rapid growth in digital multimedia, such as high-resolution media files and threedimentional movies. Hence, there is a need for large digital storage such as Hard Disk Drive (HDD). As such, users expect to have a quieter HDD in their laptop. In this paper, a jury test has been conducted on a group of 34 people where 17 of them are students who are the potential consumer, and the remaining are engineers who know the HDD. A total 13 HDD sound samples have been selected from over hundred HDD noise recordings. These samples are selected based on an agreed subjective feeling. The samples are played to the participants using head acoustic playback system, which enabled them to experience as similar as possible the same environment as have been recorded. Analysis has been conducted and the obtained results have indicated different group has different perception over the noises. Two neural network-based acoustic annoyance models are established based on back propagation neural network. Four psychoacoustic metrics, loudness, sharpness, roughness and fluctuation strength, are used as the input of the model, and the subjective evaluation results are taken as the output. The developed models are reasonably accurate in simulating both training and test samples.

Keywords: Hard disk drive noise, jury test, neural network model, psychoacoustic annoyance.

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313 The Effect of Damping Treatment for Noise Control on Offshore Platforms Using Statistical Energy Analysis

Authors: Ji Xi, Cheng Song Chin, Ehsan Mesbahi

Abstract:

Structure-borne noise is an important aspect of offshore platform sound field. It can be generated either directly by vibrating machineries induced mechanical force, indirectly by the excitation of structure or excitation by incident airborne noise. Therefore, limiting of the transmission of vibration energy throughout the offshore platform is the key to control the structureborne noise. This is usually done by introducing damping treatment to the steel structures. Two types of damping treatment using onboard are presented. By conducting a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) simulation on a jack-up rig, the noise level in the source room, the neighboring rooms, and remote living quarter cabins are compared before and after the damping treatments been applied. The results demonstrated that, in the source neighboring room and living quarter area, there is a significant noise reduction with the damping treatment applied, whereas in the source room where air-borne sound predominates that of structure-borne sound, the impact is not obvious. The conclusion on effective damping treatment in the offshore platform is made which enable acoustic professionals to implement noise control during the design stage for offshore crews’ hearing protection and habitant comfortability.

Keywords: Statistical energy analysis, damping treatment, noise control, offshore platform.

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312 Design of Gain Scheduled Fuzzy PID Controller

Authors: Leehter Yao, Chin-Chin Lin

Abstract:

An adaptive fuzzy PID controller with gain scheduling is proposed in this paper. The structure of the proposed gain scheduled fuzzy PID (GS_FPID) controller consists of both fuzzy PI-like controller and fuzzy PD-like controller. Both of fuzzy PI-like and PD-like controllers are weighted through adaptive gain scheduling, which are also determined by fuzzy logic inference. A modified genetic algorithm called accumulated genetic algorithm is designed to learn the parameters of fuzzy inference system. In order to learn the number of fuzzy rules required for the TSK model, the fuzzy rules are learned in an accumulated way. In other words, the parameters learned in the previous rules are accumulated and updated along with the parameters in the current rule. It will be shown that the proposed GS_FPID controllers learned by the accumulated GA perform well for not only the regular linear systems but also the higher order and time-delayed systems.

Keywords: Gain scheduling, fuzzy PID controller, adaptive control, genetic algorithm.

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311 Business Scenarios Assessment in Healthcare and Education for 21st Century Networks in Asia Pacific

Authors: Chin Chin Wong, Chor Min Tan, Pang Leang Hiew

Abstract:

Business scenario is an important technique that may be used at various stages of the enterprise architecture to derive its characteristics based on the high-level requirements of the business. In terms of wireless deployments, they are used to help identify and understand business needs involving wireless services, and thereby to derive the business requirements that the architecture development has to address by taking into account of various wireless challenges. This study assesses the deployment of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) solutions for several business scenarios in Asia Pacific region. This paper focuses on the overview of the business and technology environments, whereby examples of existing (or suggested) wireless solutions (to be) adopted in Asia Pacific region will be discussed. Interactions of several players, enabling technologies, and key processes in the wireless environments are studied. The analysis and discussions associated to this study are divided into two divisions: healthcare and education, where the merits of wireless solutions in improving living quality are highlighted.

Keywords: Broadband Wireless Access, business scenarios, network deployment, Wireless Local Area Network.

