Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 154

Search results for: Arrack Drinking Patterns

154 Socio-Demographic Status and Arrack Drinking Patterns among Muslim, Hindu, Santal and Oraon Communities in Rasulpur Union,Bangladesh: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

Authors: Md. Emaj Uddin

Abstract:

Arrack is one of the forms of alcoholic beverage or liquor which is produced from palm or date juice and commonly consumed by the lower social class of all religious/ethnic communities in the north-western villages of Bangladesh. The purpose of the study was to compare arrack drinking patterns associated with socio-demographic status among the Muslim, Hindu, Santal, and Oraon communities in the Rasulpur union of Bangladesh. A total of 391 respondents (Muslim n-109, Hindu n-103, Santal n-89, Oraon n-90) selected by cluster random sampling were interviewed by ADP (Arrack Drinking Pattern) questionnaire. The results of Pearson Chi-Squire test revealed that arrack drinking patterns were significantly differed among the Muslim, Hindu, Santal, and Oraon communities- drinkers. In addition, the results of Spearman-s bivariate correlation coefficients also revealed that sociodemographic characteristics of the communities- drinkers were the significantly positive and negative associations with the arrack drinking patterns in the Rasulpur union, Bangladesh. The study suggests that further cross-cultural researches should be conducted on the consequences of arrack drinking patterns on the communities- drinkers.

Keywords: Arrack Drinking Patterns, Bangladesh, Community, Cross-Cultural Comparison, Socio-Demographic Status.

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153 Incidence of Trihalogenmethanes in Drinking Water

Authors: Frantisek Bozek, Lenka Jesonkova, Jiri Dvorak

Abstract:

Trihalogenmethanes are the most significant byproducts of the reaction of disinfection agent with organic precursors naturally present in ground and surface waters.Their incidence negatively affects the quality of drinking water in relation to their nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic and genotoxic effects on human health. Taking into consideration the considerable volatility of monitored contaminants it could be assumed that their incidence in drinking water would depend on the distance of sampling from the area of disinfection. Based on the concentration of trihalogenmethanes determined with the help of gas chromatography with mass detector and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) such dependence has been proved as statistically significant. The acquired outcomes will be used for assessing the non-carcinogenic and genotoxic risks to consumers.

Keywords: disinfection byproducts, drinking water, trihalogenmethanes

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152 The Removal of As(V) from Drinking Waters by Coagulation Process using Iron Salts

Authors: M. Donmez, F. Akbal

Abstract:

In this study arsenate [As(V)] removal from drinking water by coagulation process was investigated. Ferric chloride (FeCl3.6H2O) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4.7H2O) were used as coagulant. The effects of major operating variables such as coagulant dose (1–30 mg/L) and pH (5.5–9.5) were investigated. Ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate were found as effective and reliable coagulant due to required dose, residual arsenate and coagulant concentration. Optimum pH values for maximum arsenate removal for ferrous sulfate and ferric chloride were found as 8 and 7.5. The arsenate removal efficiency decreased at neutral and acidic pH values for Fe(II) and at the high acidic and high alkaline pH for Fe(III). It was found that the increase of coagulant dose caused a substantial increase in the arsenate removal. But above a certain ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate dosage, the increase in arsenate removal was not significant. Ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate dose above 8 mg/L slightly increased arsenate removal.

Keywords: Arsenic removal, coagulation, ıron salts, drinking water.

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151 Fault Detection of Drinking Water Treatment Process Using PCA and Hotelling's T2 Chart

Authors: Joval P George, Dr. Zheng Chen, Philip Shaw

Abstract:

This paper deals with the application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the Hotelling-s T2 Chart, using data collected from a drinking water treatment process. PCA is applied primarily for the dimensional reduction of the collected data. The Hotelling-s T2 control chart was used for the fault detection of the process. The data was taken from a United Utilities Multistage Water Treatment Works downloaded from an Integrated Program Management (IPM) dashboard system. The analysis of the results show that Multivariate Statistical Process Control (MSPC) techniques such as PCA, and control charts such as Hotelling-s T2, can be effectively applied for the early fault detection of continuous multivariable processes such as Drinking Water Treatment. The software package SIMCA-P was used to develop the MSPC models and Hotelling-s T2 Chart from the collected data.

