Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: Background

43 Dynamic Background Updating for Lightweight Moving Object Detection

Authors: Kelemewerk Destalem, Jungjae Cho, Jaeseong Lee, Ju H. Park, Joonhyuk Yoo

Abstract:

Background subtraction and temporal difference are often used for moving object detection in video. Both approaches are computationally simple and easy to be deployed in real-time image processing. However, while the background subtraction is highly sensitive to dynamic background and illumination changes, the temporal difference approach is poor at extracting relevant pixels of the moving object and at detecting the stopped or slowly moving objects in the scene. In this paper, we propose a simple moving object detection scheme based on adaptive background subtraction and temporal difference exploiting dynamic background updates. The proposed technique consists of histogram equalization, a linear combination of background and temporal difference, followed by the novel frame-based and pixel-based background updating techniques. Finally, morphological operations are applied to the output images. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can solve the drawbacks of both background subtraction and temporal difference methods and can provide better performance than that of each method.

Keywords: Background subtraction, background updating, real time and lightweight algorithm, temporal difference.

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42 Multi-Layer Multi-Feature Background Subtraction Using Codebook Model Framework

Authors: Yun-Tao Zhang, Jong-Yeop Bae, Whoi-Yul Kim

Abstract:

Background modeling and subtraction in video analysis has been widely used as an effective method for moving objects detection in many computer vision applications. Recently, a large number of approaches have been developed to tackle different types of challenges in this field. However, the dynamic background and illumination variations are the most frequently occurred problems in the practical situation. This paper presents a favorable two-layer model based on codebook algorithm incorporated with local binary pattern (LBP) texture measure, targeted for handling dynamic background and illumination variation problems. More specifically, the first layer is designed by block-based codebook combining with LBP histogram and mean value of each RGB color channel. Because of the invariance of the LBP features with respect to monotonic gray-scale changes, this layer can produce block wise detection results with considerable tolerance of illumination variations. The pixel-based codebook is employed to reinforce the precision from the output of the first layer which is to eliminate false positives further. As a result, the proposed approach can greatly promote the accuracy under the circumstances of dynamic background and illumination changes. Experimental results on several popular background subtraction datasets demonstrate very competitive performance compared to previous models.

Keywords: Background subtraction, codebook model, local binary pattern, dynamic background, illumination changes.

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41 Parallel Priority Region Approach to Detect Background

Authors: Sallama Athab, Hala Bahjat, Zhang Yinghui

Abstract:

Background detection is essential in video analyses; optimization is often needed in order to achieve real time calculation. Information gathered by dual cameras placed in the front and rear part of an Autonomous Vehicle (AV) is integrated for background detection. In this paper, real time calculation is achieved on the proposed technique by using Priority Regions (PR) and Parallel Processing together where each frame is divided into regions then and each region process is processed in parallel. PR division depends upon driver view limitations. A background detection system is built on the Temporal Difference (TD) and Gaussian Filtering (GF). Temporal Difference and Gaussian Filtering with multi threshold and sigma (weight) value are be based on PR characteristics. The experiment result is prepared on real scene. Comparison of the speed and accuracy with traditional background detection techniques, the effectiveness of PR and parallel processing are also discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Autonomous Vehicle, Background Detection, Dual Camera, Gaussian Filtering, Parallel Processing.

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40 Semi-automatic Background Detection in Microscopic Images

Authors: Alessandro Bevilacqua, Alessandro Gherardi, Ludovico Carozza, Filippo Piccinini

Abstract:

The last years have seen an increasing use of image analysis techniques in the field of biomedical imaging, in particular in microscopic imaging. The basic step for most of the image analysis techniques relies on a background image free of objects of interest, whether they are cells or histological samples, to perform further analysis, such as segmentation or mosaicing. Commonly, this image consists of an empty field acquired in advance. However, many times achieving an empty field could not be feasible. Or else, this could be different from the background region of the sample really being studied, because of the interaction with the organic matter. At last, it could be expensive, for instance in case of live cell analyses. We propose a non parametric and general purpose approach where the background is built automatically stemming from a sequence of images containing even objects of interest. The amount of area, in each image, free of objects just affects the overall speed to obtain the background. Experiments with different kinds of microscopic images prove the effectiveness of our approach.

