Search results for: Calcium phosphate cement
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 563

Search results for: Calcium phosphate cement

563 Preparation and Characterization of Calcium Phosphate Cement

Authors: W. Thepsuwan, N. Monmaturapoj

Abstract:

Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is one of the most attractive bioceramics due to its moldable and shape ability to fill complicated bony cavities or small dental defect positions. In this study, CPC was produced by using mixture of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP, Ca4O(PO4)2) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA, CaHPO4) in equimolar ratio (1/1) with aqueous solutions of acetic acid (C2H4O2) and disodium hydrogen phosphate dehydrate (Na2HPO4.2H2O) in combination with sodium alginate in order to improve theirs moldable characteristic. The concentration of the aqueous solutions and sodium alginate were varied to investigate the effect of different aqueous solutions and alginate on properties of the cements. The cement paste was prepared by mixing cement powder (P) with aqueous solution (L) in a P/L ratio of 1.0g/0.35ml. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyses phase formation of the cements. Setting time and compressive strength of the set CPCs were measured using the Gilmore apparatus and Universal testing machine, respectively. The results showed that CPCs could be produced by using both basic (Na2HPO4.2H2O) and acidic (C2H4O2) solutions. XRD results show the precipitation of hydroxyapatite in all cement samples. No change in phase formation among cements using difference concentrations of Na2HPO4.2H2O solutions. With increasing concentration of acidic solutions, samples obtained less hydroxyapatite with a high dicalcium phosphate dehydrate leaded to a shorter setting time. Samples with sodium alginate exhibited higher crystallization of hydroxyapatite than that of without alginate as a result of shorten setting time in a basic solution but a longer setting time in an acidic solution. The stronger cement was attained from samples using the acidic solution with sodium alginate; however the strength was lower than that of using the basic solution.

Keywords: Calcium phosphate cements, TTCP, DCPA, hydroxyapatite, properties.

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562 Enhancing Protein Incorporation in Calcium Phosphate Coating on Titanium by Rapid Biomimetic Co-Precipitation Technique

Authors: J. Suwanprateeb, F. Thammarakcharoen

Abstract:

Calcium phosphate coating (CaP) has been employed for protein delivery, but the typical direct protein adsorption on the coating led to low incorporation content and fast release of the protein from the coating. By using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein, rapid biomimetic co-precipitation between calcium phosphate and BSA was employed to control the distribution of BSA within calcium phosphate coating during biomimetic formation on titanium surface for only 6 h at 50oC in an accelerated calcium phosphate solution. As a result, the amount of BSA incorporation and release duration could be increased by using a rapid biomimetic coprecipitation technique. Up to 43 fold increases in the BSA incorporation content and the increase from 6 h to more than 360 h in release duration compared to typical direct adsorption technique were observed depending on the initial BSA concentration used during coprecipitation (1, 10 and 100 μg.ml-1). From x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies, the coating composition was not altered with the incorporation of BSA by this rapid biomimetic co-precipitation and mainly comprised octacalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. However, the microstructure of calcium phosphate crystals changed from straight, plate-like units to curved, plate-like units with increasing BSA content.

Keywords: Biomimetic, Calcium Phosphate Coating, Protein, Titanium.

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561 Reinforcement of Calcium Phosphate Cement with E-Glass Fibre

Authors: Sudip Dasgupta, Debosmita Pani, Kanchan Maji

Abstract:

Calcium Phosphate Cement (CPC) due to its high bioactivity and optimum bioresorbability shows excellent bone regeneration capability. Despite it has limited applications as bone implant due to its macro-porous microstructure causing its poor mechanical strength. The reinforcement of apatitic CPCs with biocompatible fibre glass phase is an attractive area of research to improve upon its mechanical strength. Here, we study the setting behaviour of Si-doped and un-doped α tri calcium phosphate (α - TCP) based CPC and its reinforcement with addition of E-glass fibre. Alpha Tri calcium phosphate powders were prepared by solid state sintering of CaCO3 , CaHPO4 and Tetra Ethyl Ortho Silicate (TEOS) was used as silicon source to synthesize Si doped α-TCP powders. Both initial and final setting time of the developed cement was delayed because of Si addition. Crystalline phases of HA (JCPDS 9- 432), α-TCP (JCPDS 29-359) and β-TCP (JCPDS 9-169) were detected in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern after immersion of CPC in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 0 hours to 10 days. As Si incorporation in the crystal lattice stabilized the TCP phase, Si doped CPC showed little slower rate of conversion into HA phase as compared to un-doped CPC. The SEM image of the microstructure of hardened CPC showed lower grain size of HA in un-doped CPC because of premature setting and faster hydrolysis of un-doped CPC in SBF as compared that in Si-doped CPC. Premature setting caused generation of micro and macro porosity in un-doped CPC structure which resulted in its lower mechanical strength as compared to that in Si-doped CPC. It was found that addition of 10 wt% of E-glass fibre into Si-doped α-TCP increased the average DTS of CPC from 8 MPa to 15 MPa as the fibres could resists the propagation of crack by deflecting the crack tip. Our study shows that biocompatible E-glass fibre in optimum proportion in CPC matrix can enhance the mechanical strength of CPC without affecting its biocompatibility. 