Keywords: Principal component analysis, hotelling's t2 chart, multivariate statistical process control, drinking water treatment.

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150 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability for Drinking and Agricultural Purposes Using Self-Organizing Maps

Authors: L. Belkhiri, L. Mouni, A. Tiri, T.S. Narany

Abstract:

In the present study, the self-organizing map (SOM) clustering technique was applied to identify homogeneous clusters of hydrochemical parameters in El Milia plain, Algeria, to assess the quality of groundwater for potable and agricultural purposes. The visualization of SOM-analysis indicated that 35 groundwater samples collected in the study area were classified into three clusters, which showed progressive increase in electrical conductivity from cluster one to cluster three. Samples belonging to cluster one are mostly located in the recharge zone showing hard fresh water type, however, water type gradually changed to hard-brackish type in the discharge zone, including clusters two and three. Ionic ratio studies indicated the role of carbonate rock dissolution in increases on groundwater hardness, especially in cluster one. However, evaporation and evapotranspiration are the main processes increasing salinity in cluster two and three.

Keywords: Drinking water, groundwater quality, irrigation water, self-organizing maps.

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149 CAGE Questionnaire as a Screening Tool for Hazardous Drinking in an Acute Admissions Ward: Frequency of Application and Comparison with AUDIT-C Questionnaire

Authors: Ammar Ayad Issa Al-Rifaie, Zuhreya Muazu, Maysam Ali Abdulwahid, Dermot Gleeson

Abstract:

The aim of this audit was to examine the efficiency of alcohol history documentation and screening for hazardous drinkers at the Medical Admission Unit (MAU) of Northern General Hospital (NGH), Sheffield, to identify any potential for enhancing clinical practice. Data were collected from medical clerking sheets, ICE system and directly from 82 patients by three junior medical doctors using both CAGE questionnaire and AUDIT-C tool for newly admitted patients to MAU in NGH, in the period between January and March 2015. Alcohol consumption was documented in around two-third of the patient sample and this was documented fairly accurately by health care professionals. Some used subjective words such as 'social drinking' in the alcohol units’ section of the history. CAGE questionnaire was applied to only four patients and none of the patients had documented advice, education or referral to an alcohol liaison team. AUDIT-C tool had identified 30.4%, while CAGE 10.9%, of patients admitted to the NGH MAU as hazardous drinkers. The amount of alcohol the patient consumes positively correlated with the score of AUDIT-C (Pearson correlation 0.83). Re-audit is planned to be carried out after integrating AUDIT-C tool as labels in the notes and presenting a brief teaching session to junior doctors. Alcohol misuse screening is not adequately undertaken and no appropriate action is being offered to hazardous drinkers. CAGE questionnaire is poorly applied to patients and when satisfactory and adequately used has low sensitivity to detect hazardous drinkers in comparison with AUDIT-C tool. Re-audit of alcohol screening practice after introducing AUDIT-C tool in clerking sheets (as labels) is required to compare the findings and conclude the audit cycle.

Keywords: Alcohol screening, AUDIT-C, CAGE, Hazardous drinking.

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148 Assessment of Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plants as Removal Systems of Virulent Microsporidia

Authors: M. A. Gad, A. Z. Al-Herrawy

Abstract:

Microsporidia comprises various pathogenic species can infect humans by means of water. Moreover, chlorine disinfection of drinking-water has limitations against this protozoan pathogen. A total of 48 water samples were collected from two drinking water treatment plants having two different filtration systems (slow sand filter and rapid sand filter) during one year period. Samples were collected from inlet and outlet of each plant. Samples were separately filtrated through nitrocellulose membrane (142 mm, 0.45 µm), then eluted and centrifuged. The obtained pellet from each sample was subjected to DNA extraction, then, amplification using genus-specific primer for microsporidia. Each microsporidia-PCR positive sample was performed by two species specific primers for Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis. The results of the present study showed that the percentage of removal for microsporidia through different treatment processes reached its highest rate in the station using slow sand filters (100%), while the removal by rapid sand filter system was 81.8%. Statistically, the two different drinking water treatment plants (slow and rapid) had significant effect for removal of microsporidia. Molecular identification of microsporidia-PCR positive samples using two different primers for Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis showed the presence of the two pervious species in the inlet water of the two stations, while Encephalitozoon intestinalis was detected in the outlet water only. In conclusion, the appearance of virulent microsporidia in treated drinking water may cause potential health threat.