Keywords: Microscopy, flat field correction, background estimation, image segmentation.

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39 Video Matting based on Background Estimation

Authors: J.-H. Moon, D.-O Kim, R.-H. Park

Abstract:

This paper presents a video matting method, which extracts the foreground and alpha matte from a video sequence. The objective of video matting is finding the foreground and compositing it with the background that is different from the one in the original image. By finding the motion vectors (MVs) using a sliced block matching algorithm (SBMA), we can extract moving regions from the video sequence under the assumption that the foreground is moving and the background is stationary. In practice, foreground areas are not moving through all frames in an image sequence, thus we accumulate moving regions through the image sequence. The boundaries of moving regions are found by Canny edge detector and the foreground region is separated in each frame of the sequence. Remaining regions are defined as background regions. Extracted backgrounds in each frame are combined and reframed as an integrated single background. Based on the estimated background, we compute the frame difference (FD) of each frame. Regions with the FD larger than the threshold are defined as foreground regions, boundaries of foreground regions are defined as unknown regions and the rest of regions are defined as backgrounds. Segmentation information that classifies an image into foreground, background, and unknown regions is called a trimap. Matting process can extract an alpha matte in the unknown region using pixel information in foreground and background regions, and estimate the values of foreground and background pixels in unknown regions. The proposed video matting approach is adaptive and convenient to extract a foreground automatically and to composite a foreground with a background that is different from the original background.

Keywords: Background estimation, Object segmentation, Blockmatching algorithm, Video matting.

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38 Extracting Human Body based on Background Estimation in Modified HLS Color Space

Authors: Jang-Hee Yoo, Doosung Hwang, Jong-Wook Han, Ki-Young Moon

Abstract:

The ability to recognize humans and their activities by computer vision is a very important task, with many potential application. Study of human motion analysis is related to several research areas of computer vision such as the motion capture, detection, tracking and segmentation of people. In this paper, we describe a segmentation method for extracting human body contour in modified HLS color space. To estimate a background, the modified HLS color space is proposed, and the background features are estimated by using the HLS color components. Here, the large amount of human dataset, which was collected from DV cameras, is pre-processed. The human body and its contour is successfully extracted from the image sequences.

Keywords: Background Subtraction, Human Silhouette Extraction, HLS Color Space, and Object Segmentation

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37 Fast Algorithm of Infrared Point Target Detection in Fluctuant Background

Authors: Yang Weiping, Zhang Zhilong, Li Jicheng, Chen Zengping, He Jun

Abstract:

The background estimation approach using a small window median filter is presented on the bases of analyzing IR point target, noise and clutter model. After simplifying the two-dimensional filter, a simple method of adopting one-dimensional median filter is illustrated to make estimations of background according to the characteristics of IR scanning system. The adaptive threshold is used to segment canceled image in the background. Experimental results show that the algorithm achieved good performance and satisfy the requirement of big size image-s real-time processing.

Keywords: Point target, background estimation, median filter, adaptive threshold, target detection.

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36 Toward Indoor and Outdoor Surveillance Using an Improved Fast Background Subtraction Algorithm

Authors: A. El Harraj, N. Raissouni

Abstract:

The detection of moving objects from a video image sequences is very important for object tracking, activity recognition, and behavior understanding in video surveillance. The most used approach for moving objects detection / tracking is background subtraction algorithms. Many approaches have been suggested for background subtraction. But, these are illumination change sensitive and the solutions proposed to bypass this problem are time consuming. In this paper, we propose a robust yet computationally efficient background subtraction approach and, mainly, focus on the ability to detect moving objects on dynamic scenes, for possible applications in complex and restricted access areas monitoring, where moving and motionless persons must be reliably detected. It consists of three main phases, establishing illumination changes invariance, background/foreground modeling and morphological analysis for noise removing. We handle illumination changes using Contrast Limited Histogram Equalization (CLAHE), which limits the intensity of each pixel to user determined maximum. Thus, it mitigates the degradation due to scene illumination changes and improves the visibility of the video signal. Initially, the background and foreground images are extracted from the video sequence. Then, the background and foreground images are separately enhanced by applying CLAHE. In order to form multi-modal backgrounds we model each channel of a pixel as a mixture of K Gaussians (K=5) using Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). Finally, we post process the resulting binary foreground mask using morphological erosion and dilation transformations to remove possible noise. For experimental test, we used a standard dataset to challenge the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method on a diverse set of dynamic scenes.

Keywords: Video surveillance, background subtraction, Contrast Limited Histogram Equalization, illumination invariance, object tracking, object detection, behavior understanding, dynamic scenes.

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35 Moving Vehicles Detection Using Automatic Background Extraction

Authors: Saad M. Al-Garni, Adel A. Abdennour

Abstract:

Vehicle detection is the critical step for highway monitoring. In this paper we propose background subtraction and edge detection technique for vehicle detection. This technique uses the advantages of both approaches. The practical applications approved the effectiveness of this method. This method consists of two procedures: First, automatic background extraction procedure, in which the background is extracted automatically from the successive frames; Second vehicles detection procedure, which depend on edge detection and background subtraction. Experimental results show the effective application of this algorithm. Vehicles detection rate was higher than 91%.

Keywords: Image processing, Automatic background extraction, Moving vehicle detection.

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34 A Background Subtraction Based Moving Object Detection around the Host Vehicle

Authors: Hyojin Lim, Cuong Nguyen Khac, Ho-Youl Jung

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose moving object detection method which is helpful for driver to safely take his/her car out of parking lot. When moving objects such as motorbikes, pedestrians, the other cars and some obstacles are detected at the rear-side of host vehicle, the proposed algorithm can provide to driver warning. We assume that the host vehicle is just before departure. Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) based background subtraction is basically applied. Pre-processing such as smoothing and post-processing as morphological filtering are added. We examine “which color space has better performance for detection of moving objects?” Three color spaces including RGB, YCbCr, and Y are applied and compared, in terms of detection rate. Through simulation, we prove that RGB space is more suitable for moving object detection based on background subtraction.

Keywords: Gaussian mixture model, background subtraction, Moving object detection, color space, morphological filtering.

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33 A Recognition Method for Spatio-Temporal Background in Korean Historical Novels

Authors: Seo-Hee Kim, Kee-Won Kim, Seung-Hoon Kim

Abstract:

The most important elements of a novel are the characters, events and background. The background represents the time, place and situation that character appears, and conveys event and atmosphere more realistically. If readers have the proper knowledge about background of novels, it may be helpful for understanding the atmosphere of a novel and choosing a novel that readers want to read. In this paper, we are targeting Korean historical novels because spatio-temporal background especially performs an important role in historical novels among the genre of Korean novels. To the best of our knowledge, we could not find previous study that was aimed at Korean novels. In this paper, we build a Korean historical national dictionary. Our dictionary has historical places and temple names of kings over many generations as well as currently existing spatial words or temporal words in Korean history. We also present a method for recognizing spatio-temporal background based on patterns of phrasal words in Korean sentences. Our rules utilize postposition for spatial background recognition and temple names for temporal background recognition. The knowledge of the recognized background can help readers to understand the flow of events and atmosphere, and can use to visualize the elements of novels.

Keywords: Data mining, Korean historical novels, Korean linguistic feature, spatio-temporal background.

