**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**577

# Search results for: Blocking probability

##### 577 System Overflow/Blocking Transients For Queues with Batch Arrivals Using a Family of Polynomials Resembling Chebyshev Polynomials

**Authors:**
Vitalice K. Oduol,
C. Ardil

**Abstract:**

The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to note is the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component, which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significance of transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.

**Keywords:**
batch arrivals,
blocking probability,
generalizedChebyshev polynomials,
overflow probability,
queue transientanalysis

##### 576 An Overview of Handoff Techniques in Cellular Networks

**Authors:**
Nasıf Ekiz,
Tara Salih,
Sibel Küçüköner,
Kemal Fidanboylu

**Abstract:**

Continuation of an active call is one of the most important quality measurements in the cellular systems. Handoff process enables a cellular system to provide such a facility by transferring an active call from one cell to another. Different approaches are proposed and applied in order to achieve better handoff service. The principal parameters used to evaluate handoff techniques are: forced termination probability and call blocking probability. The mechanisms such as guard channels and queuing handoff calls decrease the forced termination probability while increasing the call blocking probability. In this paper we present an overview about the issues related to handoff initiation and decision and discuss about different types of handoff techniques available in the literature.

**Keywords:**
Handoff,
Forced Termination Probability,
Blocking probability,
Handoff Initiation,
Handoff Decision,
Handoff Prioritization Schemes.

##### 575 Optimization for Reducing Handoff Latency and Utilization of Bandwidth in ATM Networks

**Authors:**
Pooja,
Megha Kulshrestha,
V. K. Banga,
Parvinder S. Sandhu

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Wireless ATM,
Mobility,
Latency,
Optimization rateand Blocking Probability.

##### 574 Performance Analysis of a Dynamic Channel Reservation-Like Technique for Low Earth Orbit Mobile Satellite Systems

**Authors:**
W. Kiamouche,
S. Lasmari,
M. Benslama

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
cellular layout,
DCR,
LEO mobile satellite system,
mobility model,
positioning system

##### 573 Fault Localization and Alarm Correlation in Optical WDM Networks

**Authors:**
G. Ramesh,
S. Sundara Vadivelu

**Abstract:**

For several high speed networks, providing resilience against failures is an essential requirement. The main feature for designing next generation optical networks is protecting and restoring high capacity WDM networks from the failures. Quick detection, identification and restoration make networks more strong and consistent even though the failures cannot be avoided. Hence, it is necessary to develop fast, efficient and dependable fault localization or detection mechanisms. In this paper we propose a new fault localization algorithm for WDM networks which can identify the location of a failure on a failed lightpath. Our algorithm detects the failed connection and then attempts to reroute data stream through an alternate path. In addition to this, we develop an algorithm to analyze the information of the alarms generated by the components of an optical network, in the presence of a fault. It uses the alarm correlation in order to reduce the list of suspected components shown to the network operators. By our simulation results, we show that our proposed algorithms achieve less blocking probability and delay while getting higher throughput.

**Keywords:**
Alarm correlation,
blocking probability,
delay,
fault localization,
WDM networks.

##### 572 Analysis of Linked in Series Servers with Blocking, Priority Feedback Service and Threshold Policy

**Authors:**
Walenty Oniszczuk

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Blocking,
Congestion control,
Feedback,
Markov
chains,
Performance evaluation,
Threshold-base networks.

##### 571 Discrete Time Optimal Solution for the Connection Admission Control Problem

**Authors:**
C. Bruni,
F. Delli Priscoli,
G. Koch,
I. Marchetti

**Abstract:**

The Connection Admission Control (CAC) problem is formulated in this paper as a discrete time optimal control problem. The control variables account for the acceptance/ rejection of new connections and forced dropping of in-progress connections. These variables are constrained to meet suitable conditions which account for the QoS requirements (Link Availability, Blocking Probability, Dropping Probability). The performance index evaluates the total throughput. At each discrete time, the problem is solved as an integer-valued linear programming one. The proposed procedure was successfully tested against suitably simulated data.

**Keywords:**
Connection Admission Control,
Optimal Control,
Integer valued Linear Programming,
Quality of Service Requirements,
Robust Control.

##### 570 Distributed Detection and Optimal Traffic-blocking of Network Worms

**Authors:**
Zoran Nikoloski,
Narsingh Deo,
Ludek Kucera

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Network worms,
distributed detection,
optimaltraffic-blocking,
individual-based simulation.

##### 569 The Possibility-Probability Relationship for Bloodstream Concentrations of Physiologically Active Substances

**Authors:**
Arkady Bolotin

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Possibility distributions,
possibility-probability relationship.