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310 Interfacial Layer Effect on Novel p-Ni1-xO:Li/n-Si Heterojunction Solar Cells

Authors: Feng-Hao Hsu, Na-Fu Wang, Yu-Zen Tsai, Yu-Song Cheng, Cheng-Fu Yang, Mau-Phon Houng

Abstract:

This study fabricates p-type Ni1xO:Li/n-Si heterojunction solar cells (P+/n HJSCs) by using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and investigates the effect of substrate temperature on photovoltaic cell properties. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, four point probe, and ultraviolet-visible-near infrared discover the optoelectrical properties of p-Ni1-xO thin films. The results show that p-Ni1-xO thin films deposited at 300 oC has the highest grain size (22.4 nm), average visible transmittance (~42%), and electrical resistivity (2.7 Ωcm). However, the conversion efficiency of cell is shown only 2.33% which is lower than the cell (3.39%) fabricated at room temperature. This result can be mainly attributed to interfacial layer thickness (SiOx) reduces from 2.35 nm to 1.70 nm, as verified by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

Keywords: Heterojunction, nickel oxide, solar cells, sputtering.

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309 Optimization Method Based MPPT for Wind Power Generators

Authors: Chun-Yao Lee , Yi-Xing Shen , Jung-Cheng Cheng , Chih-Wen Chang, Yi-Yin Li

Abstract:

This paper proposes the method combining artificial neural network with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to implement the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) by controlling the rotor speed of the wind generator. With the measurements of wind speed, rotor speed of wind generator and output power, the artificial neural network can be trained and the wind speed can be estimated. The proposed control system in this paper provides a manner for searching the maximum output power of wind generator even under the conditions of varying wind speed and load impedance.

Keywords: maximum power point tracking, artificial neural network, particle swarm optimization.

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308 Influence of Paralleled Capacitance Effect in Well-defined Multiple Value Logical Level System with Active Load

Authors: Chih Chin Yang, Yen Chun Lin, Hsiao Hsuan Cheng

Abstract:

Three similar negative differential resistance (NDR) profiles with both high peak to valley current density ratio (PVCDR) value and high peak current density (PCD) value in unity resonant tunneling electronic circuit (RTEC) element is developed in this paper. The PCD values and valley current density (VCD) values of the three NDR curves are all about 3.5 A and 0.8 A, respectively. All PV values of NDR curves are 0.40 V, 0.82 V, and 1.35 V, respectively. The VV values are 0.61 V, 1.07 V, and 1.69 V, respectively. All PVCDR values reach about 4.4 in three NDR curves. The PCD value of 3.5 A in triple PVCDR RTEC element is better than other resonant tunneling devices (RTD) elements. The high PVCDR value is concluded the lower VCD value about 0.8 A. The low VCD value is achieved by suitable selection of resistors in triple PVCDR RTEC element. The low PV value less than 1.35 V possesses low power dispersion in triple PVCDR RTEC element. The designed multiple value logical level (MVLL) system using triple PVCDR RTEC element provides equidistant logical level. The logical levels of MVLL system are about 0.2 V, 0.8 V, 1.5 V, and 2.2 V from low voltage to high voltage and then 2.2 V, 1.3 V, 0.8 V, and 0.2 V from high voltage back to low voltage in half cycle of sinusoid wave. The output level of four levels MVLL system is represented in 0.3 V, 1.1 V, 1.7 V, and 2.6 V, which satisfies the NMP condition of traditional two-bit system. The remarkable logical characteristic of improved MVLL system with paralleled capacitor are with four significant stable logical levels about 220 mV, 223 mV, 228 mV, and 230 mV. The stability and articulation of logical levels of improved MVLL system are outstanding. The average holding time of improved MVLL system is approximately 0.14 μs. The holding time of improved MVLL system is fourfold than of basic MVLL system. The function of additional capacitor in the improved MVLL system is successfully discovered.

Keywords: Capacitance, Logical level, Constant current source

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307 Deposition of Transparent IGZO Conducting Thin Films by Co-Sputtering of Zn2Ga2O3 and In2O3 Targets at Room Temperature

Authors: Yu-Hsin Chen, Yuan-Tai Hsieh, Cheng-Shong Hong, Chia-Ching Wu, Cheng-Fu Yang, Yu-Jhen Liou

Abstract:

In this study, we investigated (In,Ga,Zn)Ox (IGZO) thin films and examined their characteristics of using Ga2O3-2 ZnO (GZO) co-sputtered In2O3 prepared by dual target radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature in a pure Ar atmosphere. RF powers of 80 W and 70 W were used for GZO and pure In2O3, room temperature (RT) was used as deposition temperature, and the deposition time was changed from 15 min to 60 min. Structural, surface, electrical, and optical properties of IGZO thin films were investigated as a function of deposition time. Furthermore, the GZO co-sputtered In2O3 thin films showed a very smooth and featureless surface and an amorphous structure regardless of the deposition time due to the room temperature sputtering process. We would show that the co-sputtered IGZO thin films exhibited transparent electrode properties with high transmittance ratio and low resistivity.