Keywords: Removal, efficacy, microsporidia, drinking water treatment plants, PCR.

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147 Multivariate Analytical Insights into Spatial and Temporal Variation in Water Quality of a Major Drinking Water Reservoir

Authors: Azadeh Golshan, Craig Evans, Phillip Geary, Abigail Morrow, Zoe Rogers, Marcel Maeder

Abstract:

22 physicochemical variables have been determined in water samples collected weekly from January to December in 2013 from three sampling stations located within a major drinking water reservoir. Classical Multivariate Curve Resolution Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) analysis was used to investigate the environmental factors associated with the physico-chemical variability of the water samples at each of the sampling stations. Matrix augmentation MCR-ALS (MA-MCR-ALS) was also applied, and the two sets of results were compared for interpretative clarity. Links between these factors, reservoir inflows and catchment land-uses were investigated and interpreted in relation to chemical composition of the water and their resolved geographical distribution profiles. The results suggested that the major factors affecting reservoir water quality were those associated with agricultural runoff, with evidence of influence on algal photosynthesis within the water column. Water quality variability within the reservoir was also found to be strongly linked to physical parameters such as water temperature and the occurrence of thermal stratification. The two methods applied (MCR-ALS and MA-MCR-ALS) led to similar conclusions; however, MA-MCR-ALS appeared to provide results more amenable to interpretation of temporal and geological variation than those obtained through classical MCR-ALS.

Keywords: Catchment management, drinking water reservoir, multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares, thermal stratification, water quality.

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146 Concurrency in Web Access Patterns Mining

Authors: Jing Lu, Malcolm Keech, Weiru Chen

Abstract:

Web usage mining is an interesting application of data mining which provides insight into customer behaviour on the Internet. An important technique to discover user access and navigation trails is based on sequential patterns mining. One of the key challenges for web access patterns mining is tackling the problem of mining richly structured patterns. This paper proposes a novel model called Web Access Patterns Graph (WAP-Graph) to represent all of the access patterns from web mining graphically. WAP-Graph also motivates the search for new structural relation patterns, i.e. Concurrent Access Patterns (CAP), to identify and predict more complex web page requests. Corresponding CAP mining and modelling methods are proposed and shown to be effective in the search for and representation of concurrency between access patterns on the web. From experiments conducted on large-scale synthetic sequence data as well as real web access data, it is demonstrated that CAP mining provides a powerful method for structural knowledge discovery, which can be visualised through the CAP-Graph model.

Keywords: concurrent access patterns (CAP), CAP mining and modelling, CAP-Graph, web access patterns (WAP), WAP-Graph, Web usage mining.

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145 Health Risk Assessment of Trihalogenmethanes in Drinking Water

Authors: Lenka Jesonkova, Frantisek Bozek

Abstract:

Trihalogenmethanes (THMs) are disinfection byproducts with non-carcinogenic and genotoxic effects. The contamination of 6 sites close to the water treatment plant has been monitored in second largest city of the Czech Republic. Health risk assessment including both non-carcinogenic and genotoxic risk for long term exposition was realized using the critical concentrations. Concentrations of trihalogenmethanes met national standards in all samples. Risk assessment proved that health risks from trihalogenmethanes are acceptable on each site.

Keywords: Drinking water, health risk assessment, trihalogenmethanes, water pollution.

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144 Evaluation of Fluoride Contents of Kirkuk City's Drinking Water and Its Source: Lesser Zab River and Its Effect on Human Health

Authors: Abbas R. Ali, Safa H. Abdulrahman

Abstract:

In this study, forty samples had been collected from water of Lesser Zab River and drinking water to determine fluoride concentration and show the impact of fluoride on general health of society of Kirkuk city. Estimation of fluoride concentration and determination of its proportion in water samples were performed attentively using a fluoride ion selective electrode. The fluoride concentrations in the Lesser Zab River samples were between 0.0265 ppm and 0.0863 ppm with an average of 0.0451 ppm, whereas the average fluoride concentration in drinking water samples was 0.102 ppm and ranged from 0.010 to 0.289 ppm. A comparison between results obtained with World Health Organization (WHO) show a low concentration of fluoride in the samples of the study. Thus, for health concerns we should increase the concentration of this ion in water of Kirkuk city at least to about (1.0 ppm) and this will take place after fluorination process.

