Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4550

Search results for: Aloe Vera; Skin; Stratum corneum (SC) water content and Transepidermal water loss (TEWL).

4550 Formulation Development and Moiturising Effects of a Topical Cream of Aloe vera Extract

Authors: Akhtar N, Khan BA, Khan MS, Mahmood T, Khan HMS, Iqbal M, Bashir S

Abstract:

This study was designed to formulate, pharmaceutically evaluate a topical skin-care cream (w/o emulsion) of Aloe Vera versus its vehicle (Base) as control and determine their effects on Stratum Corneum (SC) water content and Transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Base containing no extract and a Formulation containing 3% concentrated extract of Aloe Vera was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of w/o emulsion (cream). Lemon oil was incorporated to improve the odor. Both the Base and Formulation were stored at 8°C ±0.1°C (in refrigerator), 25°C±0.1°C, 40°C±0.1°C and 40°C± 0.1°C with 75% RH (in incubator) for a period of 4 weeks to predict their stability. The evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, type of emulsion, phase separation, electrical conductivity, centrifugation, liquefaction and pH. Both the Base and Formulation were applied to the cheeks of 21 healthy human volunteers for a period of 8 weeks Stratum corneum (SC) water content and Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were monitored every week to measure any effect produced by these topical creams. The expected organoleptic stability of creams was achieved from 4 weeks in-vitro study period. Odor was disappeared with the passage of time due to volatilization of lemon oil. Both the Base and Formulation produced significant (p≤0.05) changes in TEWL with respect to time. SC water content was significantly (p≤0.05) increased by the Formulation while the Base has insignificant (p 0.05) effects on SC water content. The newly formulated cream of Aloe Vera, applied is suitable for improvement and quantitative monitoring of skin hydration level (SC water content/ moisturizing effects) and reducing TEWL in people with dry skin.

Keywords: Aloe Vera; Skin; Stratum corneum (SC) water content and Transepidermal water loss (TEWL).

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4549 In Vivo Evaluation of Stable Cream Containing Flavonoids on Hydration and TEWL of Human Skin

Authors: Haji M Shoaib Khan, Naveed Akhtar, Fatima Rasool, Barkat Ali Khan, Tariq Mahmood, Muhammad Shuaib Khan

Abstract:

Antioxidants contribute to endogenous photoprotection and are important for the maintenance of skin health. The study was carried out to compare the skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) effects of a stable cosmetic preparation containing flavonoids, following two applications a day over a period of tenth week. The skin trans-epidermal water loss and skin hydration effect was measured at the beginning and up to the end of study period of ten weeks. Any effect produced was measured by Corneometer and TEWA meter (Non-invasive probe). Two formulations were developed for this study design. Formulation one the control formulation in which no apple juice extract( Flavonoids) was incorporated while second one was the active formulation in which the apple juice extract (3%) containing flavonoids was incorporated into water in oil emulsion using Abil EM 90 as an emulsifier. Stable formulations (control and Active) were applied on human cheeks (n = 12) for a study period of 10 weeks. Result of each volunteer of skin hydration and TEWL was measured by corneometer and TEWA meter. By using ANOVA and Paired sample t test as a statistical evaluation, result of both base and formulation were compared. Statistical significant results (p≤0.05) were observed regarding skin hydration and TEWL when two creams, control and Formulation were compared. It showed that desired formulation (Active) may have interesting application as an active moisturizing cream on healthy skin.

Keywords: Apple juice extract, TEWL, Corneometer, flavonoids.

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4548 Exporting Physiochemical Changes during the Fermentation of Aloe Vera

Authors: Kyaw Hla Myint, Phyoe Wai Htun

Abstract:

Aloe Vera is a short-stemmed succulent plant which is commonly used in Myanmar traditional medicine. A. vera gel was also used as food addictive. This study aims to improve the Myanmar folk medicine to a functional beverage. In this research, Aloe vera was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 6 months. Three different processes were carried out. Process I contains A. vera 10%, sugar 30%, water 50%, and starter culture 10%, process II contains A. vera 10%, sugar 15%, honey 15%, and water 50%, starter culture 10%; process III contains A. vera 10%, honey 30%, water 50%, starter culture 10%. During wine fermentation, the wine parameters such as alcohol content, total soluble solid (ºBrix), pH, color and cell population were analyzed. After 30 days of fermentation, total cell population remained 2.8x106 in P-I, P-II and 3.2x106 in P-III. Total soluble solid content dropped to 15.8 in P-I, P-II and 15.7 in P-III. After 30 days, clear wine was transferred to other vassals for racking. After 6 months of racking, microbial population reached under detectable level and alcohol content was round about 11% but not significantly different among these processes. P-II was found to have the highest color intensity at 450 nm and it got the most taster satisfaction when sensory evaluation was carried out using five hedonic scales after 6 month of racking.

