Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 75

Search results for: CDMA

15 Determining of Threshold Levels of Burst by Burst AQAM/CDMA in Slow Rayleigh Fading Environments

Authors: F. Nejadebrahimi, M. ArdebiliPour

Abstract:

In this paper, we are going to determine the threshold levels of adaptive modulation in a burst by burst CDMA system by a suboptimum method so that the above method attempts to increase the average bit per symbol (BPS) rate of transceiver system by switching between the different modulation modes in variable channel condition. In this method, we choose the minimum values of average bit error rate (BER) and maximum values of average BPS on different values of average channel signal to noise ratio (SNR) and then calculate the relative threshold levels of them, so that when the instantaneous SNR increases, a higher order modulation be employed for increasing throughput and vise-versa when the instantaneous SNR decreases, a lower order modulation be employed for improvement of BER. In transmission step, by this adaptive modulation method, in according to comparison between obtained estimation of pilot symbols and a set of above suboptimum threshold levels, above system chooses one of states no transmission, BPSK, 4QAM and square 16QAM for modulation of data. The expected channel in this paper is a slow Rayleigh fading.

Keywords: CDMA, BER, threshold, AQAM, burst, BPS

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14 Multiuser Detection in CDMA Fast Fading Multipath Channel using Heuristic Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Syed Ismail Shah, Habibullah Jamal

Abstract:

In this paper, a simple heuristic genetic algorithm is used for Multistage Multiuser detection in fast fading environments. Multipath channels, multiple access interference (MAI) and near far effect cause the performance of the conventional detector to degrade. Heuristic Genetic algorithms, a rapidly growing area of artificial intelligence, uses evolutionary programming for initial search, which not only helps to converge the solution towards near optimal performance efficiently but also at a very low complexity as compared with optimal detector. This holds true for Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and multipath fading channels. Experimental results are presented to show the superior performance of the proposed techque over the existing methods.

Keywords: genetic algorithm (GA), multiple accessinterference (MAI), Multistage Detectors (MSD), SuccessiveInterference Cancellation

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13 Performance Analysis of QS-CDMA Systems

Authors: Cuiran Li, Jianli Xie, Chengshu Li

Abstract:

In the paper, the performance of quasi-synchronous CDMA (QS-CDMA) system, which can allow an increased timing error in synchronized access, is discussed. Average BER performance of the system is analyzed in the condition of different access timing error and different asynchronous users by simulation in AWGN channel. The results show that QS-CDMA system is shown to have great performance gain over the asynchronous system when access timing error is within a few chips and asynchronous users is tolerable. However, with access timing error increasing and asynchronous users increasing, the performance of QS-CDMA will degrade. Also, we can determine the number of tolerable asynchronous users for different access timing error by simulation figures.

Keywords: Code-division multiple access, Quasi-SynchronousCDMA, Access timing error

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12 Adaptive Subchannel Allocation for MC-CDMA System

Authors: Cuiran Li, Jianli Xie, Chengshu Li

Abstract:

Multicarrier code-division multiple-access is one of the effective techniques to gain its multiple access capability, robustness against fading, and to mitigate the ISI. In this paper, we propose an improved mulcarrier CDMA system with adaptive subchannel allocation. We analyzed the performance of our proposed system in frequency selective fading environment with narrowband interference existing and compared it with that of parallel transmission over many subchannels (namely, conventional MC-CDMA scheme) and DS-CDMA system. Simulation results show that adaptive subchannel allocation scheme, when used in conventional multicarrier CDMA system, the performance will be greatly improved.

Keywords: Channel Estimation, Rayleigh fading, MC-CDMA, Narrowbandinterference

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11 Comparison of Multi-User Detectors of DS-CDMA System

Authors: Kavita Khairnar, Shikha Nema

Abstract:

DS-CDMA system is well known wireless technology. This system suffers from MAI (Multiple Access Interference) caused by Direct Sequence users. Multi-User Detection schemes were introduced to detect the users- data in presence of MAI. This paper focuses on linear multi-user detection schemes used for data demodulation. Simulation results depict the performance of three detectors viz-conventional detector, Decorrelating detector and Subspace MMSE (Minimum Mean Square Error) detector. It is seen that the performance of these detectors depends on the number of paths and the length of Gold code used.