Keywords: Fluoride concentration, Lesser Zab River, drinking water, health society, Kirkuk city.

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143 A Study on using N-Pattern Chains of Design Patterns based on Software Quality Metrics

Authors: Niloofar Khedri, Masoud Rahgozar, MahmoudReza Hashemi

Abstract:

Design patterns describe good solutions to common and reoccurring problems in program design. Applying design patterns in software design and implementation have significant effects on software quality metrics such as flexibility, usability, reusability, scalability and robustness. There is no standard rule for using design patterns. There are some situations that a pattern is applied for a specific problem and this pattern uses another pattern. In this paper, we study the effect of using chain of patterns on software quality metrics.

Keywords: Design Patterns, Design patterns' Relationship, Software quality Metrics, Software Engineering.

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142 Surface and Drinking Water Quality Monitoring of Thomas Reservoir, Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: G. A. Adamu, M. S. Sallau, S. O. Idris, E. B. Agbaji

Abstract:

Drinking water is supplied to Danbatta, Makoda and some parts of Minjibir local government areas of Kano State from the surface water of Thomas Reservoir. The present land use in the catchment area of the reservoir indicates high agricultural activities, fishing, as well as domestic and small scale industrial activities. To study and monitor the quality of surface and drinking water of the area, water samples were collected from the reservoir, treated water at the treatment plant and potable water at the consumer end in three seasons November - February (cold season), March - June (dry season) and July - September (rainy season). The samples were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, pH, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, suspended solids, total solids, colour, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chloride ion (Cl-) nitrite (NO2-), nitrate (NO3-), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phosphate (PO43-). The higher values obtained in some parameters with respect to the acceptable standard set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigerian Industrial Standards (NIS) indicate the pollution of both the surface and drinking water. These pollutants were observed to have a negative impact on water quality in terms of eutrophication, largely due to anthropogenic activities in the watershed.

Keywords: Surface water, drinking water, water quality, pollution, Thomas reservoir, Kano.

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141 Generating Frequent Patterns through Intersection between Transactions

Authors: M. Jamali, F. Taghiyareh

Abstract:

The problem of frequent itemset mining is considered in this paper. One new technique proposed to generate frequent patterns in large databases without time-consuming candidate generation. This technique is based on focusing on transaction instead of concentrating on itemset. This algorithm based on take intersection between one transaction and others transaction and the maximum shared items between transactions computed instead of creating itemset and computing their frequency. With applying real life transactions and some consumption is taken from real life data, the significant efficiency acquire from databases in generation association rules mining.

Keywords: Association rules, data mining, frequent patterns, shared itemset.

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140 Mining Sequential Patterns Using I-PrefixSpan

Authors: Dhany Saputra, Dayang R. A. Rambli, Oi Mean Foong

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an improvement of pattern growth-based PrefixSpan algorithm, called I-PrefixSpan. The general idea of I-PrefixSpan is to use sufficient data structure for Seq-Tree framework and separator database to reduce the execution time and memory usage. Thus, with I-PrefixSpan there is no in-memory database stored after index set is constructed. The experimental result shows that using Java 2, this method improves the speed of PrefixSpan up to almost two orders of magnitude as well as the memory usage to more than one order of magnitude.

Keywords: ArrayList, ArrayIntList, minimum support, sequence database, sequential patterns.