Keywords: Aloe vera, fermentation, S. cerevisiae, functional beverage, folk medicine.

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4547 Evaluation of the Antifungal and Antioxidant Activities of the Leaf Extract of Aloe vera(Aloe barbadensis Miller)

Authors: Tin A. Khaing

Abstract:

Aloe vera has been used worldwide both for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to the plethora of biological activities of some of its metabolites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal and antioxidant activities of the leaf extract. The antifungal activity was determined by the agar-well diffusion method against plant and human fungal pathogens. The methanol and ethanol portions of the extracts studied were more bioactive than ethyl acetate portion. It was also observed that the activity was more pronounced on plant pathogen than human pathogen except Candida albicans. This is an indication that the extract has the potential to treat plant fungal infections. The Aloe extract showed the significant antioxidant activity by the DPPH radical scavenging method. Therefore, the Aloe extract provided as natural antioxidant has been used in health foods for medical and preservative purposes.

Keywords: Aloe vera, antifungal, antioxidant, DPPH

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4546 Study on Phytochemical Properties, Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Aloe vera L.

Authors: K. Thu, Yin Y. Mon, Tin A. Khaing, Ohn M. Tun

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to investigate phytochemical properties, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of Aloe vera. The phytochemical screening of the extracts of leaves of A. vera revealed the presence of bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids phenolic compounds, and etc. with absence of cyanogenic glycosides. Three different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and Di-Methyl sulfoxide were used to screen the antimicrobial activity of A. vera leaves against four human clinical pathogens by agar well diffusion method. The maximum antibacterial activities were observed in methanol extract followed by ethanol and Di-Methyl sulfoxide. It was also found that remarkable antibacterial activities with methanolic and ethanolic extracts of A. vera compared with the standard antibiotic, tetracycline that was not active against E. coli and S. boydii and supported the view that A. vera is a potent antimicrobial agent compared with the conventional antibiotic. Moreover, the brine shrimps (Artemia salina) toxicity test exhibited LC50 value was 569.52 ppm. The resulting data indicated that the A. vera plant have less toxic effects on brine shrimp. Hence, it is signified that Aloe vera plant extract is safe to be used as an antimicrobial agent.

Keywords: Aloe vera L., antimicrobial activity, brine shrimp, cytotoxicity, phytochemical properties.

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4545 Estimation of the Spent Fuel Pool Water Temperature at a Loss-of-Pool-Cooling Accident

Authors: Chan Hee Park, Arim Lee, Jung Min Lee, Joo Hyun Moon

Abstract:

Accident in spent fuel pool (SFP) of Fukushima Daiichi Unit 4 showed the importance of continuous monitoring of the key environmental parameters such as water temperature, water level, and radiation level in the SFP at accident conditions. Because the SFP water temperature is one of the key parameters indicating SFP conditions, its behavior at accident conditions shall be understood to prepare appropriate measures. This study estimated temporal change in the SFP water temperature at Kori Unit 1 with 587 MWe for 1 hour after initiation of a loss-of-pool-cooling accident. For the estimation, ANSYS CFX 13.0 code was used. The estimation showed that the increasing rate of the water temperature was 3.90C per hour and the SFP water temperature could reach 1000C in 25.6 hours after the initiation of loss-of-pool-cooling accident.

Keywords: Spent fuel pool, water temperature, Kori Unit 1, a loss-of-pool-cooling accident.