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32 A View of Flexible Housing in China

Authors: Shanshan Li

Abstract:

Beginning with the debate of concept, this essay explains the historical source and development of flexible housing in China. In the former part, the flexibility contained in traditional house is explored. While in the latter, the relevant practices in modern times are systematically analyzed as three phases–the Embryonic Period (1949 - 1980), the Systematic Practice (1981 - 2000), as well as the Integrated Trend and Prosperity (2001 - present). As a conclusion, the generalized flexibility is tentatively discussed.

Keywords: Flexibility, Long-term effectiveness, Variety, Social background.

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31 Smart Surveillance using PDA

Authors: Basem Mustafa Abd. Amer , Syed Abdul Rahman Al-Attas

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to develop a fast and reliable surveillance system based on a personal digital assistant (PDA) device. This is to extend the capability of the device to detect moving objects which is already available in personal computers. Secondly, to compare the performance between Background subtraction (BS) and Temporal Frame Differencing (TFD) techniques for PDA platform as to which is more suitable. In order to reduce noise and to prepare frames for the moving object detection part, each frame is first converted to a gray-scale representation and then smoothed using a Gaussian low pass filter. Two moving object detection schemes i.e., BS and TFD have been analyzed. The background frame is updated by using Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter so that the background frame is adapted to the varying illuminate conditions and geometry settings. In order to reduce the effect of noise pixels resulting from frame differencing morphological filters erosion and dilation are applied. In this research, it has been found that TFD technique is more suitable for motion detection purpose than the BS in term of speed. On average TFD is approximately 170 ms faster than the BS technique

Keywords: Surveillance, PDA, Motion Detection, ImageProcessing , Background Subtraction.

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30 Low Cost Real Time Robust Identification of Impulsive Signals

Authors: R. Biondi, G. Dys, G. Ferone, T. Renard, M. Zysman

Abstract:

This paper describes an automated implementable system for impulsive signals detection and recognition. The system uses a Digital Signal Processing device for the detection and identification process. Here the system analyses the signals in real time in order to produce a particular response if needed. The system analyses the signals in real time in order to produce a specific output if needed. Detection is achieved through normalizing the inputs and comparing the read signals to a dynamic threshold and thus avoiding detections linked to loud or fluctuating environing noise. Identification is done through neuronal network algorithms. As a setup our system can receive signals to “learn” certain patterns. Through “learning” the system can recognize signals faster, inducing flexibility to new patterns similar to those known. Sound is captured through a simple jack input, and could be changed for an enhanced recording surface such as a wide-area recorder. Furthermore a communication module can be added to the apparatus to send alerts to another interface if needed.

Keywords: Sound Detection, Impulsive Signal, Background Noise, Neural Network.

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29 Theoretical Background of Dividend Taxation

Authors: Margareta Ilkova, Petr Teply

Abstract:

The article deals with dividends and their distribution from investors from a theoretical point of view. Some studies try to analyzed the reaction of the market on the dividend announcement and found out the change of dividend policy is associated with abnormal returns around the dividend announcement date. Another researches directly questioned the investors about their dividend preference and beliefs. Investors want the dividend from many reasons (e.g. some of them explain the dividend preference by the existence of transaction cost; investors prefer the dividend today, because there is less risky; the managers have private information about the firm). The most controversial theory of dividend policy was developed by Modigliani and Miller (1961) who demonstrated that in the perfect and complete capital markets the dividend policy is irrelevant and the value of the company is independent of its payout policy. Nevertheless, in the real world the capital markets are imperfect, because of asymmetric information, transaction costs, incomplete contracting possibilities and taxes.

Keywords: dividend distribution, taxation, payout policy, investor, Modigliani and Miller theorem

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28 Human Action Recognition System Based on Silhouette

Authors: S. Maheswari, P. Arockia Jansi Rani

Abstract:

Human action is recognized directly from the video sequences. The objective of this work is to recognize various human actions like run, jump, walk etc. Human action recognition requires some prior knowledge about actions namely, the motion estimation, foreground and background estimation. Region of interest (ROI) is extracted to identify the human in the frame. Then, optical flow technique is used to extract the motion vectors. Using the extracted features similarity measure based classification is done to recognize the action. From experimentations upon the Weizmann database, it is found that the proposed method offers a high accuracy.