Keywords: Calcium phosphate cement, biocompatibility, e-glass fibre, diametral tensile strength.

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560 Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

Authors: T. D. Gunneswara Rao, Mudimby Andal

Abstract:

Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, as partial replacement to fine aggregates and as admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in any one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conventional concrete. Studies on fly ash as partial replacement to cement gained momentum as such replacement makes the concrete economical. In the present study, an attempt has been made to understand the effects of fly ash on the workability characteristics and strength aspects of fly ash concretes. In India major number of thermal power plants is producing low calcium fly ash. Hence in the present investigation low calcium fly ash has been used. Fly ash in concrete was considered for the partial replacement of cement. The percentage replacement of cement by fly ash varied from 0% to 40% at regular intervals of 10%. More over the fine aggregate to coarse aggregate ratio also has been varied as 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. The workability tests revealed that up to 30% replacement of cement by fly ash in concrete mixes water demand for reduces, beyond 30% replacement of cement by fly ash demanded more water content for constant workability.

Keywords: Cementing Efficiency, Compressive Strength, Low Calcium Fly Ash, Workability.

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559 Mineral Activator and Physical Characteristics of Slag Cement at Anhydrous and Hydrated States

Authors: A. Naceri, M. S. Bouglada, P. Grosseau

Abstract:

The setting agent Ca(OH)2 for activation of slag cement is used in the proportions of 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% by various methods (substitution and addition by mass of slag cement). The physical properties of slag cement activated by the calcium hydroxide at anhydrous and hydrated states (fineness, particle size distribution, consistency of the cement pastes and setting times) were studied. The activation method by the mineral activator of slag cement (latent hydraulicity) accelerates the hydration process and reduces the setting times of the cement activated.

Keywords: Mineral activator, slag cement, Anhydrous and hydrated states, physical characteristics.

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558 Effect of Addition the Dune Sand Powder on Development of Compressive Strength and Hydration of Cement Pastes

Authors: S. Guettala, B. Mezghiche

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of addition the dune sand powder (DSP) on development of compressive strength and hydration of cement pastes was investigated as a function of water/binder ratio, was varied, on the one hand, the percentage of DSP and on the other, the fineness of DSP. In order to understand better the pozzolanic effect of dune sand powder in cement pastes, we followed the mixtures hydration (50% Pure Lime + 50% DSP) by X-ray diffraction. These mixtures the pastes present a hydraulic setting which is due to the formation of a C-S-H phase (calcium silicate hydrate). The latter is semi-crystallized. This study is a simplified approach to that of the mixtures (80% ordinary Portland cement + 20% DSP), in which the main reaction is the fixing of the lime coming from the cement hydration in the presence of DSP, to form calcium silicate hydrate semi-crystallized of second generation. The results proved that up to (20% DSP) as Portland cement replacement could be used with a fineness of 4000 cm²/g without affecting adversely the compressive strength. After 28 days, the compressive strength at 5, 10 and 15% DSP is superior to Portland cement, with an optimum effect for a percentage of the order of 5% to 10% irrespective of the w/b ratio and fineness of DSP.

Keywords: Ordinary Portland Cement, Pure Lime, Dune Sand Powder, Compressive Strength, Hydration.

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557 Viability of Eggshells Ash Affecting the Setting Time of Cement

Authors: Fazeera Ujin, Kamran Shavarebi Ali, Zarina Yasmin Hanur Harith

Abstract:

This research paper reports on the feasibility and viability of eggshells ash and its effects on the water content and setting time of cement. An experiment was carried out to determine the quantity of water required in order to follow standard cement paste of normal consistency in accordance with MS EN 196-3:2007. The eggshells ash passing the 90µm sieve was used in the investigation. Eggshells ash with percentage of 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% were constituted to replace the cement. Chemical properties of both eggshells ash and cement are compared. From the results obtained, both eggshells ash and cement have the same chemical composition and primary composition which is the calcium compounds. Results from the setting time show that by adding the eggshells ash to the cement, the setting time of the cement decreases. In short, the higher amount of eggshells ash, the faster the rate of setting and apply to all percentage of eggshells ash that were used in this investigation. Both initial and final setting times fulfill the setting time requirements by Malaysian Standard. Hence, it is suggested that eggshells ash can be used as an admixture in concrete mix.