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4544 Topical Delivery of Thymidine Dinucleotide to Induce p53 Generation in the Skin by Elastic Liposome

Authors: Yi-Ping Fang, Yi-Ting Wong

Abstract:

Transcription factor p53 has a powerful tumor suppressing function that is associated with many cancers. However, p53 of the molecular weight was higher make the limitation across to skin or cell membrane. Thymidine dinucleotide (pTT), an oligonucleotide, can activate the p53 transcription factor. pTT is a hydrophilic and negative charge oligonucleotide, which delivery in to cell membrane need an appropriate carrier. The aim of this study was to improve the bioavailability of the nucleotide fragment, thymidine dinucleotide (pTT), using elasic liposome carriers to deliver the drug into the skin. The study demonstrate that dioleoylphosphocholine (DOPC) incorporated with sodium cholate at molar ratio 1:1 can archived the particle size about 220 nm. This elastic liposome could penetration through skin from stratum corneum to whole epidermis by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Moreover, we observed the the slight increase in generation of p53 by western blot.

Keywords: Elastic liposome, Tymidine dinucleotide, p53, Topical delivery

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4543 50/50 Oil-Water Ratio Invert Emulsion Drilling Mud Using Vegetable Oil as Continuous Phase

Authors: P. C. Ihenacho, M. Burby, G. G. Nasr, G. C. Enyi

Abstract:

Formulation of a low oil-water ratio drilling mud with vegetable oil continuous phase without adversely affecting the mud rheology and stability has been a major challenge. A low oil-water ratio is beneficial in producing low fluid loss which is essential for wellbore stability. This study examined the possibility of 50/50 oil-water ratio invert emulsion drilling mud using a vegetable oil continuous phase. Jatropha oil was used as continuous phase. 12 ml of egg yolk which was separated from the albumen was added as the primary emulsifier additive. The rheological, stability and filtration properties were examined. The plastic viscosity and yield point were found to be 36cp and 17 Ib/100 ft2 respectively. The electrical stability at 48.9ºC was 353v and the 30 minutes fluid loss was 6ml. The results compared favourably with a similar formulation using 70/30 oil - water ratio giving plastic viscosity of 31cp, yield point of 17 Ib/100 ft2, electrical stability value of 480v and 12ml for the 30 minutes fluid loss. This study indicates that with a good mud composition using guided empiricism, 50/50 oil-water ratio invert emulsion drilling mud is feasible with a vegetable oil continuous phase. The choice of egg yolk as emulsifier additive is for compatibility with the vegetable oil and environmental concern. The high water content with no fluid loss additive will also minimise the cost of mud formulation.

Keywords: Environmental compatibility, low cost of mud formulation, low fluid loss, wellbore stability.

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4542 Atmosphere Water Vapour As Main Sweet Water Resource in the Arid Zones of Central Asia

Authors: S.I.Nikolaeva, Yu.V. Petrov, L.Ye.Skipnikova

Abstract:

It has been shown that the solution of water shortage problem in Central Asia closely connected with inclusion of atmosphere water vapour into the system of response and water resources management. Some methods of water extraction from atmosphere have been discussed.

Keywords: potable water, water resources, water problems, water scarcity.

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4541 Study of Water Relations, Chlorophyll and their Correlations with Grain Yield in Wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes

Authors: Mokhtar Ghobadi, Saeed Khosravi, Danial Kahrizi, Firooz Shirvani

Abstract:

The objective of this experiment was to study of water relations and chlorophyll in different wheat genotypes and their correlations with grain and biological yields. 21 genotypes of bread wheat were compared in a field experiment as randomized complete blocks design with four replications. The results showed that relative water deficit, relative water loss, excised leaf water retention, cell membrane stability, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, grain yield and biological yield were different significantly among wheat genotypes, but SPAD-chlorophyll index, relative water content and chlorophyll florescence were not. Significant correlations were not observed among above mentioned water relations and chlorophyll characteristics with grain yield, but there was a positive and significant correlation between biological yield and grain yield.

Keywords: Wheat, water relations, chlorophyll, yield

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4540 Effects of Water Content on Dielectric Properties of Mineral Transformer Oil

Authors: Suwarno, M. Helmi Prakoso

Abstract:

Mineral oil is commonly used for high voltage transformer insulation. The insulation quality of mineral oil is affecting the operation process of high voltage transformer. There are many contaminations which could decrease the insulation quality of mineral oil. One of them is water. This research talks about the effect of water content on dielectric properties, physic properties, and partial discharge pattern on mineral oil. Samples were varied with 10 varieties of water content value. And then all samples would be tested to measure the dielectric properties, physic properties, and partial discharge pattern. The result of this research showed that an increment of water content value would decrease the insulation quality of mineral oil.