Keywords: Background subtraction, human silhouette, optical flow, classification.

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27 Intelligent Video-Based Monitoring of Freeway Traffic

Authors: Saad M. Al-Garni, Adel A. Abdennour

Abstract:

Freeways are originally designed to provide high mobility to road users. However, the increase in population and vehicle numbers has led to increasing congestions around the world. Daily recurrent congestion substantially reduces the freeway capacity when it is most needed. Building new highways and expanding the existing ones is an expensive solution and impractical in many situations. Intelligent and vision-based techniques can, however, be efficient tools in monitoring highways and increasing the capacity of the existing infrastructures. The crucial step for highway monitoring is vehicle detection. In this paper, we propose one of such techniques. The approach is based on artificial neural networks (ANN) for vehicles detection and counting. The detection process uses the freeway video images and starts by automatically extracting the image background from the successive video frames. Once the background is identified, subsequent frames are used to detect moving objects through image subtraction. The result is segmented using Sobel operator for edge detection. The ANN is, then, used in the detection and counting phase. Applying this technique to the busiest freeway in Riyadh (King Fahd Road) achieved higher than 98% detection accuracy despite the light intensity changes, the occlusion situations, and shadows.

Keywords: Background Extraction, Neural Networks, VehicleDetection, Freeway Traffic.

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26 PM10 Chemical Characteristics in a Background Site at the Universidad Libre Bogotá

Authors: Laura X. Martinez, Andrés F. Rodríguez, Ruth A. Catacoli

Abstract:

One of the most important factors for air pollution is that the concentrations of PM10 maintain a constant trend, with the exception of some places where that frequently surpasses the allowed ranges established by Colombian legislation. The community that surrounds the Universidad Libre Bogotá is inhabited by a considerable number of students and workers, all of whom are possibly being exposed to PM10 for long periods of time while on campus. Thus, the chemical characterization of PM10 found in the ambient air at the Universidad Libre Bogotá was identified as a problem. A Hi-Vol sampler and EPA Test Method 5 were used to determine if the quality of air is adequate for the human respiratory system. Additionally, quartz fiber filters were utilized during sampling. Samples were taken three days a week during a dry period throughout the months of November and December 2015. The gravimetric analysis method was used to determine PM10 concentrations. The chemical characterization includes non-conventional carcinogenic pollutants. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) was used for the determination of metals and VOCs were analyzed using the FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) method. In this way, concentrations of PM10, ranging from values of 13 µg/m3 to 66 µg/m3, were obtained; these values were below standard conditions. This evidence concludes that the PM10 concentrations during an exposure period of 24 hours are lower than the values established by Colombian law, Resolution 610 of 2010; however, when comparing these with the limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO), these concentrations could possibly exceed permissible levels.

Keywords: Air quality, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particulate matter.

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25 An Analysis of Language Borrowing among Algerian University Students Using Online Facebook Conversations

Authors: Messaouda Annab

Abstract:

The rapid development of technology has led to an important context in which different languages and structures are used in the same conversations. This paper investigates the practice of language borrowing within social media platform, namely, Facebook among Algerian Vernacular Arabic (AVA) students. In other words, this study will explore how Algerian students have incorporated lexical English borrowing in their online conversations. This paper will examine the relationships between language, culture and identity among a multilingual group. The main objective is to determine the cultural and linguistic functions that borrowing fulfills in social media and to explain the possible factors underlying English borrowing. The nature of the study entails the use of an online research method that includes ten online Facebook conversations in the form of private messages collected from Bachelor and Masters Algerian students recruited from the English department at the University of Oum El-Bouaghi. The analysis of data revealed that social media platform provided the users with opportunities to shift from one language to another. This practice was noticed in students’ online conversations. English borrowing was the most relevant language performance in accordance with Arabic which is the mother tongue of the chosen sample. The analysis has assumed that participants are skilled in more than one language.