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139 Childrearing Styles and Family Communication Patterns among University Students

Authors: Pegah Farokhzad

Abstract:

Family is a basic unit of the society and the main source of human development. The initial aim of the family is psychological and social support of its members and has special developmental stages. Researches show the families who have less cohesion, have more conflicts and maladjustments and the members of such families are not able to communicate effectively. Family is a system in which any inter communication is related to child rearing patterns and can affect it. Even the child rearing styles in childhood can determine the family communications in adulthood. Therefore, the aim of the present research was to examine the relationship between child-rearing styles including authoritative, authoritarian and permissive with dimensions of family communication patterns including the conversation and conformity. The research design was a correlational and the population consisted of the psychology students of Roudehen Islamic Azad University who were studying in academic year 2013-2014. A sample of 324 students was selected randomly from the population. The research tools were the Baumrind Child-rearing Questionnaires and Family Communication Patterns Inventory, The Revised Scale of Koerner and Fitzpatrick. The result was as below: (a) there was a positive and significant relationship between conversation orientation and authoritative style. (b) There was no significant relationship between conversation orientation and other child-rearing styles. (c) There was a negative significant relationship between conformity orientation and authoritative style. (d) There was a positive significant relationship between conformity orientation with authoritarian and permissive styles. (e) There was a significant relationship between 3 dimensions of child-rearing and communication patterns.

Keywords: Child-rearing Styles, Family Relationship Patterns.

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138 Frontal EEG Asymmetry Based Classification of Emotional Valence using Common Spatial Patterns

Authors: Irene Winkler, Mark Jager, Vojkan Mihajlovic, Tsvetomira Tsoneva

Abstract:

In this work we evaluate the possibility of predicting the emotional state of a person based on the EEG. We investigate the problem of classifying valence from EEG signals during the presentation of affective pictures, utilizing the "frontal EEG asymmetry" phenomenon. To distinguish positive and negative emotions, we applied the Common Spatial Patterns algorithm. In contrast to our expectations, the affective pictures did not reliably elicit changes in frontal asymmetry. The classifying task thereby becomes very hard as reflected by the poor classifier performance. We suspect that the masking of the source of the brain activity related to emotions, coming mostly from deeper structures in the brain, and the insufficient emotional engagement are among main reasons why it is difficult to predict the emotional state of a person.

Keywords: Emotion, Valence, EEG, Common Spatial Patterns(CSP).

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137 Syntactic Recognition of Distorted Patterns

Authors: Marek Skomorowski

Abstract:

In syntactic pattern recognition a pattern can be represented by a graph. Given an unknown pattern represented by a graph g, the problem of recognition is to determine if the graph g belongs to a language L(G) generated by a graph grammar G. The so-called IE graphs have been defined in [1] for a description of patterns. The IE graphs are generated by so-called ETPL(k) graph grammars defined in [1]. An efficient, parsing algorithm for ETPL(k) graph grammars for syntactic recognition of patterns represented by IE graphs has been presented in [1]. In practice, structural descriptions may contain pattern distortions, so that the assignment of a graph g, representing an unknown pattern, to a graph language L(G) generated by an ETPL(k) graph grammar G is rejected by the ETPL(k) type parsing. Therefore, there is a need for constructing effective parsing algorithms for recognition of distorted patterns. The purpose of this paper is to present a new approach to syntactic recognition of distorted patterns. To take into account all variations of a distorted pattern under study, a probabilistic description of the pattern is needed. A random IE graph approach is proposed here for such a description ([2]).

Keywords: Syntactic pattern recognition, Distorted patterns, Random graphs, Graph grammars.

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136 A Spatial Point Pattern Analysis to Recognize Fail Bit Patterns in Semiconductor Manufacturing

Authors: Youngji Yoo, Seung Hwan Park, Daewoong An, Sung-Shick Kim, Jun-Geol Baek

Abstract:

The yield management system is very important to produce high-quality semiconductor chips in the semiconductor manufacturing process. In order to improve quality of semiconductors, various tests are conducted in the post fabrication (FAB) process. During the test process, large amount of data are collected and the data includes a lot of information about defect. In general, the defect on the wafer is the main causes of yield loss. Therefore, analyzing the defect data is necessary to improve performance of yield prediction. The wafer bin map (WBM) is one of the data collected in the test process and includes defect information such as the fail bit patterns. The fail bit has characteristics of spatial point patterns. Therefore, this paper proposes the feature extraction method using the spatial point pattern analysis. Actual data obtained from the semiconductor process is used for experiments and the experimental result shows that the proposed method is more accurately recognize the fail bit patterns.

Keywords: Semiconductor, wafer bin map (WBM), feature extraction, spatial point patterns, contour map.