Keywords: Dielectric properties, high voltage transformer, mineral oil, water content.

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4539 Estimation Model for Concrete Slump Recovery by Using Superplasticizer

Authors: Chaiyakrit Raoupatham, Ram Hari Dhakal, Chalermchai Wanichlamlert

Abstract:

This paper aimed to introduce the solution of concrete slump recovery using chemical admixture type-F (superplasticizer, naphthalene base) to the practice in order to solve unusable concrete problem due to concrete loss its slump, especially for those tropical countries that have faster slump loss rate. In the other hand, randomly adding superplasticizer into concrete can cause concrete to segregate. Therefore, this paper also develops the estimation model used to calculate amount of second dose of superplasticizer need for concrete slump recovery. Fresh properties of ordinary Portland cement concrete with volumetric ratio of paste to void between aggregate (paste content) of 1.1-1.3 with water-cement ratio zone of 0.30 to 0.67 and initial superplasticizer (naphthalene base) of 0.25%-1.6% were tested for initial slump and slump loss for every 30 minutes for one and half hour by slump cone test. Those concretes with slump loss range from 10% to 90% were re-dosed and successfully recovered back to its initial slump. Slump after re-dosed was tested by slump cone test. From the result, it has been concluded that, slump loss was slower for those mix with high initial dose of superplasticizer due to addition of superplasticizer will disturb cement hydration. The required second dose of superplasticizer was affected by two major parameters, which were water-cement ratio and paste content, where lower water-cement ratio and paste content cause an increase in require second dose of superplasticizer. The amount of second dose of superplasticizer is higher as the solid content within the system is increase, solid can be either from cement particles or aggregate. The data was analyzed to form an equation use to estimate the amount of second dosage requirement of superplasticizer to recovery slump to its original.

Keywords: Estimation model, second superplasticizer dosage, slump loss, slump recovery.

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4538 Model Membrane from Shed Snake Skins

Authors: M. Kumpugdee-Vollrath, T. Subongkot, T. Ngawhirunpat

Abstract:

In this project we are interested in studying different kinds of shed snake skins in order to apply them as a model membrane for pharmaceutical purposes instead of human stratum corneum. Many types of shed snake skins as well as model drugs were studied by different techniques. The data will give deeper understanding about the interaction between drugs and model membranes and may allow us to choose the suitable model membrane for studying the effect of pharmaceutical products.

Keywords: DSC, FTIR, permeation, SAXS, shed snake skin.

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4537 A Study of Water Consumption in Two Malaysian Resorts

Authors: Fu E. Tang

Abstract:

In the effort to reduce water consumption for resorts, more water conservation practices need to be implemented. Hence water audits need to be performed to obtain a baseline of water consumption, before planning water conservation practices. In this study, a water audit framework specifically for resorts was created, and the audit was performed on two resorts: Resort A in Langkawi, Malaysia; and Resort B in Miri, Malaysia. From the audit, the total daily water consumption for Resorts A and B were estimated to be 180m3 and 330 m3 respectively, while the actual water consumption (based on water meter readings) were 175 m3 and 325 m3. This suggests that the audit framework is reasonably accurate and may be used to account for most of the water consumption sources in a resort. The daily water consumption per guest is about 500 litres. The water consumption of both resorts is poorly rated compared with established benchmarks. Water conservation measures were suggested for both resorts.

Keywords: water consumption patterns, water conservation practices, water audit, water audit framework.

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4536 Numerical Analysis of Flow through Abrasive Water Suspension Jet: The Effect of Garnet, Aluminum Oxide and Silicon Carbide Abrasive on Skin Friction Coefficient Due To Wall Shear and Jet Exit Kinetic Energy

Authors: Deepak D, Anjaiah D, Yagnesh Sharma N.

Abstract:

It is well known that the abrasive particles in the abrasive water suspension has significant effect on the erosion characteristics of the inside surface of the nozzle. Abrasive particles moving with the flow cause severe skin friction effect, there by altering the nozzle diameter due to wear which in turn reflects on the life of the nozzle for effective machining. Various commercial abrasives are available for abrasive water jet machining. The erosion characteristic of each abrasive is different. In consideration of this aspect, in the present work, the effect of abrasive materials namely garnet, aluminum oxide and silicon carbide on skin friction coefficient due to wall shear stress and jet kinetic energy has been analyzed. It is found that the abrasive material of lower density produces a relatively higher skin friction effect and higher jet exit kinetic energy.