Keywords: Borrowing, language performance, linguistic background, social media.

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24 Adaptive Block State Update Method for Separating Background

Authors: Youngsuck Ji, Youngjoon Han, Hernsoo Hahn

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed the robust mobile object detection method for light effect in the night street image block based updating reference background model using block state analysis. Experiment image is acquired sequence color video from steady camera. When suddenly appeared artificial illumination, reference background model update this information such as street light, sign light. Generally natural illumination is change by temporal, but artificial illumination is suddenly appearance. So in this paper for exactly detect artificial illumination have 2 state process. First process is compare difference between current image and reference background by block based, it can know changed blocks. Second process is difference between current image-s edge map and reference background image-s edge map, it possible to estimate illumination at any block. This information is possible to exactly detect object, artificial illumination and it was generating reference background more clearly. Block is classified by block-state analysis. Block-state has a 4 state (i.e. transient, stationary, background, artificial illumination). Fig. 1 is show characteristic of block-state respectively [1]. Experimental results show that the presented approach works well in the presence of illumination variance.

Keywords: Block-state, Edge component, Reference backgroundi, Artificial illumination.

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23 Evaluation of the Acoustic Performance of Classrooms in Algerian Teaching Schools

Authors: Bouttout Abdelouahab, Amara Mohamed, Djakabe Saad, Remram Youcef

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an evaluation of acoustic comfort such as background noise and reverberation time in teaching rooms in Height National School of Civil Engineering, Algeria. Four teaching rooms are evaluated: conference room, two classroom and amphitheatre. The acoustic quality of the classrooms has been analyzed based on measurements of sound pressure level inside room and reverberations time. The measurement results show that impulse decays dependent on the position of the microphone inside room and the background noise is with agreement of National Official Journal of Algeria published in July 1993. Therefore there exists a discrepancy between the obtained reverberation time value and recommended reverberation time in some classrooms. Three methods have been proposed to reduce the reverberation time values in such room. We developed a program with FORTRAN 6.0 language based on the absorption acoustic values of the Technical Document Regulation (DTR C3.1.1). The important results of this paper can be used to regulate the construction and execute the acoustic rehabilitations of teaching room in Algeria, especially the classrooms of the pupils in primary and secondary schools.

Keywords: Room acoustic, reverberation time, background noise, absorptions materials.

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22 Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of a HPGe Detector Shield

Authors: M. Sharifi, M. Mirzaii, F. Bolourinovin, H. Yousefnia, M. Akbari, K. Yousefi-Mojir

Abstract:

A multilayer passive shield composed of low-activity lead (Pb), copper (Cu), tin (Sn) and iron (Fe) was designed and manufactured for a coaxial HPGe detector placed at a surface laboratory for reducing background radiation and radiation dose to the personnel. The performance of the shield was evaluated and efficiency curves of the detector were plotted by using of various standard sources in different distances. Monte Carlo simulations and a set of TLD chips were used for dose estimation in two distances of 20 and 40 cm. The results show that the shield reduced background spectrum and the personnel dose more than 95%.

Keywords: HPGe shield, background count, personnel dose, efficiency curve.

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21 Improving E-Government Services for Non- English Speaking Background (NESB) Communities in Australia

Authors: M. Mohammad, Y-C Lan

Abstract:

Australian government agencies have a natural desire to provide migrants a wide range of opportunities. Consequently, government online services should be equally available to migrants with a non-English speaking background (NESB). Despite the commendable efforts of governments and local agencies in Australia to provide such services, in reality, many NESB communities are not taking advantage of these services. This article–based on an extensive case study regarding the use of online government services by the Arabic NESB community in Australia–reports on the possible reasons for this issue, as well as suggestions for improvement. The conclusion is that Australia should implement ICT-based or e-government policies, programmes, and services that more accurately reflect migrant cultures and languages so that migrant integration can be more fully accomplished. Specifically, this article presents an NESB Model that adopts the value of usercentricity or a more individual-focused approach to government online services in Australia.