Keywords: Construction Materials, Eggshells Ash, Solid Waste, Setting Time.

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556 Characterization of Fish Bone Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

Authors: Sarina Sulaiman, N. Khairudin, P. Jamal, M. Z. Alam, Zaki Zainudin, S. Azmi

Abstract:

In this study, fish bone waste was used as a new catalyst for biodiesel production. Instead of discarding the fish bone waste, it will be utilized as a source for catalyst that can provide significant benefit to the environment. Also, it can be substitute as a calcium oxide source instead of using eggshell, crab shell and snail shell. The XRD and SEM analysis proved that calcined fish bone contains calcium oxide, calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. The catalyst was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD).

Keywords: Calcinations, fish bone, transesterification, waste catalyst.

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555 Some Characteristics and Identification of Fungi Contaminated by Alkomos Cement Factory

Authors: Abdulmajeed Bashir Mlitan, Ethan Hack

Abstract:

Soil samples were collected from and around Alkomos cement factory, Alkomos town, Libya. Soil physiochemical properties were determined. In addition, olive leaves were scanned for their fungal content. This work can conclude that the results obtained for the examined physiochemical characteristics of soil in the area studied prove that cement dust from the Alkomos cement factory in Libya has had a significant impact on the soil. The affected soil properties are pH and total calcium content. These characteristics were found to be higher than those in similar soils from the same area. The increment of soil pH in the same area may be a result of precipitation of cement dust over the years. Different responses were found in each season and each site. For instance, the dominance of fungi of soil and leaves was lowest at 100 m from the factory and the evenness and diversity increased at this site compared to the control area and 250 m from the factory.

Keywords: Pollution, Soil Microbial, Alkomos, Libya.

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554 Characterization of Cement Mortar Based on Fine Quartz

Authors: K. Arroudj, M. Lanez, M. N. Oudjit

Abstract:

The introduction of siliceous mineral additions in cement production allows, in addition to the ecological and economic gain, improvement of concrete performance. This improvement is mainly due to the fixing of Portlandite, released during the hydration of cement, by fine siliceous, forming denser calcium silicate hydrates and therefore a more compact cementitious matrix. This research is part of the valuation of the Dune Sand (DS) in the cement industry in Algeria. The high silica content of DS motivated us to study its effect, at ground state, on the properties of mortars in fresh and hardened state. For this purpose, cement pastes and mortars based on ground dune sand (fine quartz) has been analyzed with a replacement to cement of 15%, 20% and 25%. This substitution has reduced the amount of heat of hydration and avoids any risk of initial cracking. In addition, the grinding of the dune sand provides amorphous thin populations adsorbed at the surface of the crystal particles of quartz. Which gives to ground quartz pozzolanic character. This character results an improvement of mechanical strength of mortar (66 MPa in the presence of 25% of ground quartz).

Keywords: Mineralogical structure, Pozzolanic reactivity, quartz, mechanical strength.

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553 Efficacy of Combined CHAp and Lanthanum Carbonate in Therapy for Hyperphosphatemia

Authors: Andreea Cârâc, Elena Moroşan, Ana Corina Ioniță, Rica Boscencu, Geta Cârâc

Abstract:

Although, lanthanum carbonate has not been approved by the FDA for treatment of hyperphosphatemia, we prospectively evaluated the efficacy of the combination of Calcium hydroxyapatite (CHAp) and Lanthanum Carbonate (LaC) for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia on mice. CHAp was prepared by co-precipitation method using Ca(OH)2, H3PO4, NH4OH with calcination at 1200ºC. Lanthanum carbonate was prepared by chemical method using NaHCO3 and LaCl3 at low pH environment, below 4.0. The structures were characterized by FTIR spectra and SEM -EDX analysis. The study group included 16 subjects-mice divided into four groups according to the administered substance: lanthanum carbonate (group A), CHAp (group B), lanthanum carbonate + CHAp (group C) and salt water (group D). The results indicate a phosphate decrease when subjects (mice) were treated with CHAp and lanthanum carbonate (0.5% CMC), in a single dose of 1500 mg/kg. Serum phosphate concentration decreased [(from 4.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL) to 4.05 ± 0.2 mg/dL), P < 0.01] in group A and in group C (to 3.6 ± 0.2 mg/dL) at 12 hours from the administration. The combination of CHAp and lanthanum carbonate is a suitable regimen for hyperphosphatemia treatment because it avoids both the hypercalcemia of CaCO3 and the adverse effects of CHAp.