Keywords: Abrasive water suspension jet, Skin friction coefficient, Jet kinetic energy, Particulate loading, Stokes number.

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4535 Error Analysis of Nonconventional Electrical Moisture-meter under Simplified Conditions

Authors: Kamil Ďurana, Robert Černý

Abstract:

An electrical apparatus for measuring moisture content was developed by our laboratory and uses dependence of electrical properties on water content in studied material. Error analysis of the apparatus was run by measuring different volumes of water in a simplified specimen, i.e. hollow plexiglass block, in order to avoid as many side-effects as possible. Obtained data were processed using both basic and advanced statistics and results were compared with each other. The influence of water content on accuracy of measured data was studied as well as the influence of variation of apparatus' proper arrangement or factual methodics of its usage. The overall coefficient of variation was 4%. There was no trend found in results of error dependence on water content. Comparison with current surveys led to a conclusion, that the studied apparatus can be used for indirect measurement of water content in porous materials, with expectable error and under known conditions. Factual experiments with porous materials are not involved, but are currently under investigation.

Keywords: device, capacitance method, error analysis, moisture meter

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4534 Drafting the Design and Development of Micro- Controller Based Portable Soil Moisture Sensor for Advancement in Agro Engineering

Authors: Guneet Mander, Gurinder Pal Singh

Abstract:

Moisture is an important consideration in many aspects ranging from irrigation, soil chemistry, golf course, corrosion and erosion, road conditions, weather predictions, livestock feed moisture levels, water seepage etc. Vegetation and crops always depend more on the moisture available at the root level than on precipitation occurrence. In this paper, design of an instrument is discussed which tells about the variation in the moisture contents of soil. This is done by measuring the amount of water content in soil by finding the variation in capacitance of soil with the help of a capacitive sensor. The greatest advantage of soil moisture sensor is reduced water consumption. The sensor is also be used to set lower and upper threshold to maintain optimum soil moisture saturation and minimize water wilting, contributes to deeper plant root growth ,reduced soil run off /leaching and less favorable condition for insects and fungal diseases. Capacitance method is preferred because, it provides absolute amount of water content and also measures water content at any depth.

Keywords: Capacitive Sensors, aluminum, Water, Irrigation.

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4533 Red Diode Laser in the Treatment of Epidermal Diseases in PDT

Authors: Farhad H. Mustafa, Mohamad S. Jaafar , Asaad H. Ismail, Ahamad F. Omar, Zahra A. Timimi, Hend A. A. Houssein

Abstract:

The process of laser absorption in the skin during laser irradiation was a critical point in medical application treatments. Delivery the correct amount of laser light is a critical element in photodynamic therapy (PDT). More amounts of laser light able to affect tissues in the skin and small amount not able to enhance PDT procedure in skin. The knowledge of the skin tone laser dependent distribution of 635 nm radiation and its penetration depth in skin is a very important precondition for the investigation of advantage laser induced effect in (PDT) in epidermis diseases (psoriasis). The aim of this work was to estimate an optimum effect of diode laser (635 nm) on the treatment of epidermis diseases in different color skin. Furthermore, it is to improve safety of laser in PDT in epidermis diseases treatment. Advanced system analytical program (ASAP) which is a new approach in investigating the PDT, dependent on optical properties of different skin color was used in present work. A two layered Realistic Skin Model (RSM); stratum corneum and epidermal with red laser (635 nm, 10 mW) were used for irradiative transfer to study fluence and absorbance in different penetration for various human skin colors. Several skin tones very fair, fair, light, medium and dark are used to irradiative transfer. This investigation involved the principles of laser tissue interaction when the skin optically injected by a red laser diode. The results demonstrated that the power characteristic of a laser diode (635 nm) can affect the treatment of epidermal disease in various color skins. Power absorption of the various human skins were recorded and analyzed in order to find the influence of the melanin in PDT treatment in epidermal disease. A two layered RSM show that the change in penetration depth in epidermal layer of the color skin has a larger effect on the distribution of absorbed laser in the skin; this is due to the variation of the melanin concentration for each color.

Keywords: Photodynamic therapy, Realistic skin model, Laser, Light penetration, simulation, Optical properties of skin, Melanin.