Keywords: IGZO, co-sputter, Ga2O3-2 ZnO, In2O3.

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306 Geochemistry of Cenozoic Basaltic Rocksaround Liuhe National Geopark, Jiangsu Province, Eastern China: Petrogenesis and Mantle Source

Authors: Yung-Tan Lee, Ren-Yi Huang, Ju-Chin Chen, Jyh-Yi Shih, Meng-Lung Lin, Hsiao-Ling Yu, Yen-Tsui Hu, Chih-Cheng Chen

Abstract:

Cenozoic basalts found in Jiangsu province of eastern China include tholeiites and alkali basalts. The present paper analyzed the major, trace elements, rare earth elements of these Cenozoic basalts and combined with Sr-Nd isotopic compositions proposed by Chen et al. (1990)[1] in the literatures to discuss the petrogenesis of these basalts and the geochemical characteristics of the source mantle. Based on major, trace elements and fractional crystallization model established by Brooks and Nielsen (1982)[2] we suggest that the basaltic magma has experienced olivine + clinopyroxene fractionation during its evolution. The chemical compositions of basaltic rocks from Jiangsu province indicate that these basalts may belong to the same magmatic system. Spidergrams reveal that Cenozoic basalts from Jiangsu province have geochemical characteristics similar to those of ocean island basalts(OIB). The slight positive Nb and Ti anomalies found in basaltic rocks of this study suggest the presence of Ti-bearing minerals in the mantle source and these Ti-bearing minerals had contributed to basaltic magma during partial melting, indicating a metasomatic event might have occurred before the partial melting. Based on the Sr vs. Nd isotopic ratio plots, we suggest that Jiangsu basalts may be derived from partial melting of mantle source which may represent two-end members mixing of DMM and EM-I. Some Jiangsu basaltic magma may be derived from partial melting of EM-I heated by the upwelling asthenospheric mantle or asthenospheric diapirism.

Keywords: Geochemistry, Jiangsu Province, Cenozoic basalts, Fractional crystallization.

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305 Collaborative and Content-based Recommender System for Social Bookmarking Website

Authors: Cheng-Lung Huang, Cheng-Wei Lin

Abstract:

This study proposes a new recommender system based on the collaborative folksonomy. The purpose of the proposed system is to recommend Internet resources (such as books, articles, documents, pictures, audio and video) to users. The proposed method includes four steps: creating the user profile based on the tags, grouping the similar users into clusters using an agglomerative hierarchical clustering, finding similar resources based on the user-s past collections by using content-based filtering, and recommending similar items to the target user. This study examines the system-s performance for the dataset collected from “del.icio.us," which is a famous social bookmarking website. Experimental results show that the proposed tag-based collaborative and content-based filtering hybridized recommender system is promising and effectiveness in the folksonomy-based bookmarking website.

Keywords: Collaborative recommendation, Folksonomy, Social tagging

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304 Design and Fabrication of an Array Microejector Driven by a Shear-Mode Piezoelectric Actuator

Authors: Chiang-Ho Cheng, Hong-Yih Cheng, An-Shik Yang, Tung-Hsun Hsu

Abstract:

This paper reports a novel actuating design that uses the shear deformation of a piezoelectric actuator to deflect a bulge-diaphragm for driving an array microdroplet ejector. In essence, we employed a circular-shaped actuator poled radial direction with remnant polarization normal to the actuating electric field for inducing the piezoelectric shear effect. The array microdroplet ejector consists of a shear type piezoelectric actuator, a vibration plate, two chamber plates, two channel plates and a nozzle plate. The vibration, chamber and nozzle plate components are fabricated using nickel electroforming technology, whereas the channel plate is fabricated by etching of stainless steel. The diaphragm displacement was measured by the laser two-dimensional scanning vibrometer. The ejected droplets of the microejector were also observed via an optic visualization system.

Keywords: Actuator, nozzle, microejector, piezoelectric.