Keywords: Calcium hydroxyapatite, hyperphosphatemia, lanthanum carbonate, phosphatebinder, structures.

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552 The Effect of Application of Biological Phosphate Fertilizer (Fertile 2) and Triple Super Phosphate Chemical Fertilizers on Some Morphological Traits of Corn (SC704)

Authors: M. Mojaddam, M. Araei, T. Saki Nejad, M. Soltani Howyzeh

Abstract:

In order to study the effect of different levels of triple super phosphate chemical fertilizer and biological phosphate fertilizer (fertile 2) on some morphological traits of corn this research was carried out in Ahvaz in 2002 as a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with 4 replications). The experiment included two factors: first, biological phosphate fertilizer (fertile 2) at three levels of 0, 100, 200 g/ha; second, triple super phosphate chemical fertilizer at three levels of 0, 60, 90 kg/ha of pure phosphorus (P2O5). The obtained results indicated that fertilizer treatments had a significant effect on some morphological traits at 1% probability level. In this regard, P2B2 treatment (100 g/ha biological phosphate fertilizer (fertile 2) and 60 kg/ha triple super phosphate fertilizer) had the greatest plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves and ear length. It seems that in Ahvaz weather conditions, decrease of consumption of triple superphosphate chemical fertilizer to less than a half along with the consumption of biological phosphate fertilizer (fertile 2) is highly important in order to achieve optimal results. Therefore, it can be concluded that biological fertilizers can be used as a suitable substitute for some of the chemical fertilizers in sustainable agricultural systems.

Keywords: Biological phosphate fertilizer, corn (SC704), morphological, triple super phosphate.

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551 Mechanical Strengths of Self-Compacting Mortars Prepared with the Pozzolanic Cement in Aggressive Environments

Authors: M. Saidi, I. Djefour, F. Ait Medjber, A. Melouane, A. Gacem

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to study the physical and mechanical properties and durability of self-compacting mortars prepared by substituting a part of cement up to a percentage of 30% pozzolan according to different Blaine specific surface area (SSB1=7000 cm2/g and SSB=9000 cm2/g)). Order to evaluate durability, mortars were subjected to chemical attacks in various aggressive environments, a solution of a mixture of nitric acid and ammonium nitrate (HNO3 + NH4NO3) and a magnesium sulfate salt solution (MgSO4)) with a concentration of 10%, for a period of one month. This study is complemented by a comparative study of the durability of mortars elaborated with sulphate resistant cement (SRC). The results show that these mortars develop long-term, mechanical and chemical resistance better than mortars based Portland cement with 5% gypsum (CEM 1) and SRC. We found that the mass losses are lowest in mortars elaborated with pozzolanic cement (30% substitution with SSB2) in both of chemical attack solutions (3.28% in the solution acid and 1.16% in the salt solution) and the compressive strength gains of 14.68% and 8.5% respectively in the two media. This is due to the action of pozzolan which fixes portlandite to form hydrated calcium silicate (CSH) from the hydration of tricalcic silicate (C3S).

Keywords: Aggressive environments, durability, mechanical strengths, pozzolanic cement, self-compacting mortar.

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550 A Highly Sensitive Dip Strip for Detection of Phosphate in Water

Authors: Hojat Heidari-Bafroui, Amer Charbaji, Constantine Anagnostopoulos, Mohammad Faghri

Abstract:

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant life which is most frequently found as phosphate in water. Once phosphate is found in abundance in surface water, a series of adverse effects on an ecosystem can be initiated. Therefore, a portable and reliable method is needed to monitor the phosphate concentrations in the field. In this paper, an inexpensive dip strip device with the ascorbic acid/antimony reagent dried on blotting paper along with wet chemistry is developed for the detection of low concentrations of phosphate in water. Ammonium molybdate and sulfuric acid are separately stored in liquid form so as to improve significantly the lifetime of the device and enhance the reproducibility of the device’s performance. The limit of detection and quantification for the optimized device are 0.134 ppm and 0.472 ppm for phosphate in water, respectively. The device’s shelf life, storage conditions, and limit of detection are superior to what has been previously reported for the paper-based phosphate detection devices.

Keywords: Phosphate detection, paper-based device, molybdenum blue method, colorimetric assay.