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4532 Investigating the Transformer Operating Conditions for Evaluating the Dielectric Response

Authors: Jalal M. Abdallah

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental investigation of transformer dielectric response and solid insulation water content. The dielectric response was carried out on the base of Hybrid Frequency Dielectric Spectroscopy and Polarization Current measurements method (FDS &PC). The calculation of the water content in paper is based on the water content in oil and the obtained equilibrium curves. A reference measurements were performed at equilibrium conditions for water content in oil and paper of transformer at different stable temperatures (25, 50, 60 and 70°C) to prepare references to evaluate the insulation behavior at the not equilibrium conditions. Some measurements performed at the different simulated normal working modes of transformer operation at the same temperature where the equilibrium conditions. The obtained results show that when transformer temperature is mach more than the its ambient temperature, the transformer temperature decreases immediately after disconnecting the transformer from the network and this temperature reduction influences the transformer insulation condition in the measuring process. In addition to the oil temperature at the near places to the sensors, the temperature uniformity in transformer which can be changed by a big change in the load of transformer before the measuring time will influence the result. The investigations have shown that the extremely influence of the time between disconnecting the transformer and beginning the measurements on the results. And the online monitoring for water content in paper measurements, on the basis of the oil water content on line monitoring and the obtained equilibrium curves. The measurements where performed continuously and for about 50 days without any disconnection in the prepared the adiabatic room.

Keywords: Conductivity, Moisture, Temperature, Oil-paperinsulation, Online monitoring, Water content in oil.

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4531 Effect of Different Model Drugs on the Properties of Model Membranes from Fishes

Authors: M. Kumpugdee-Vollrath, T. G. D. Phu, M. Helmis

Abstract:

A suitable model membrane to study the pharmacological effect of pharmaceutical products is human stratum corneum because this layer of human skin is the outermost layer and it is an important barrier to be passed through. Other model membranes which were also used are for example skins from pig, mouse, reptile or fish. We are interested in fish skins in this project. The advantages of the fish skins are, that they can be obtained from the supermarket or fish shop. However, the fish skins should be freshly prepared and used directly without storage. In order to understand the effect of different model drugs e.g. lidocaine HCl, resveratrol, paracetamol, ibuprofen, acetyl salicylic acid on the properties of the model membrane from various types of fishes e.g. trout, salmon, cod, plaice permeation tests were performed and differential scanning calorimetry was applied.

Keywords: Fish skin, model membrane, permeation, DSC, lidocaine HCl, resveratrol, paracetamol, ibuprofen, acetyl salicylic acid.

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4530 Improvement of Chemical Demulsifier Performance Using Silica Nanoparticles

Authors: G. E. Gandomkar, E. Bekhradinassab, S. Sabbaghi, M. M. Zerafat

Abstract:

The reduction of water content in crude oil emulsions reduces pipeline corrosion potential and increases the productivity. Chemical emulsification of crude oil emulsions is one of the methods available to reduce the water content. Presence of demulsifier causes the film layer between the crude oil emulsion and water droplets to become unstable leading to the acceleration of water coalescence. This research has been performed to study the improvement performance of a chemical demulsifier by silica nanoparticles. The silica nano-particles have been synthesized by sol-gel technique and precipitation using poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) as surfactants and then nano-particles are added to the demulsifier. The silica nanoparticles were characterized by Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) and SEM. Upon the addition of nanoparticles, bottle tests have been carried out to separate and measure the water content. The results show that silica nano-particles increase the demulsifier efficiency by about 40%.

Keywords: Demulsifier, dehydration, silicon dioxide, nanoparticle.

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4529 Chromium-Leaching Study of Cements in Various Environments

Authors: Adriana Estokova, Lenka Palascakova, Martina Kovalcikova

Abstract:

Cement is a basic material used for building construction. Chromium as an indelible non-volatile trace element of raw materials occurs in cement clinker in the trivalent or hexavalent form. Hexavalent form of chromium is harmful and allergenic having very high water solubility and thus can easily come into contact with the human skin. The paper is aimed at analyzing the content of total chromium in Portland cements and leaching rate of hexavalent chromium in various leachants: Deionized water, Britton-Robinson buffer, used to simulate the natural environment, and hydrochloric acid (HCl). The concentration of total chromium in Portland cement samples was in a range from 173.2 to 218.5 mg/kg. The content of dissolved hexavalent chromium ranged 0.23-3.19, 2.0-5.78 and 8.88-16.25 mg/kg in deionized water, Britton-Robinson solution and hydrochloric acid, respectively. The calculated leachable fraction of Cr(VI) from cement samples was observed in the range 0.1--7.58 %.