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135 Discovery of Sequential Patterns Based On Constraint Patterns

Authors: Shigeaki Sakurai, Youichi Kitahata, Ryohei Orihara

Abstract:

This paper proposes a method that discovers sequential patterns corresponding to user-s interests from sequential data. This method expresses the interests as constraint patterns. The constraint patterns can define relationships among attributes of the items composing the data. The method recursively decomposes the constraint patterns into constraint subpatterns. The method evaluates the constraint subpatterns in order to efficiently discover sequential patterns satisfying the constraint patterns. Also, this paper applies the method to the sequential data composed of stock price indexes and verifies its effectiveness through comparing it with a method without using the constraint patterns.

Keywords: Sequential pattern mining, Constraint pattern, Attribute constraint, Stock price indexes

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134 Design Patterns for Emergency Management Processes

Authors: Tomáš Ludík, Jiří Barta, Josef Navrátil

Abstract:

Natural or human made disasters have a significant negative impact on the environment. At the same time there is an extensive effort to support management and decision making in emergency situations by information technologies. Therefore the purpose of the paper is to propose a design patterns applicable in emergency management, enabling better analysis and design of emergency management processes and therefore easier development and deployment of information systems in the field of emergency management. It will be achieved by detailed analysis of existing emergency management legislation, contingency plans and information systems. The result is a set of design patterns focused at emergency management processes that enable easier design of emergency plans or development of new information system. These results will have a major impact on the development of new information systems as well as to more effective and faster solving of emergencies.

Keywords: Analysis and Design, Business Process Modeling Notation, Contingency Plans, Design Patterns, Emergency Management.

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133 Duration Patterns of English by Native British Speakers and Mandarin ESL Speakers

Authors: Chen Bingru

Abstract:

This study is intended to describe and analyze the effects of polysyllabic shortening and word or phrase boundary on the duration patterns of spoken utterances by Mandarin learners of English in comparison with native speakers of English. To investigate the relative contribution of these effects, two production experiments were conducted. The study included 11 native British English speakers and 20 Mandarin learners of English who were asked to produce four sets of tokens consisting of a mono-syllabic base form, disyllabic, and trisyllabic words derived from the base by the addition of suffixes, and a set of short sentences with a particular combination of phrase size, stress pattern, and boundary location. The duration of words and segments was measured, and results from the data analysis suggest that the amount of polysyllabic shortening and the effect of word or phrase position are likely to affect a Chinese accent for Mandarin ESL speakers. This study sheds light on research on the duration patterns of language by demonstrating the effect of duration-related factors on the foreign accent of Mandarin ESL speakers. It can also benefit both L2 learners and language teachers by increasing their sensitivity to the duration differences and difficulties experienced by L2 learners of English. An understanding of the amount of polysyllabic shortening and the effect of position in words and phrase on syllable duration can also facilitate L2 teachers to establish priorities for teaching pronunciation to ESL learners.

Keywords: Duration patterns, Chinese accent, Mandarin ESL speakers, polysyllabic shortening.

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132 Motion Area Estimated Motion Estimation with Triplet Search Patterns for H.264/AVC

Authors: T. Song, T. Shimamoto

Abstract:

In this paper a fast motion estimation method for H.264/AVC named Triplet Search Motion Estimation (TS-ME) is proposed. Similar to some of the traditional fast motion estimation methods and their improved proposals which restrict the search points only to some selected candidates to decrease the computation complexity, proposed algorithm separate the motion search process to several steps but with some new features. First, proposed algorithm try to search the real motion area using proposed triplet patterns instead of some selected search points to avoid dropping into the local minimum. Then, in the localized motion area a novel 3-step motion search algorithm is performed. Proposed search patterns are categorized into three rings on the basis of the distance from the search center. These three rings are adaptively selected by referencing the surrounding motion vectors to early terminate the motion search process. On the other hand, computation reduction for sub pixel motion search is also discussed considering the appearance probability of the sub pixel motion vector. From the simulation results, motion estimation speed improved by a factor of up to 38 when using proposed algorithm than that of the reference software of H.264/AVC with ignorable picture quality loss.