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549 Effect of pH and Ionic Exchange on the Reactivity of Bioglass/Chitosan Composites Used as a Bone Graft Substitute

Authors: Samira Jebahi, Hassane Oudadesse, Eric Wers, Jiheun Elleuch, Hafedh Elfekih, Hassib Keskes, Xuan Vuong Bui, Abdelfatteh Elfeki

Abstract:

Chitosan (CH) material reinforced by bioactive glass (46S6) was fabricated. 46S6 containing 17% wt% CH was studied in vitro and in vivo. Physicochemical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis were used. The behavior of 46S6CH17 was studied by measuring the in situ pH in a SBF solution. The 46S6CH17 was implanted in the rat femoral condyl. In vitro 46S6CH17 gave an FTIR - spectrum in which three absorption bands with the maxima at 565, 603 and 1039cm-1 after 3 days of soaking in physiological solution. They are assigned to stretching vibrations of PO4^3- group in phosphate crystalline. Moreover, the pH measurement was decreased in the SBF solution. The stability of the calcium phosphate precipitation depended on the pH value. In vivo, a rise in the Ca and phosphate P ions concentrations in the implanted microenvironment was determined.

Keywords: Bioglass, Chitosan, pH measurement, Hydroxyapatite Carbonateted Layer.

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548 Analysis of Phosphate in Wastewater Using an Autonomous Microfluidics-Based Analyser

Authors: John Cleary, Conor Slater, Dermot Diamond

Abstract:

A portable sensor for the analysis of phosphate in aqueous samples has been developed. The sensor incorporates microfluidic technology, colorimetric detection, and wireless communications into a compact and rugged portable device. The detection method used is the molybdenum yellow method, in which a phosphate-containing sample is mixed with a reagent containing ammonium metavanadate and ammonium molybdate in an acidic medium. A yellow-coloured compound is generated and the absorption of this compound is measured using a light emitting diode (LED) light source and a photodiode detector. The absorption is directly proportional to the phosphate concentration in the original sample. In this paper we describe the application of this phosphate sensor to the analysis of wastewater at a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Co. Kildare, Ireland.

Keywords: Microfluidic, phosphate, sensor, wastewater.

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547 Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Cement Manufactured with Artificial Pozzolan (Waste Brick)

Authors: A. Naceri, M. Chikouche Hamina, P. Grosseau

Abstract:

The effect of artificial pozzolan (waste brick) on the physico-chemical properties of cement manufactured was investigated. The waste brick is generated by the manufacture of bricks. It was used in the proportions of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by mass of cement to study its effect on the physico-chemical properties of cement incorporating artificial pozzolan. The physicochemical properties of cement at anhydrous state and the hydrated state (chemical composition, specific weight, fineness, consistency of the cement paste and setting times) were studied. The experimental results obtained show that the quantity of pozzolanic admixture (waste brick) of cement manufactured is the principal parameter who influences on the variation of the physico-chemical properties of the cement tested.

Keywords: Artificial pozzolan, waste brick, cement, physicochemicalcharacteristics.

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546 The Development of a Low Carbon Cementitious Material Produced from Cement, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and High Calcium Fly Ash

Authors: Ali Shubbar, Hassnen M. Jafer, Anmar Dulaimi, William Atherton, Ali Al-Rifaie

Abstract:

This research represents experimental work for investigation of the influence of utilising Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) and High Calcium Fly Ash (HCFA) as a partial replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and produce a low carbon cementitious material with comparable compressive strength to OPC. Firstly, GGBS was used as a partial replacement to OPC to produce a binary blended cementitious material (BBCM); the replacements were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50% by the dry mass of OPC. The optimum BBCM was mixed with HCFA to produce a ternary blended cementitious material (TBCM). The replacements were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50% by the dry mass of BBCM. The compressive strength at ages of 7 and 28 days was utilised for assessing the performance of the test specimens in comparison to the reference mixture using 100% OPC as a binder. The results showed that the optimum BBCM was the mix produced from 25% GGBS and 75% OPC with compressive strength of 32.2 MPa at the age of 28 days. In addition, the results of the TBCM have shown that the addition of 10, 15, 20 and 25% of HCFA to the optimum BBCM improved the compressive strength by 22.7, 11.3, 5.2 and 2.1% respectively at 28 days. However, the replacement of optimum BBCM with more than 25% HCFA have showed a gradual drop in the compressive strength in comparison to the control mix. TBCM with 25% HCFA was considered to be the optimum as it showed better compressive strength than the control mix and at the same time reduced the amount of cement to 56%. Reducing the cement content to 56% will contribute to decrease the cost of construction materials, provide better compressive strength and also reduce the CO2 emissions into the atmosphere.

Keywords: Cementitious material, compressive strength, GGBS, HCFA, OPC.