##### 568 Sensitivity of Input Blocking Capacitor on Output Voltage and Current of a PV Inverter Employing IGBTs

**Authors:**
Z.A. Jaffery,
Vinay Kumar Chandna,
Sunil Kumar Chaudhary

**Abstract:**

This paper present a MATLAB-SIMULINK model of a single phase 2.5 KVA, 240V RMS controlled PV VSI (Photovoltaic Voltage Source Inverter) inverter using IGBTs (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor). The behavior of output voltage, output current, and the total harmonic distortion (THD), with the variation in input dc blocking capacitor (Cdc), for linear and non-linear load has been analyzed. The values of Cdc as suggested by the other authors in their papers are not clearly defined and it poses difficulty in selecting the proper value. As the dc power stored in Cdc, (generally placed parallel with battery) is used as input to the VSI inverter. The simulation results shows the variation in the output voltage and current with different values of Cdc for linear and non-linear load connected at the output side of PV VSI inverter and suggest the selection of suitable value of Cdc.

**Keywords:**
DC Blocking capacitor,
IGBTs,
PV VSI,
THD.

##### 567 Computation of Probability Coefficients using Binary Decision Diagram and their Application in Test Vector Generation

**Authors:**
Ashutosh Kumar Singh,
Anand Mohan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Binary Decision Diagrams,
Spectral Coefficients,
Fault detection

##### 566 Applying Similarity Theory and Hilbert Huang Transform for Estimating the Differences of Pig-s Blood Pressure Signals between Situations of Intestinal Artery Blocking and Unblocking

**Authors:**
Jia-Rong Yeh,
Tzu-Yu Lin,
Jiann-Shing Shieh,
Yun Chen

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Blood pressure,
spectrum,
intestinal artery,
similarity
theory and Hilbert Huang Transform.

##### 565 On the Analysis of Bandwidth Management for Hybrid Load Balancing Scheme in WLANs

**Authors:**
Chutima Prommak,
Airisa Jantaweetip

**Abstract:**

In wireless networks, bandwidth is scare resource and it is essential to utilize it effectively. This paper analyses effects of using different bandwidth management techniques on the network performances of the Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) that use hybrid load balancing scheme. In particular, we study three bandwidth management schemes, namely Complete Sharing (CS), Complete Partitioning (CP), and Partial Sharing (PS). Performances of these schemes are evaluated by simulation experiments in term of percentage of network association blocking. Our results show that the CS scheme can provide relatively low blocking percentage in various network traffic scenarios whereas the PS scheme can enhance quality of services of the multimedia traffic with rather small expenses on the blocking percentage of the best effort traffic.

**Keywords:**
Bandwidth management,
Load Balancing,
WLANs.

##### 564 Determination of Sensitive Transmission Lines Due to the Effect of Protection System Hidden Failure in a Critical System Cascading Collapse

**Authors:**
N. A. Salim,
M. M. Othman,
I. Musirin,
M. S. Serwan

**Abstract:**

Protection system hidden failures have been identified as one of the main causes of system cascading collapse resulting to power system instability. In this paper, a systematic approach is presented in order to identify the probability of a system cascading collapse by taking into consideration the effect of protection system hidden failure. This includes the accurate calculation of the probability of hidden failure as it will provide significant impinge on the findings of the probability of system cascading collapse. The probability of a system cascading collapse is then used to identify the initial tripping of sensitive transmission lines which will contribute to a critical system cascading collapse. Based on the results obtained from this study, it is important to decide on the accurate value of the hidden failure probability as it will affect the probability of a system cascading collapse.

**Keywords:**
Critical system cascading collapse,
hidden failure,
probability of cascading collapse,
sensitive transmission lines.

##### 563 An Approaching Index to Evaluate a forward Collision Probability

**Authors:**
Yuan-Lin Chen

**Abstract:**

This paper presents an approaching forward collision probability index (AFCPI) for alerting and assisting driver in keeping safety distance to avoid the forward collision accident in highway driving. The time to collision (TTC) and time headway (TH) are used to evaluate the TTC forward collision probability index (TFCPI) and the TH forward collision probability index (HFCPI), respectively. The Mamdani fuzzy inference algorithm is presented combining TFCPI and HFCPI to calculate the approaching collision probability index of the vehicle. The AFCPI is easier to understand for the driver who did not even have any professional knowledge in vehicle professional field. At the same time, the driver’s behavior is taken into account for suiting each driver. For the approaching index, the value 0 is indicating the 0% probability of forward collision, and the values 0.5 and 1 are indicating the 50% and 100% probabilities of forward collision, respectively. The AFCPI is useful and easy-to-understand for alerting driver to avoid the forward collision accidents when driving in highway.