Keywords: Motion estimation, VLSI, image processing, search patterns

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131 Females’ Usage Patterns of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the Vhembe District, South Africa

Authors: F. O. Maphiri-Makananise

Abstract:

This paper explores and provides substantiated evidence on the usage patterns of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) by female users at Vhembe District in Limpopo- Province, South Africa. The study presents a comprehensive picture on the usage of ICTs from female users’ perspective. The significance of this study stems from the need to assess the role, relevance and usage patterns of ICTs such as smartphones, computers, laptops, and iPods, the internet and social networking sites among females following the developments of new media technologies in society. The objective of the study is to investigate the usability and accessibility of ICTs to empower female users in South Africa. The study used quantitative and qualitative research methods to determine the major ideas, perceptions and usage patterns of ICTs by users. Data collection involved the use of structured selfadministered questionnaire from two groups of respondents who participated in this study. Thus, (n=50) female students at the University of Venda provided their ideas and perceptions about the usefulness and usage patterns of ICTs such as smartphones, the Internet and computers at the university level, whereas, the second group were (n=50) learners from Makhado Comprehensive School who provided their perceptions and ideas about the use of ICTs at the high school level. The researcher also noted that the findings of the study were useful as a guideline and model for ICT intervention that could work as an empowerment to women in South Africa. It was observed that the central purpose of ICTs among female users was to search for information regarding assignment writing, conducting research, dating, exchanging ideas and networking with friends and relatives. This was demonstrated by a high number of females who used ICTs for e-learning (62%) and social purposes (85%). Therefore, the study revealed that most females used ICTs for social purposes and accessing the internet rather than for entertainment, a gesture that provides an opportune space to empower rural women in South Africa.

Keywords: Female users, Information and Communication Technologies, Internet, Usage patterns.

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130 The Creative Unfolding of “Reduced Descriptive Structures” in Musical Cognition: Technical and Theoretical Insights Based on the OpenMusic and PWGL Long-Term Feedback

Authors: Jacopo Baboni Schilingi

Abstract:

We here describe the theoretical and philosophical understanding of a long term use and development of algorithmic computer-based tools applied to music composition. The findings of our research lead us to interrogate some specific processes and systems of communication engaged in the discovery of specific cultural artworks: artistic creation in the sono-musical domain. Our hypothesis is that the patterns of auditory learning cannot be only understood in terms of social transmission but would gain to be questioned in the way they rely on various ranges of acoustic stimuli modes of consciousness and how the different types of memories engaged in the percept-action expressive systems of our cultural communities also relies on these shadowy conscious entities we named “Reduced Descriptive Structures”.

Keywords: Algorithmic sonic computation, corrected and self-correcting learning patterns in acoustic perception, morphological derivations in sensorial patterns, social unconscious modes of communication.

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129 Spatio-Temporal Patterns and Dynamics in Motion of Pathogenic Spirochetes: Implications toward Virulence and Treatment of Leptospirosis

Authors: R. Amornmaneekul, S. Chadsuthi, D. Triampo, W. Triampo

Abstract:

We apply a particle tracking technique to track the motion of individual pathogenic Leptospira. We observe and capture images of motile Leptospira by means of CCD and darkfield microscope. Image processing, statistical theories and simulations are used for data analysis. Based on trajectory patterns, mean square displacement, and power spectral density characteristics, we found that the motion modes are most likely to be directed motion mode (70%) and the rest are either normal diffusion or unidentified mode. Our findings may support the fact that why leptospires are very well efficient toward targeting internal tissues as a result of increase in virulence factor.

Keywords: Leptospirosis, spirochetes, patterns, motion.

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128 Application of Transportation Models for Analysing Future Intercity and Intracity Travel Patterns in Kuwait

Authors: Srikanth Pandurangi, Basheer Mohammed, Nezar Al Sayegh

Abstract:

In order to meet the increasing demand for housing care for Kuwaiti citizens, the government authorities in Kuwait are undertaking a series of projects in the form of new large cities, outside the current urban area. Al Mutlaa City located to the north-west of the Kuwait Metropolitan Area is one such project out of the 15 planned new cities. The city accommodates a wide variety of residential developments, employment opportunities, commercial, recreational, health care and institutional uses. This paper examines the application of comprehensive transportation demand modeling works undertaken in VISUM platform to understand the future intracity and intercity travel distribution patterns in Kuwait. The scope of models developed varied in levels of detail: strategic model update, sub-area models representing future demand of Al Mutlaa City, sub-area models built to estimate the demand in the residential neighborhoods of the city. This paper aims at offering model update framework that facilitates easy integration between sub-area models and strategic national models for unified traffic forecasts. This paper presents the transportation demand modeling results utilized in informing the planning of multi-modal transportation system for Al Mutlaa City. This paper also presents the household survey data collection efforts undertaken using GPS devices (first time in Kuwait) and notebook computer based digital survey forms for interviewing representative sample of citizens and residents. The survey results formed the basis of estimating trip generation rates and trip distribution coefficients used in the strategic base year model calibration and validation process.

Keywords: GPS based household surveys, transportation infrastructure, origin-destination trip matrices, traffic forecasts, transportation demand modeling, travel behavior patterns.

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127 Participatory Patterns of Community in Water and Waste Management: A Case Study of Municipality in Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province

Authors: Srisuwan Kasemsawat

Abstract:

This is a survey research using quantitative and qualitative methodology. There were three objectives: 1) To study participatory level of community in water and waste environment management. 2) To study the affecting factors for community participation in water and waste environment management in Ampawa District, Samut Songkram Province. 3) To search for the participatory patterns in water and waste management. The population sample for the quantitative research was 1,364 people living in Ampawa District. The methodology was simple random sampling. Research instrument was a questionnaire and the qualitative research used purposive sampling in 6 Sub Districts which are Ta Ka, Suanluang, Bangkae, Muangmai, Kwae-om, and Bangnanglee Sub District Administration Organization. Total population is 63. For data analysis, the study used content analysis from quantitative research to synthesize and build question frame from the content for interview and conducting focus group interview. The study found that the community participatory in the issue of level in water and waste management are moderate of planning, operation, and evaluation. The issue of being beneficial is at low level. Therefore, the overall participatory level of community in water and waste environment management is at a medium level. The factors affecting the participatory of community in water and waste management are age, the period dwelling in the community and membership in which the mean difference is statistic significant at 0.05 in area of operation, being beneficial, and evaluation. For patterns of community participation, there is the correlation with water and waste management in 4 concerns which are 1) Participation in planning 2) Participation in operation 3) Participation in being beneficial both directly and indirectly benefited 4) Participation in evaluation and monitoring. The recommendation from this study is the need to create conscious awareness in order to increase participation level of people by organizing activities that promote participation with volunteer spirit. Government should open opportunities for people to participate in sharing ideas and create the culture of living together with equality which would build more concrete participation.

Keywords: Participation, Participatory Patterns, Water and Waste Management, Environmental Management.

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126 Energy Consumption Analysis of Design Patterns

Authors: Andreas Litke, Kostas Zotos, Alexander Chatzigeorgiou, George Stephanides

Abstract:

The importance of low power consumption is widely acknowledged due to the increasing use of portable devices, which require minimizing the consumption of energy. Energy dissipation is heavily dependent on the software used in the system. Applying design patterns in object-oriented designs is a common practice nowadays. In this paper we analyze six design patterns and explore the effect of them on energy consumption and performance.

Keywords: Design Patterns, Embedded Systems, Energy Consumption, Performance Evaluation, Software Design and Development, Software Engineering.

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125 A Comparative Study of GTC and PSP Algorithms for Mining Sequential Patterns Embedded in Database with Time Constraints

Authors: Safa Adi

Abstract:

This paper will consider the problem of sequential mining patterns embedded in a database by handling the time constraints as defined in the GSP algorithm (level wise algorithms). We will compare two previous approaches GTC and PSP, that resumes the general principles of GSP. Furthermore this paper will discuss PG-hybrid algorithm, that using PSP and GTC. The results show that PSP and GTC are more efficient than GSP. On the other hand, the GTC algorithm performs better than PSP. The PG-hybrid algorithm use PSP algorithm for the two first passes on the database, and GTC approach for the following scans. Experiments show that the hybrid approach is very efficient for short, frequent sequences.

Keywords: Database, GTC algorithm, PSP algorithm, sequential patterns, time constraints.

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