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545 Effect of the Portland-Limestone Cement Grades on the Compressive Strength of Hollow Sandcrete Blocks

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole, Gbenga. M. Ayininula, Wasiu O. Ajagbe, Olabisi Akinade

Abstract:

The commercial sandcrete block makers in Nigeria use the same cement-sand mix ratio for sandcrete blocks production irrespective of the cement grade. Investigation revealed that the compressive strengths of hollow sandcrete blocks produced with Portland-limestone cement grade 42.5 are higher than the sandcrete blocks produced with cement grade 32.5. The use of stronger sandcrete blocks produced with cement grade 42.5 will ensure the construction of stronger buildings and other sandcrete blocks-based infrastructures and reduce the incessant failure of building and other sandcrete blocks-based infrastructures in Nigeria at no additional cost as both cement grades cost the same amount in Nigeria. It is recommended that the Standards Organisation of Nigeria should create grassroots awareness on the different cement grades in Nigeria and specify that Portland-limestone cement grade 42.5 be used for sandcrete blocks production.

 

Keywords: Cement grades, Compressive strength, Sandcrete blocks, Portland-limestone cement, Nigerian cement market.

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544 Study of Pipes Scaling of Purified Wastewater Intended for the Irrigation of Agadir Golf Grass

Authors: A. Driouiche, S. Mohareb, A. Hadfi

Abstract:

In Morocco’s Agadir region, the reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation of green spaces has faced the problem of scaling of the pipes of these waters. This research paper aims at studying the phenomenon of scaling caused by the treated wastewater from the Mzar sewage treatment plant. These waters are used in the irrigation of golf turf for the Ocean Golf Resort. Ocean Golf, located about 10 km from the center of the city of Agadir, is one of the most important recreation centers in Morocco. The course is a Belt Collins design with 27 holes, and is quite open with deep challenging bunkers. The formation of solid deposits in the irrigation systems has led to a decrease in their lifetime and, consequently, a loss of load and performance. Thus, the sprinklers used in golf turf irrigation are plugged in the first weeks of operation. To study this phenomenon, the wastewater used for the irrigation of the golf turf was taken and analyzed at various points, and also samples of scale formed in the circuits of the passage of these waters were characterized. This characterization of the scale was performed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of the physicochemical analysis of the waters show that they are full of bicarbonates (653 mg/L), chloride (478 mg/L), nitrate (412 mg/L), sodium (425 mg/L) and calcium (199mg/L). Their pH is slightly alkaline. The analysis of the scale reveals that it is rich in calcium and phosphorus. It is formed of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃), silica (SiO₂), calcium silicate (Ca₂SiO₄), hydroxylapatite (Ca₁₀P₆O₂₆), calcium carbonate and phosphate (Ca₁₀(PO₄) 6CO₃) and silicate calcium and magnesium (Ca₅MgSi₃O₁₂).

Keywords: Agadir, irrigation, scaling water, wastewater.

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543 Compressive Strength and Workability Characteristics of Low-Calcium Fly ash-based Self-Compacting Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: M. Fareed Ahmed, M. Fadhil Nuruddin, Nasir Shafiq

Abstract:

Due to growing environmental concerns of the cement industry, alternative cement technologies have become an area of increasing interest. It is now believed that new binders are indispensable for enhanced environmental and durability performance. Self-compacting Geopolymer concrete is an innovative method and improved way of concreting operation that does not require vibration for placing it and is produced by complete elimination of ordinary Portland cement. This paper documents the assessment of the compressive strength and workability characteristics of low-calcium fly ash based selfcompacting geopolymer concrete. The essential workability properties of the freshly prepared Self-compacting Geopolymer concrete such as filling ability, passing ability and segregation resistance were evaluated by using Slump flow, V-funnel, L-box and J-ring test methods. The fundamental requirements of high flowability and segregation resistance as specified by guidelines on Self Compacting Concrete by EFNARC were satisfied. In addition, compressive strength was determined and the test results are included here. This paper also reports the effect of extra water, curing time and curing temperature on the compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete. The test results show that extra water in the concrete mix plays a significant role. Also, longer curing time and curing the concrete specimens at higher temperatures will result in higher compressive strength.

Keywords: Fly ash, Geopolymer Concrete, Self-compactingconcrete, Self-compacting Geopolymer concrete

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542 Deicing and Corrosive Performances of Calcium Acetate Deicer Made from Bamboo-Vinegar

Authors: Xinyuan Jiang, Genan Li, Zhiping Wu

Abstract:

Calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) is environmentally benign deicing chemicals that can replace sodium chloride that is widely used on roads and highways at present for snow and ice control to provide safe driving conditions during winter. The price of CMA from petroleum-derived acetic acid is quite expensive. The bamboo vinegar is the by-product from bamboo charcoal production. The bamboo vinegar was used to prepare calcium acetate as raw materials, and its deicing and corrosive performances were studied in this paper. The results show that the freezing temperature of calcium acetate is lower than that of sodium chloride when they have same molar concentration, the deicing performance of calcium acetate is better than that of sodium chloride when they have same moles, while the deicing performance of sodium chloride is better than that of calcium acetate. The corrosion of sodium chloride on iron-nail and steel-nail is larger than that of calcium acetate whether they have same mass concentration or same molar concentration, and the corrosion of sodium chloride and calcium acetate on iron-nail is larger than that on steel-nail, and calcium acetate almost hasn't corrosion on steel-nail.