**Keywords:**
Approaching index,
forward collision probability,
time to collision,
time headway.

##### 562 Ruin Probability for a Markovian Risk Model with Two-type Claims

**Authors:**
Dongdong Zhang,
Deran Zhang

**Abstract:**

In this paper, a Markovian risk model with two-type claims is considered. In such a risk model, the occurrences of the two type claims are described by two point processes {Ni(t), t ¸ 0}, i = 1, 2, where {Ni(t), t ¸ 0} is the number of jumps during the interval (0, t] for the Markov jump process {Xi(t), t ¸ 0} . The ruin probability ª(u) of a company facing such a risk model is mainly discussed. An integral equation satisfied by the ruin probability ª(u) is obtained and the bounds for the convergence rate of the ruin probability ª(u) are given by using key-renewal theorem.

**Keywords:**
Risk model,
ruin probability,
Markov jump process,
integral equation.

##### 561 Application of Adaptive Genetic Algorithm in Function Optimization

**Authors:**
Panpan Xu,
Shulin Sui

**Abstract:**

The crossover probability and mutation probability are the two important factors in genetic algorithm. The adaptive genetic algorithm can improve the convergence performance of genetic algorithm, in which the crossover probability and mutation probability are adaptively designed with the changes of fitness value. We apply adaptive genetic algorithm into a function optimization problem. The numerical experiment represents that adaptive genetic algorithm improves the convergence speed and avoids local convergence.

**Keywords:**
Genetic algorithm,
Adaptive genetic algorithm,
Function optimization.

##### 560 Design of Non-Blocking and Rearrangeable Modified Banyan Network with Electro-Optic MZI Switching Elements

**Authors:**
Ghanshyam Singh,
Tirtha Pratim Bhattacharjee,
R. P. Yadav,
V. Janyani

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
MZI switch,
Banyan network,
Reconfigurable
switches.

##### 559 Determination of the Best Fit Probability Distribution for Annual Rainfall in Karkheh River at Iran

**Authors:**
Karim Hamidi Machekposhti,
Hossein Sedghi

**Abstract:**

This study was designed to find the best-fit probability distribution of annual rainfall based on 50 years sample (1966-2015) in the Karkheh river basin at Iran using six probability distributions: Normal, 2-Parameter Log Normal, 3-Parameter Log Normal, Pearson Type 3, Log Pearson Type 3 and Gumbel distribution. The best fit probability distribution was selected using Stormwater Management and Design Aid (SMADA) software and based on the Residual Sum of Squares (R.S.S) between observed and estimated values Based on the R.S.S values of fit tests, the Log Pearson Type 3 and then Pearson Type 3 distributions were found to be the best-fit probability distribution at the Jelogir Majin and Pole Zal rainfall gauging station. The annual values of expected rainfall were calculated using the best fit probability distributions and can be used by hydrologists and design engineers in future research at studied region and other region in the world.

**Keywords:**
Log Pearson Type 3,
SMADA,
rainfall,
Karkheh River.

##### 558 A Case Study on the Numerical-Probability Approach for Deep Excavation Analysis

**Authors:**
Komeil Valipourian

**Abstract:**

Urban advances and the growing need for developing infrastructures has increased the importance of deep excavations. In this study, after the introducing probability analysis as an important issue, an attempt has been made to apply it for the deep excavation project of Bangkok’s Metro as a case study. For this, the numerical probability model has been developed based on the Finite Difference Method and Monte Carlo sampling approach. The results indicate that disregarding the issue of probability in this project will result in an inappropriate design of the retaining structure. Therefore, probabilistic redesign of the support is proposed and carried out as one of the applications of probability analysis. A 50% reduction in the flexural strength of the structure increases the failure probability just by 8% in the allowable range and helps improve economic conditions, while maintaining mechanical efficiency. With regard to the lack of efficient design in most deep excavations, by considering geometrical and geotechnical variability, an attempt was made to develop an optimum practical design standard for deep excavations based on failure probability. On this basis, a practical relationship is presented for estimating the maximum allowable horizontal displacement, which can help improve design conditions without developing the probability analysis.

**Keywords:**
Numerical probability modeling,
deep excavation,
allowable maximum displacement,
finite difference method,
FDM.

##### 557 Probability of Globality

**Authors:**
Eva Eggeling,
Dieter W. Fellner,
Torsten Ullrich

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
global optimization,
probability theory,
probability of
globality

##### 556 Approximation for Average Error Probability of BPSK in the Presence of Phase Error

**Authors:**
Yeonsoo Jang,
Dongweon Yoon,
Ki Ho Kwon,
Jaeyoon Lee,
Wooju Lee

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Average error probability,
Phase shift keying,
Phase
error

##### 555 The Giant Component in a Random Subgraph of a Weak Expander

**Authors:**
Yilun Shang

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we investigate the appearance of the giant component in random subgraphs G(p) of a given large finite graph family Gn = (Vn, En) in which each edge is present independently with probability p. We show that if the graph Gn satisfies a weak isoperimetric inequality and has bounded degree, then the probability p under which G(p) has a giant component of linear order with some constant probability is bounded away from zero and one. In addition, we prove the probability of abnormally large order of the giant component decays exponentially. When a contact graph is modeled as Gn, our result is of special interest in the study of the spread of infectious diseases or the identification of community in various social networks.