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303 Design and Fabrication of Micro-Bubble Oxygenator

Authors: Chiang-Ho Cheng, An-Shik Yang, Hong-Yih Cheng

Abstract:

This paper applies the MEMS technology to design and fabricate a micro-bubble generator by a piezoelectric actuator. Coupled with a nickel nozzle plate, an annular piezoelectric ceramic was utilized as the primary structure of the generator. In operations, the piezoelectric element deforms transversely under an electric field applied across the thickness of the generator. The surface of the nozzle plate can expand or contract because of the induction of radial strain, resulting in the whole structure to bend, and successively transport oxygen micro-bubbles into the blood flow for enhancing the oxygen content in blood. In the tests, a high magnification microscope and a high speed CCD camera were employed to photograph the time evolution of meniscus shape of gaseous bubbles dispensed from the micro-bubble generator for flow visualization. This investigation thus explored the bubble formation process including the influences of inlet gas pressure along with driving voltage and resonance frequency on the formed bubble extent.

Keywords: Micro-bubble, nozzle, oxygenator, piezoelectric.

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302 An Integrated CFD and Experimental Analysis on Double-Skin Window

Authors: Sheam-Chyun Lin, Wei-Kai Chen, Hung-Cheng Yen, Yung-Jen Cheng, Yu-Cheng Chen

Abstract:

Result from the constant dwindle in natural resources, the alternative way to reduce the costs in our daily life would be urgent to be found in the near future. As the ancient technique based on the theory of solar chimney since roman times, the double-skin façade are simply composed of two large glass panels in purpose of daylighting and also natural ventilation in the daytime. Double-skin façade is generally installed on the exterior side of buildings as function as the window, so there is always a huge amount of passive solar energy the façade would receive to induce the airflow every sunny day. Therefore, this article imposes a domestic double-skin window for residential usage and attempts to improve the volume flow rate inside the cavity between the panels by the frame geometry design, the installation of outlet guide plate and the solar energy collection system. Note that the numerical analyses are applied to investigate the characteristics of flow field, and the boundary conditions in the simulation are totally based on the practical experiment of the original prototype. Then we redesign the prototype from the knowledge of the numerical results and fluid dynamic theory, and later the experiments of modified prototype will be conducted to verify the simulation results. The velocities at the inlet of each case are increase by 5%, 45% and 15% from the experimental data, and also the numerical simulation results reported 20% improvement in volume flow rate both for the frame geometry design and installation of outlet guide plate.

Keywords: Solar energy, Double-skin façades, Thermal buoyancy, Fluid machinery.

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301 The Effects of NaF Concentration on the Zinc Coating Electroplated in Supercritical CO2 Mixed Zinc Chloride Bath

Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Mei-Wen Wu, Li-Yi Cheng, Chiang-Ho Cheng

Abstract:

This research studies the electroplating of zinc coating in the zinc chloride bath mixed with supercritical CO2. The sodium fluoride (NaF) was used as the bath additive to change the structure and property of the coating, and therefore the roughness and corrosion resistance of the zinc coating was investigated. The surface characterization was performed using optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and α-step profilometer. Moreover, the potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3% NaCl solution was employed in the corrosion resistance evaluation. Because of the emulsification of the electrolyte mixed in Sc-CO2, the electroplated zinc produced the coating with smoother surface, smaller grain, better throwing power and higher corrosion resistance. The main role played by the NaF was to reduce the coating’s roughness and grain size. In other words, the CO2 mixed with the electrolyte under the supercritical condition performed the similar function as brighter and leveler in zinc electroplating to enhance the throwing power and corrosion resistance of the coating.

Keywords: Supercritical CO2, zinc-electroplating, sodium fluoride.

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300 Geochemistry of Tektites from Hainan Island and Northeast Thailand

Authors: Yung-Tan Lee, Ren-Yi Huang, Ju-Chin Chen, Jyh-Yi Shih, Wen-Feng Chang, Yen-Tsui Hu, Chih-Cheng Chen

Abstract:

Twenty seven tektites from the Wenchang area, Hainan province (south China) and five tektites from the Khon Kaen area (northeast Thailand) were analyzed for major and trace element contents and Rb-Sr isotopic compositions. All the samples studied are splash-form tektites. Tektites of this study are characterized by high SiO2 contents ranging from 71.95 to 74.07 wt% which is consistent with previously published analyses of Australasian tektites. The trace element ratios Ba/Rb (avg. 3.89), Th/Sm (avg. 2.40), Sm/Sc (avg. 0.45), Th/Sc (avg. 0.99) and the rare earth elements (REE) contents of tektites of this study are similar to the average upper continental crust. Based on the chemical composition, it is suggested that tektites in this study are derived from similar parental material and are similar to the post-Archean upper crustal rocks. The major and trace element abundances of tektites analyzed indicate that the parental material of tektites may be a terrestrial sedimentary deposit. The tektites from the Wenchang area, Hainan Island have high positive εSr(0) values-ranging from 184.5~196.5 which indicate that the parental material for these tektites have similar Sr isotopic compositions to old terrestrial sedimentary rocks and they were not dominantly derived from recent young sediments (such as soil or loess). Based on Rb-Sr isotopic data, it has been suggested by Blum (1992) [1]that the depositional age of sedimentary target materials is close to 170Ma (Jurassic). According to the model suggested by Ho and Chen (1996)[2], mixing calculations for various amounts and combinations of target rocks have been carried out. We consider that the best fit for tektites from the Wenchang area is a mixture of 47% shale, 23% sandstone, 25% greywacke and 5% quartzite, and the other tektites from Khon Kaen area is a mixture of 46% shale, 2% sandstone, 20% greywacke and 32% quartzite.