Keywords: bamboo vinegar, calcium acetate, corrosion, deicer, deicing performance

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541 A Model to Study the Effect of Excess Buffers and Na+ Ions on Ca2+ Diffusion in Neuron Cell

Authors: Vikas Tewari, Shivendra Tewari, K. R. Pardasani

Abstract:

Calcium is a vital second messenger used in signal transduction. Calcium controls secretion, cell movement, muscular contraction, cell differentiation, ciliary beating and so on. Two theories have been used to simplify the system of reaction-diffusion equations of calcium into a single equation. One is excess buffer approximation (EBA) which assumes that mobile buffer is present in excess and cannot be saturated. The other is rapid buffer approximation (RBA), which assumes that calcium binding to buffer is rapid compared to calcium diffusion rate. In the present work, attempt has been made to develop a model for calcium diffusion under excess buffer approximation in neuron cells. This model incorporates the effect of [Na+] influx on [Ca2+] diffusion,variable calcium and sodium sources, sodium-calcium exchange protein, Sarcolemmal Calcium ATPase pump, sodium and calcium channels. The proposed mathematical model leads to a system of partial differential equations which have been solved numerically using Forward Time Centered Space (FTCS) approach. The numerical results have been used to study the relationships among different types of parameters such as buffer concentration, association rate, calcium permeability.

Keywords: Excess buffer approximation, Na+ influx, sodium calcium exchange protein, sarcolemmal calcium atpase pump, forward time centred space.

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540 The Impact of Alumina Cement on Properties of Portland Cement Slurries and Mortars

Authors: Krzysztof Zieliński, Dariusz Kierzek

Abstract:

The addition of a small amount of alumina cement to Portland cement results in immediate setting, a rapid increase in the compressive strength and a clear increase of the adhesion to concrete substrate. This phenomenon is used, among others, for the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds. Alumina cement is several times more expensive than Portland cement and is a component having a significant impact on prices of products manufactured with its use. For the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds, low-alumina cement containing approximately 40% Al2O3 is normally used. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of Portland cement with the addition of alumina cement on the basic physical and mechanical properties of cement slurries and mortars. CEM I 42.5R and three types of alumina cement containing 40%, 50% and 70% of Al2O3 were used for the tests. Mixes containing 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% of different varieties of alumina cement were prepared; for which, the time of initial and final setting, compressive and flexural strength and adhesion to concrete substrate were determined. The analysis of the obtained test results showed that a similar immediate setting effect and clearly better adhesion strength can be obtained using the addition of 6% of high-alumina cement than 12% of low-alumina cement. As the prices of these cements are similar, this can give significant financial savings in the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds.

Keywords: Alumina cement, immediate setting, compression strength, adhesion to substrate.

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539 Soil Improvement using Cement Dust Mixture

Authors: Mohie Eldin Mohamed Afifiy Elmashad

Abstract:

Day by day technology increases and problems associated with this technology also increase. Several researches were carried out to investigate the deployment of such material safely in geotechnical engineering in particular and civil engineering in general. However, different types of waste material have such as cement duct, fly ash and slag been proven to be suitable in several applications. In this research cement dust mixed with different percentages of sand will be used in some civil engineering application as will be explained later in this paper throughout filed and laboratory test. The used mixer (waste material with sand) prove high performance, durability to environmental condition, low cost and high benefits. At higher cement dust ratio, small cement ratio is valuable for compressive strength and permeability. Also at small cement dust ratio higher cement ratio is valuable for compressive strength.

Keywords: cement dust, cement, soil improvement, permeability

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538 Combinatory Nutrition Supplementation: A Case of Synergy for Increasing Calcium Bioavailability

Authors: Daniel C. S. Lim, Eric Y. M. Yeo, W. Y. Tan

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of how calcium interacts with the various essential nutrients within an environment of cellular and hormonal interactions for the purpose of increasing bioavailability to the human body. One example of such interactions can be illustrated with calcium homeostasis. This paper gives an in-depth discussion on the possible interactive permutations with various nutrients and factors leading to the promotion of calcium bioavailability to the body. The review hopes to provide further insights into how calcium supplement formulations can be improved to better influence its bioavailability in the human body.