Keywords: Cement, hexavalent chromium, leaching, total chromium.

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4528 Evaluation of Chlorophyll Content and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters and Relationships between Chlorophyll a, b and Chlorophyll Content Index under Water Stress in Olea europaea cv. Dezful

Authors: E. Khaleghi, K. Arzani, N. Moallemi, M. Barzegar

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine effect of water stress on chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter in young `Dezful- olive trees. Three irrigation regimes (40% ETcrop, 65% ETcrop and 100% ETcrop) were used. After irrigation treatments were applied, some of biochemical parameters including chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence and also chlorophyll content index (C.C.I) were measured. Results of Analysis of variance showed that irrigation treatments had significant effect on chlorophylla, total chlorophyll (chl a+b), C.C.I and Fv/Fm ratio. The amount of decreased chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll in plants were received 40% ETcrop were 51.55% and 46.86%, respectively, compared with 100% ETcrop.

Keywords: Evatarnspiration (ETcrop), Chlorophyll Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Water stress, Olive

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4527 Eucalyptus camendulensis and Its Drying Effect on Water and Essential Oil Content

Authors: M. Mehani, L. Segni

Abstract:

Medicinal and aromatic plants are promising and are characterized by the biosynthesis of odorous molecules that make up the so-called essential oils (EO), which have long been known for their antiseptic and therapeutic activity in folk medicine. Essential oils have many therapeutic properties. In herbal medicine, they are used for their antiseptic properties against infectious diseases of fungal origin, against dermatophytes, those of bacterial origin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of drying in the shade on the water content and on the content of essential oils extracted from leaves of Eucalyptus camendulensis for better quality control of medicinal and aromatic plants. The water content of the Eucalyptus camendulensis plant material decreases during the drying process. It decreased from 100% to 0.006% for the drying in the shade after ten days. The moisture content is practically constant at the end of the drying period. The drying in the shade increases the concentration of essential oils of Eucalyptus camendulensis. When the leaves of Eucalyptus camendulensis plant are in the shade, the maximum of the essential oil content was obtained on the eighth day, the recorded value was 1.43% ± 0.01%. Beyond these periods, the content continuously drop in before stabilizing. The optimum drying time is between 6 and 9 days.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camendulensis, drying, essential oils, water and essential oil.

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4526 The Influence of Water Ingress to Aircraft Cabin Components

Authors: Nils Ischdonat

Abstract:

The accomplished study is based on the appointment and identification of ageing effects and according to this absorption of moisture of aircraft cabin components over the life-cycle. In the first step of the study ceiling panels from same age and from the same aircraft cabin have been examined according to weight changes depending on the position in the aircraft cabin. In the second step of the study different aged ceiling panels have been examined concerning deflection, weight changes and the acoustic sound transmission loss. To prove the assumption of water absorption within the study and with the theoretical background from literature and scientific papers, an older test panel was exposed extreme thermal conditions (humidity and temperature) within a climate chamber to show that there is a general ingress of water to cabin components and that this ingress of water leads to the change of different mechanical properties.

Keywords: Aircraft Cabin, water ingress, ageing effects, sound transmission loss

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4525 The Kinetic of Biodegradation Lignin in Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) by Phanerochaete Chrysosporium using Solid State Fermentation (SSF) Method for Bioethanol Production, Indonesia

Authors: Eka Sari, Siti Syamsiah, Hary Sulistyo, Muslikhin

Abstract:

Lignocellulosic materials are considered the most abundant renewable resource available for the Bioethanol Production. Water Hyacinth is one of potential raw material of the world-s worst aquatic plant as a feedstock to produce Bioethanol. The purposed this research is obtain reduced of matter for biodegradation lignin in Biological pretreatment with White Rot Fungi eg. Phanerochaete Chrysosporium using Solid state Fermentation methods. Phanerochaete Chrysosporium is known to have the best ability to degraded lignin, but simultaneously it can also degraded cellulose and hemicelulose. During 8 weeks incubation, water hyacinth occurred loss of weight reached 34,67%, while loss of lignin reached 67,21%, loss of cellulose reached 11,01% and loss of hemicellulose reached 36,56%. The kinetic of losses lignin using regression linear plot, the results is obtained constant rate (k) of reduction lignin is -0.1053 and the equation of reduction of lignin is y = wo - 0, 1.53 x