Keywords: Geochemistry, Hainan Island, Northeast Thailand, Tektites.

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299 Electrically Conducting Lubricants: Esterified Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Wei Chin, Wen-Kuang Hsu

Abstract:

Fats and oils are made of esterified hydrocarbons (RCOOR-) and this work demonstrates the substitution of R by multi-walled CNTs (MWNTs). The resultant materials are fluidic, oily, electrically conducting and excellent lubricants. Esterified MWNTs can also respond to magnetic field when tubules contain long segments of Fe

Keywords: Liquids Nanomaterials Electric conductors

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298 Neural Networks and Particle Swarm Optimization Based MPPT for Small Wind Power Generator

Authors: Chun-Yao Lee, Yi-Xing Shen, Jung-Cheng Cheng, Yi-Yin Li, Chih-Wen Chang

Abstract:

This paper proposes the method combining artificial neural network (ANN) with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to implement the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) by controlling the rotor speed of the wind generator. First, the measurements of wind speed, rotor speed of wind power generator and output power of wind power generator are applied to train artificial neural network and to estimate the wind speed. Second, the method mentioned above is applied to estimate and control the optimal rotor speed of the wind turbine so as to output the maximum power. Finally, the result reveals that the control system discussed in this paper extracts the maximum output power of wind generator within the short duration even in the conditions of wind speed and load impedance variation.

Keywords: Maximum power point tracking, artificial neuralnetwork, particle swarm optimization.

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297 Preparation and Characterization of CuFe2O4/TiO2 Photocatalyst for the Conversion of CO2 into Methanol under Visible Light

Authors: Md. Maksudur Rahman Khan, M. Rahim Uddin, Hamidah Abdullah, Kaykobad Md. Rezaul Karim, Abu Yousuf, Chin Kui Cheng, Huei Ruey Ong

Abstract:

A systematic study was conducted to explore the photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) into methanol on TiO2 loaded copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) photocatalyst under visible light irradiation. The phases and crystallite size of the photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and it indicates CuFe2O4 as tetragonal phase incorporation with anatase TiO2 in CuFe2O4/TiO2 hetero-structure. The XRD results confirmed the formation of spinel type tetragonal CuFe2O4 phases along with predominantly anatase phase of TiO2 in the CuFe2O4/TiO2 hetero-structure. UV-Vis absorption spectrum suggested the formation of the hetero-junction with relatively lower band gap than that of TiO2. Photoluminescence (PL) technique was used to study the electron–hole (e/h+) recombination process. PL spectra analysis confirmed the slow-down of the recombination of electron–hole (e/h+) pairs in the CuFe2O4/TiO2 hetero-structure. The photocatalytic performance of CuFe2O4/TiO2 was evaluated based on the methanol yield with varying amount of TiO2 over CuFe2O4 (0.5:1, 1:1, and 2:1) and changing light intensity. The mechanism of the photocatalysis was proposed based on the fact that the predominant species of CO2 in aqueous phase were dissolved CO2 and HCO3- at pH ~5.9. It was evident that the CuFe2O4 could harvest the electrons under visible light irradiation, which could further be injected to the conduction band of TiO2 to increase the life time of the electron and facilitating the reactions of CO2 to methanol. The developed catalyst showed good recycle ability up to four cycles where the loss of activity was ~25%. Methanol was observed as the main product over CuFe2O4, but loading with TiO2 remarkably increased the methanol yield. Methanol yield over CuFe2O4/TiO2 was found to be about three times higher (651 μmol/gcat L) than that of CuFe2O4 photocatalyst. This occurs because the energy of the band excited electrons lies above the redox potentials of the reaction products CO2/CH3OH.

Keywords: Photocatalysis, CuFe2O4/TiO2, band-gap energy, methanol.

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