Keywords: Cross Correlation Matrix, MAI, Multi-UserDetection, Multipath Effect

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10 The Performance of Genetic Algorithm for Synchronized Chaotic Chen System in CDMA Satellite Channel

Authors: Salah Salmi, Karim Kemih, Malek Benslama

Abstract:

Synchronization is a difficult problem in CDMA satellite communications. Due to the influence of additive noise and fading in the mobile channel, it is not easy to keep up with the attenuation and offset. This paper considers a recently proposed approach to solve the problem of synchronization chaotic Chen system in CDMA satellite communication in the presence of constant attenuation and offset. An analytic algorithm that provides closed form channel and carrier offset estimates is presented. The principle of this approach is based on adding a compensation block before the receiver to compensate the distortion of the imperfect channel by using genetic algorithm. The resultants presented, show that the receiver is able to recover rapidly the synchronization with the transmitter.

Keywords: CDMA, Genetic Algorithm, Synchronization, Chaotic Chen system

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9 A Comparison of Adaline and MLP Neural Network based Predictors in SIR Estimation in Mobile DS/CDMA Systems

Authors: Nahid Ardalani, Ahmadreza Khoogar, H. Roohi

Abstract:

In this paper we compare the response of linear and nonlinear neural network-based prediction schemes in prediction of received Signal-to-Interference Power Ratio (SIR) in Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS/CDMA) systems. The nonlinear predictor is Multilayer Perceptron MLP and the linear predictor is an Adaptive Linear (Adaline) predictor. We solve the problem of complexity by using the Minimum Mean Squared Error (MMSE) principle to select the optimal predictors. The optimized Adaline predictor is compared to optimized MLP by employing noisy Rayleigh fading signals with 1.8 GHZ carrier frequency in an urban environment. The results show that the Adaline predictor can estimates SIR with the same error as MLP when the user has the velocity of 5 km/h and 60 km/h but by increasing the velocity up-to 120 km/h the mean squared error of MLP is two times more than Adaline predictor. This makes the Adaline predictor (with lower complexity) more suitable than MLP for closed-loop power control where efficient and accurate identification of the time-varying inverse dynamics of the multi path fading channel is required.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Power Control, DS/CDMA mobilecommunication systems

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8 Data Acquisition from Cell Phone using Logical Approach

Authors: Kyoil Chung, Keonwoo Kim, Dowon Hong, Jae-Cheol Ryou

Abstract:

Cell phone forensics to acquire and analyze data in the cellular phone is nowadays being used in a national investigation organization and a private company. In order to collect cellular phone flash memory data, we have two methods. Firstly, it is a logical method which acquires files and directories from the file system of the cell phone flash memory. Secondly, we can get all data from bit-by-bit copy of entire physical memory using a low level access method. In this paper, we describe a forensic tool to acquire cell phone flash memory data using a logical level approach. By our tool, we can get EFS file system and peek memory data with an arbitrary region from Korea CDMA cell phone.

Keywords: Forensics, Acquisition, cell phone, logical method, flash memory

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7 Performance of Chaotic Lu System in CDMA Satellites Communications Systems

Authors: M. Benslama, K. Kemih

Abstract:

This paper investigates the problem of spreading sequence and receiver code synchronization techniques for satellite based CDMA communications systems. The performance of CDMA system depends on the autocorrelation and cross-correlation properties of the used spreading sequences. In this paper we propose the uses of chaotic Lu system to generate binary sequences for spreading codes in a direct sequence spread CDMA system. To minimize multiple access interference (MAI) we propose the use of genetic algorithm for optimum selection of chaotic spreading sequences. To solve the problem of transmitter-receiver synchronization, we use the passivity controls. The concept of semipassivity is defined to find simple conditions which ensure boundedness of the solutions of coupled Lu systems. Numerical results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Synchronization, About Chaotic Lu system, Spreading sequence, Genetic Algorithm. Passive System

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6 Semi-Blind Two-Dimensional Code Acquisition in CDMA Communications

Authors: Tapani Ristaniemi, Rui Wu

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for joint time-delay and direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation, here called two-dimensional code acquisition, in an asynchronous directsequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) array system. This algorithm depends on eigenvector-eigenvalue decomposition of sample correlation matrix, and requires to know desired user-s training sequence. The performance of the algorithm is analyzed both analytically and numerically in uncorrelated and coherent multipath environment. Numerical examples show that the algorithm is robust with unknown number of coherent signals.