Keywords: Bioavailability, environment of cellular and hormonal interactions, combinative nutrition, nutrient synergy.

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537 Utilization of Glycerol Derived from Jatropha-s Biodiesel Production as a Cement Grinding Aid

Authors: O. Farobie, S S. Achmadi, L K. Darusman

Abstract:

Biodiesel production results in glycerol production as the main by-product in biodiesel industry.One of the utilizations of glycerol obtained from biodiesel production is as a cement grinding aid (CGA). Results showed that crude glycerol content was 40.19% whereas pure glycerol content was 82.15%. BSS value of the cement with CGA supplementation was higher than that of nonsupplemented cement (blank) indicating that CGA-supplemented cement had higher fineness than the non-supplemented one. It was also found that pure glycerol 95% and TEA 5% at 80ºC was the optimum CGA used to result in finest cement with BSS value of 4.836 cm2/g. Residue test showed that the smallest percent residue value (0.11%) was obtained in cement with supplementation of pure glycerol 95% and TEA 5%. Results of residue test confirmed those of BSS test showing that cement with supplementation of pure glycerol 95% and TEA 5% had the finest particle size.

Keywords: biodiesel, cement grinding aid, glycerol, Jatropha curcas

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536 A Numerical Model to Study the Rapid Buffering Approximation near an Open Ca2+ Channel for an Unsteady State Case

Authors: Leena Sharma

Abstract:

Chemical reaction and diffusion are important phenomena in quantitative neurobiology and biophysics. The knowledge of the dynamics of calcium Ca2+ is very important in cellular physiology because Ca2+ binds to many proteins and regulates their activity and interactions Calcium waves propagate inside cells due to a regenerative mechanism known as calcium-induced calcium release. Buffer-mediated calcium diffusion in the cytosol plays a crucial role in the process. A mathematical model has been developed for calcium waves by assuming the buffers are in equilibrium with calcium i.e., the rapid buffering approximation for a one dimensional unsteady state case. This model incorporates important physical and physiological parameters like dissociation rate, diffusion rate, total buffer concentration and influx. The finite difference method has been employed to predict [Ca2+] and buffer concentration time course regardless of the calcium influx. The comparative studies of the effect of the rapid buffered diffusion and kinetic parameters of the model on the concentration time course have been performed.

Keywords: Calcium Profile, Rapid Buffering Approximation, Influx, Dissociation rate constant.

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535 Investigation of Dissolution in Diammonium Hydrogen Phosphate Solutions of Gypsum

Authors: Turan Çalban, Nursel Keskin, Sabri Çolak, Soner Kuşlu

Abstract:

Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) is a mineral that is found in large quantities in the Turkey and in the World. In this study, the dissolution of this mineral in the diammonium hydrogen phosphate solutions has been studied. The dissolution and dissolution kinetics of gypsum in diammonium hydrogen phosphate solutions will be useful for evaluating of solid wastes containing gypsum. Parameters such as diammonium hydrogen phosphate concentration, temperature and stirring speed affecting on the dissolution rate of the gypsum in diammonium hydrogen phosphate solutions were investigated. In experimental studies have researched effectiveness of the selected parameters. The dissolution of gypsum were examined in two parts at low and high temperatures. The experimental results were successfully correlated by linear regression using Statistica program. Dissolution curves were evaluated shrinking core models for solidfluid systems. The activation energy was found to be 34.58 kJ/mol and 44.45 kJ/mol for the low and the high temperatures. The dissolution of gypsum was controlled by chemical reaction both low temperatures and high temperatures.

Keywords: Diammonium hydrogen phosphate, Dissolution, Gypsum, Kinetics.

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534 Effect of Nigerian Portland-Limestone Cement Grades on Concrete Compressive Strength

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole, Festus. A. Olutoge, Hamzat Habib

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of grades 32.4 and 42.5 Portland-limestone cements generally used for concrete production in Nigeria on concrete compressive strength is investigated. Investigation revealed that the compressive strength of concrete produced with Portland-limestone cement grade 42.5 is generally higher than that produced with cement grade 32.5. The percentage difference between the compressive strengths of the concrete cubes produced with Portland-limestone cement grades 42.5 and 32.5 is inversely proportional to the richness of the concrete with the highest and the least percentage difference associated with the 1:2:4 and 1:1:2 mix ratios respectively. It is recommended that cement grade 42.5 be preferred for construction in Nigeria as this will lead to the construction of stronger concrete structures, which will reduce the incidence of failure of building and other concrete structures at no additional cost since the cost of both cement grades are the same.

Keywords: Cement grades, Concrete, Compressive strength, Portland-limestone cement, Ordinary Portland cement.

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