**Keywords:**
subgraph,
expander,
random graph,
giant component,
percolation.

##### 554 A Markov Chain Model for Load-Balancing Based and Service Based RAT Selection Algorithms in Heterogeneous Networks

**Authors:**
Abdallah Al Sabbagh

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Heterogeneous Wireless Network,
Markov chain
model,
load-balancing based and service based algorithm,
CRRM
algorithms,
Beyond 3G network.

##### 553 An Improved Method to Watermark Images Sensitive to Blocking Artifacts

**Authors:**
Afzel Noore

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Digital watermarking,
data hiding,
modified discretecosine transformation (MDCT).

##### 552 The Locker Problem with Empty Lockers

**Authors:**
David Avis,
Luc Devroye,
Kazuo Iwama

**Abstract:**

We consider a cooperative game played by n players against a referee. The players names are randomly distributed among n lockers, with one name per locker. Each player can open up to half the lockers and each player must find his name. Once the game starts the players may not communicate. It has been previously shown that, quite surprisingly, an optimal strategy exists for which the success probability is never worse than 1 − ln 2 ≈ 0.306. In this paper we consider an extension where the number of lockers is greater than the number of players, so that some lockers are empty. We show that the players may still win with positive probability even if there are a constant k number of empty lockers. We show that for each fixed probability p, there is a constant c so that the players can win with probability at least p if they are allowed to open cn lockers.

**Keywords:**
Locker problem,
pointer-following algorithms.

##### 551 Probabilities and the Persistence of Memory in a Bingo-like Carnival Game

**Authors:**
M. Glomski,
M. Lopes

**Abstract:**

Seemingly simple probabilities in the m-player game bingo have never been calculated. These probabilities include expected game length and the expected number of winners on a given turn. The difficulty in probabilistic analysis lies in the subtle interdependence among the m-many bingo game cards in play. In this paper, the game i got it!, a bingo variant, is considered. This variation provides enough weakening of the inter-player dependence to allow probabilistic analysis not possible for traditional bingo. The probability of winning in exactly k turns is calculated for a one-player game. Given a game of m-many players, the expected game length and tie probability are calculated. With these calculations, the game-s interesting payout scheme is considered.

**Keywords:**
Conditional probability,
games of chance,
npersongames,
probability theory.

##### 550 Simple Procedure for Probability Calculation of Tensile Crack Occurring in Rigid Pavement – Case Study

**Authors:**
Aleš Florian,
Lenka Ševelová,
Jaroslav Žák

**Abstract:**

Formation of tensile cracks in concrete slabs of rigid pavement can be (among others) the initiation point of the other, more serious failures which can ultimately lead to complete degradation of the concrete slab and thus the whole pavement. Two measures can be used for reliability assessment of this phenomenon - the probability of failure and/or the reliability index. Different methods can be used for their calculation. The simple ones are called moment methods and simulation techniques. Two methods - FOSM Method and Simple Random Sampling Method - are verified and their comparison is performed. The influence of information about the probability distribution and the statistical parameters of input variables as well as of the limit state function on the calculated reliability index and failure probability are studied in three points on the lower surface of concrete slabs of the older type of rigid pavement formerly used in the Czech Republic.

**Keywords:**
Failure,
pavement,
probability,
reliability index,
simulation,
tensile crack.

##### 549 Dynamic Admission Control for Quality of Service in IP Networks

**Authors:**
J. Kasigwa,
V. Baryamureeba,
D. Williams

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bandwidth broker,
dynamic admission control(DAC),
IP networks,
quality of service,
real-time flows.

##### 548 Detection of Bias in GPS satellites- Measurements for Enhanced Measurement Integrity

**Authors:**
Mamoun F. Abdel-Hafez

**Abstract:**

In this paper, the detection of a fault in the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement is addressed. The class of faults considered is a bias in the GPS pseudorange measurements. This bias is modeled as an unknown constant. The fault could be the result of a receiver fault or signal fault such as multipath error. A bias bank is constructed based on set of possible fault hypotheses. Initially, there is equal probability of occurrence for any of the biases in the bank. Subsequently, as the measurements are processed, the probability of occurrence for each of the biases is sequentially updated. The fault with a probability approaching unity will be declared as the current fault in the GPS measurement. The residual formed from the GPS and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) measurements is used to update the probability of each fault. Results will be presented to show the performance of the presented algorithm.

**Keywords:**
Estimation and filtering,
Statistical data analysis,
Faultdetection and identification.