Keywords: Barriers to use, e-government, ICT, NESB community, online services.

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20 The Study of Internship Performances: Comparison of Information Technology Interns towards Students’ Types and Background Profiles

Authors: Shutchapol Chopvitayakun

Abstract:

Internship program is a compulsory course of many undergraduate programs in Thailand. It gives opportunities to a lot of senior students as interns to practice their working skills in the real organizations and also gives chances for interns to face real-world working problems. Interns also learn how to solve those problems by direct and indirect experiences. This program in many schools is a well-structured course with a contract or agreement made with real business organizations. Moreover, this program also offers opportunities for interns to get jobs after completing it from where the internship program takes place. Interns also learn how to work as a team and how to associate with other colleagues, trainers, and superiors of each organization in term of social hierarchy, self-responsibility, and self-disciplinary. This research focuses on senior students of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand whose studying major is information technology program. They practiced their working skills or took internship programs in the real business sector or real operating organizations in 2015-2016. Interns are categorized in to two types: normal program and special program. For special program, students study in weekday evening from Monday to Friday or Weekend and most of them work full-time or part-time job. For normal program, students study in weekday working hours and most of them do not work. The differences of these characters and the outcomes of internship performance were studied and analyzed in this research. This work applied some statistical analytics to find out whether the internship performance of each intern type has different performances statistically or not.

Keywords: Internship, intern, senior student, information technology program.

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19 Robust Adaptation to Background Noise in Multichannel C-OTDR Monitoring Systems

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev, Viktor M. Denisov

Abstract:

A robust sequential nonparametric method is proposed for adaptation to background noise parameters for real-time. The distribution of background noise was modelled like to Huber contamination mixture. The method is designed to operate as an adaptation-unit, which is included inside a detection subsystem of an integrated multichannel monitoring system. The proposed method guarantees the given size of a nonasymptotic confidence set for noise parameters. Properties of the suggested method are rigorously proved. The proposed algorithm has been successfully tested in real conditions of a functioning C-OTDR monitoring system, which was designed to monitor railways.

Keywords: Guaranteed estimation, multichannel monitoring systems, non-asymptotic confidence set, contamination mixture.

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18 Radiation Workers’ Occupational Doses: Are We Really Careful or Overconscious

Authors: Sajjad A. Memon, Sadaf T. Qureshi, Naeem A. Laghari, Noor M. Khuhro

Abstract:

The present study represents the occupational radiation doses received by selected workers of Nuclear Institute of Medicine and Radiotherapy (NIMRA) Jamshoro Pakistan and conducted to discuss about how we be careful and try to avoid make ourselves overconscious. Film badges with unique identification number were issued to radiation worker to detect occupational radiation doses. In this study, only 08 workers with high radiation doses were assessed amongst 35 radiation workers during the period of January 2012 to December 2012. The selected radiation workers’ occupational doses were according to designated work areas and in the range of 1.21 to 7.78 mSv (mili Sieveret) out of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv. By the comparison of different studies and earth’s HNBR (High Natural Background Radiation) locations’ doses, it is concluded that the worker’s high doses are of magnitude of HNBR Regions and were in the acceptable range of National and International regulatory bodies so we must not to show any type of overconsciousness but be careful in handling the radioactive sources.

Keywords: Natural background radiation, Occupational dose, Overconscious, Personal monitoring.

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17 Problems Occurring in the Process of Audit by Taking into Consideration their Theoretic Aspects against the Background of Reforms Conducted in a Country: The Example of Georgia

Authors: Levan Sabauri

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is an examination of the meaning of theoretic aspects of audit in the context of solving of specific problems of the audit. The audit’s aim is the estimation of financial statements by the auditor, i.e. if they are prepared according to the basic requirements of current financial statements. By examination of concrete examples, we can clearly see problems created in an audit and in often cases, those contradictions which can be caused by incompliance of matters regulated by legislation and by reality. An important part of this work is the analysis of reform in the direction of business accounting, statements and audit in Georgia and its comparison with EU countries. In the article, attention is concentrated on the analysis of specific problems of auditing practice and ways of their solving by taking into consideration theoretical aspects of the audit are proposed.