Keywords: Biodegradation, lignin, PhanerochaeteChrysosporium, SSF, Water Hyacinth, Bioethanol

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4524 Water Crisis Management in a Tourism Dependent Community

Authors: Aishath Shakeela

Abstract:

At a global level, water stewardship, water stress and water security are crucial factors in tourism planning and development considerations. Challenges associated with water is of particular concern to the Maldives as there is limited availability of freshwater, high dependency on desalinated water, and high unit cost associated with desalinating water. While the Maldives is promoted as an example of sustainable tourism, a key sustainability challenge facing tourism dependent communities is the efficient use and management of available water resources. A water crisis event in the capital island of Maldives highlighted how precarious water related issues are in this tourism dependent destination. Applying netnography, the focus of this working paper is to present community perceptions of how government policies addressed Malé Water and Sewerage Company (MWSC) water crisis event.

Keywords: Crisis management, government policies, Maldives, tourism, water.

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4523 A Methodological Test to Study the Concrete Workability with the Fractal Model

Authors: F. Achouri, K. Chouicha

Abstract:

The main parameters affecting the workability are the water content, particle size, and the total surface of the grains, as long as the mixing water begins by wetting the surface of the grains and then fills the voids between the grains to form entrapped water, the quantity of water remaining is called free water. The aim of this study is to undertake a fractal approach through the relationship between the concrete formulation parameters and workability. To develop this approach a series of concrete taken from the literature was investigated by varying formulation parameters such as G/S, the quantity of cement C and the quantity of water W. We also call another model as the model of water layer thickness and model of paste layer thickness to judge their relevance, hence the following results: the relevance of the water layer thickness model is considered as a relevant when there is a variation in the water quantity. The model of the paste layer thickness is only applicable if we considered that the paste is made with the grain value Dmax = 2.85: value from which we see a stability of the model.

Keywords: Concrete, fractal method, paste layer thickness, water layer thickness, workability.

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4522 Correlations between Cleaning Frequency of Reservoir and Water Tower and Parameters of Water Quality

Authors: Chen Bi-Hsiang, Yang Hung-Wen, Lou Jie-Chung, Han Jia-Yun

Abstract:

This study was investigated on sampling and analyzing water quality in water reservoir & water tower installed in two kind of residential buildings and school facilities. Data of water quality was collected for correlation analysis with frequency of sanitization of water reservoir through questioning managers of building about the inspection charts recorded on equipment for water reservoir. Statistical software packages (SPSS) were applied to the data of two groups (cleaning frequency and water quality) for regression analysis to determine the optimal cleaning frequency of sanitization. The correlation coefficient (R) in this paper represented the degree of correlation, with values of R ranging from +1 to -1.After investigating three categories of drinking water users; this study found that the frequency of sanitization of water reservoir significantly influenced the water quality of drinking water. A higher frequency of sanitization (more than four times per 1 year) implied a higher quality of drinking water. Results indicated that sanitizing water reservoir & water tower should at least twice annually for achieving the aim of safety of drinking water.

Keywords: cleaning frequency of sanitization, parameters ofwater quality, regression analysis, water reservoir & water tower

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4521 An Investigation into the Effect of Water Quality on Flotation Performance

Authors: Edison Muzenda

Abstract:

A study was carried out to determine the effect of water quality on flotation performance. The experimental test work comprised of batch flotation tests using Denver lab cell for a period of 10 minutes. Nine different test runs were carried out in triplicates to ensure reproducibility using different water types from different thickener overflows, return and sewage effluent water (process water) and portable water. The water sources differed in pH, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids and conductivity. Process water was found to reduce the concentrate recovery and mass pull, while portable water increased the concentrate recovery and mass pull. Portable water reduced the concentrate grade while process water increased the concentrate grade. It is proposed that a combination of process water and portable water supply be used in flotation circuits to balance the different effects that the different water types have on the flotation efficiency.

Keywords: Flotation, mass pull, process water, thickeneroverflows, water quality.

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