Keywords: Two-Dimensional Code Acquisition, EV-t, DSCDMA

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5 System Performance Comparison of Turbo and Trellis Coded Optical CDMA Systems

Authors: M. Kulkarni, R. K. Sinha, D. R. Bhaskar

Abstract:

In this paper, we have compared the performance of a Turbo and Trellis coded optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system. The comparison of the two codes has been accomplished by employing optical orthogonal codes (OOCs). The Bit Error Rate (BER) performances have been compared by varying the code weights of address codes employed by the system. We have considered the effects of optical multiple access interference (OMAI), thermal noise and avalanche photodiode (APD) detector noise. Analysis has been carried out for the system with and without double optical hard limiter (DHL). From the simulation results it is observed that a better and distinct comparison can be drawn between the performance of Trellis and Turbo coded systems, at lower code weights of optical orthogonal codes for a fixed number of users. The BER performance of the Turbo coded system is found to be better than the Trellis coded system for all code weights that have been considered for the simulation. Nevertheless, the Trellis coded OCDMA system is found to be better than the uncoded OCDMA system. Trellis coded OCDMA can be used in systems where decoding time has to be kept low, bandwidth is limited and high reliability is not a crucial factor as in local area networks. Also the system hardware is less complex in comparison to the Turbo coded system. Trellis coded OCDMA system can be used without significant modification of the existing chipsets. Turbo-coded OCDMA can however be employed in systems where high reliability is needed and bandwidth is not a limiting factor.

Keywords: avalanche photodiode, Turbo Code, optical code division multipleaccess, optical multiple access interference, Trellis codedmodulation

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4 Precombining Adaptive LMMSE Detection for DS-CDMA Systems in Time Varying Channels: Non Blind and Blind Approaches

Authors: M. D. Kokate, T. R. Sontakke, P. W. Wani

Abstract:

This paper deals with an adaptive multiuser detector for direct sequence code division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) systems. A modified receiver, precombinig LMMSE is considered under time varying channel environment. Detector updating is performed with two criterions, mean square estimation (MSE) and MOE optimization technique. The adaptive implementation issues of these two schemes are quite different. MSE criterion updates the filter weights by minimizing error between data vector and adaptive vector. MOE criterion together with canonical representation of the detector results in a constrained optimization problem. Even though the canonical representation is very complicated under time varying channels, it is analyzed with assumption of average power profile of multipath replicas of user of interest. The performance of both schemes is studied for practical SNR conditions. Results show that for poor SNR, MSE precombining LMMSE is better than the blind precombining LMMSE but for greater SNR, MOE scheme outperforms with better result.

Keywords: LMMSE, MOE, MUD

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3 Blind Channel Estimation Based on URV Decomposition Technique for Uplink of MC-CDMA

Authors: Pradya Pornnimitkul, Suwich Kunaruttanapruk, Bamrung Tau Sieskul, Somchai Jitapunkul

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate a blind channel estimation method for Multi-carrier CDMA systems that use a subspace decomposition technique. This technique exploits the orthogonality property between the noise subspace and the received user codes to obtain channel of each user. In the past we used Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) technique but SVD have most computational complexity so in this paper use a new algorithm called URV Decomposition, which serve as an intermediary between the QR decomposition and SVD, replaced in SVD technique to track the noise space of the received data. Because of the URV decomposition has almost the same estimation performance as the SVD, but has less computational complexity.

Keywords: Channel Estimation, SVD, MC-CDMA, URV

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2 A novel Iterative Approach for Phase Noise Cancellation in Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) Systems

Authors: Joumana Farah, Fran├žois Marx, Clovis Francis

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to emphasize and alleviate the effect of phase noise due to imperfect local oscillators on the performances of a Multi-Carrier CDMA system. After the cancellation of Common Phase Error (CPE), an iterative approach is introduced which iteratively estimates Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI) components in the frequency domain and cancels their contribution in the time domain. Simulation are conducted in order to investigate the achievable performances for several parameters, such as the spreading factor, the modulation order, the phase noise power and the transmission Signal-to-Noise Ratio.

Keywords: phase noise, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, Inter-carrier Interference, Multi-Carrier Code DivisionMultiple Access

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1 Combined Beamforming and Channel Estimation in WCDMA Communication Systems

Authors: Nermin A. Mohamed, Mohamed F. Madkour

Abstract:

We address the problem of joint beamforming and multipath channel parameters estimation in Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) communication systems that employ Multiple-Access Interference (MAI) suppression techniques in the uplink (from mobile to base station). Most of the existing schemes rely on time multiplex a training sequence with the user data. In WCDMA, the channel parameters can also be estimated from a code multiplexed common pilot channel (CPICH) that could be corrupted by strong interference resulting in a bad estimate. In this paper, we present new methods to combine interference suppression together with channel estimation when using multiple receiving antennas by using adaptive signal processing techniques. Computer simulation is used to compare between the proposed methods and the existing conventional estimation techniques.

Keywords: Channel Estimation, Adaptive arrays, interferencecancellation, wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA)

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