Keywords: Audit, auditor, auditor’s ethic code, auditor’s risk, financial statement, objectivity.

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16 Using HMM-based Classifier Adapted to Background Noises with Improved Sounds Features for Audio Surveillance Application

Authors: Asma Rabaoui, Zied Lachiri, Noureddine Ellouze

Abstract:

Discrimination between different classes of environmental sounds is the goal of our work. The use of a sound recognition system can offer concrete potentialities for surveillance and security applications. The first paper contribution to this research field is represented by a thorough investigation of the applicability of state-of-the-art audio features in the domain of environmental sound recognition. Additionally, a set of novel features obtained by combining the basic parameters is introduced. The quality of the features investigated is evaluated by a HMM-based classifier to which a great interest was done. In fact, we propose to use a Multi-Style training system based on HMMs: one recognizer is trained on a database including different levels of background noises and is used as a universal recognizer for every environment. In order to enhance the system robustness by reducing the environmental variability, we explore different adaptation algorithms including Maximum Likelihood Linear Regression (MLLR), Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) and the MAP/MLLR algorithm that combines MAP and MLLR. Experimental evaluation shows that a rather good recognition rate can be reached, even under important noise degradation conditions when the system is fed by the convenient set of features.

Keywords: Sounds recognition, HMM classifier, Multi-style training, Environmental Adaptation, Feature combinations.

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15 Moving Area Filter to Detect Object in Video Sequence from Moving Platform

Authors: Sallama Athab, Hala Bahjat

Abstract:

Detecting object in video sequence is a challenging mission for identifying, tracking moving objects. Background removal considered as a basic step in detected moving objects tasks. Dual static cameras placed in front and rear moving platform gathered information which is used to detect objects. Background change regarding with speed and direction moving platform, so moving objects distinguished become complicated. In this paper, we propose framework allows detection moving object with variety of speed and direction dynamically. Object detection technique built on two levels the first level apply background removal and edge detection to generate moving areas. The second level apply Moving Areas Filter (MAF) then calculate Correlation Score (CS) for adjusted moving area. Merging moving areas with closer CS and marked as moving object. Experiment result is prepared on real scene acquired by dual static cameras without overlap in sense. Results showing accuracy in detecting objects compared with optical flow and Mixture Module Gaussian (MMG), Accurate ratio produced to measure accurate detection moving object.

Keywords: Background Removal, Correlation, Mixture Module Gaussian, Moving Platform, Object Detection.

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14 Facial Expressions Recognition from Complex Background using Face Context and Adaptively Weighted sub-Pattern PCA

Authors: Md. Zahangir Alom, Mei-Lan Piao, Md. Ashraful Alam, Nam Kim, Jae-Hyeung Park

Abstract:

A new approach for facial expressions recognition based on face context and adaptively weighted sub-pattern PCA (Aw-SpPCA) has been presented in this paper. The facial region and others part of the body have been segmented from the complex environment based on skin color model. An algorithm has been proposed to accurate detection of face region from the segmented image based on constant ratio of height and width of face (δ= 1.618). The paper also discusses on new concept to detect the eye and mouth position. The desired part of the face has been cropped to analysis the expression of a person. Unlike PCA based on a whole image pattern, Aw-SpPCA operates directly on its sub patterns partitioned from an original whole pattern and separately extracts features from them. Aw-SpPCA can adaptively compute the contributions of each part and a classification task in order to enhance the robustness to both expression and illumination variations. Experiments on single standard face with five types of facial expression database shows that the proposed method is competitive.

Keywords: Aw-SpPC, Expressoin Recognition, Face context, Face Detection, PCA

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