Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 104

Search results for: Alireza Kazerani

74 The Temperature Range in the Simulation of Residual Stress and Hot Tearing During Investment Casting

Authors: Saeid Norouzi, Ali Shams, Hassan Farhangi, Alireza Darvish

Abstract:

Hot tear cracking and residual stress are two different consequences of thermal stress both of which can be considered as casting problem. The purpose of the present study is simulation of the effect of casting shape characteristic on hot tearing and residual stress. This study shows that the temperature range for simulation of hot tearing and residual stress are different. In this study, in order to study the development of thermal stress and to predict the hot tearing and residual stress of shaped casting, MAGMASOFT simulation program was used. The strategy of this research was the prediction of hot tear location using pinpointing hot spot and thermal stress concentration zones. The results shows that existing of stress concentration zone increases the hot tearing probability and consequently reduces the amount of remaining residual stress in casting parts.

Keywords: Hot tearing, residual stress, simulation, investment casting.

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73 Biosynthesis of Silver-Phosphate Nanoparticles Using the Extracellular Polymeric Substance of Sporosarcina pasteurii

Authors: Mohammadhosein Rahimi, Mohammad Raouf Hosseini, Mehran Bakhshi, Alireza Baghbanan

Abstract:

Silver ions (Ag+) and their compounds are consequentially toxic to microorganisms, showing biocidal effects on many species of bacteria. Silver-phosphate (or silver orthophosphate) is one of these compounds, which is famous for its antimicrobial effect and catalysis application. In the present study, a green method was presented to synthesis silver-phosphate nanoparticles using Sporosarcina pasteurii. The composition of the biosynthesized nanoparticles was identified as Ag3PO4 using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Also, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that Ag3PO4 nanoparticles was synthesized in the presence of biosurfactants, enzymes, and proteins. In addition, UV-Vis adsorption of the produced colloidal suspension approved the results of XRD and FTIR analyses. Finally, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images indicated that the size of the nanoparticles was about 20 nm.

Keywords: Bacteria, biosynthesis, silver-phosphate, Sporosarcina pasteurii, nanoparticle.

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72 Prediction of Henry's Constant in Polymer Solutions using the Peng-Robinson Equation of State

Authors: Somayeh Tourani, Alireza Behvandi

Abstract:

The peng-Robinson (PR), a cubic equation of state (EoS), is extended to polymers by using a single set of energy (A1, A2, A3) and co-volume (b) parameters per polymer fitted to experimental volume data. Excellent results for the volumetric behavior of the 11 polymer up to 2000 bar pressure are obtained. The EoS is applied to the correlation and prediction of Henry constants in polymer solutions comprising three polymer and many nonpolar and polar solvents, including supercritical gases. The correlation achieved with two adjustable parameter is satisfactory compared with the experimental data. As a result, the present work provides a simple and useful model for the prediction of Henry's constant for polymer containing systems including those containing polar, nonpolar and supercritical fluids.

Keywords: Equation of state, Henry's constant, Peng-Robinson, polymer solution.

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71 Multiscale Blind Image Restoration with a New Method

Authors: Alireza Mallahzadeh, Hamid Dehghani, Iman Elyasi

Abstract:

A new method, based on the normal shrink and modified version of Katssagelous and Lay, is proposed for multiscale blind image restoration. The method deals with the noise and blur in the images. It is shown that the normal shrink gives the highest S/N (signal to noise ratio) for image denoising process. The multiscale blind image restoration is divided in two sections. The first part of this paper proposes normal shrink for image denoising and the second part of paper proposes modified version of katssagelous and Lay for blur estimation and the combination of both methods to reach a multiscale blind image restoration.

Keywords: Multiscale blind image restoration, image denoising, blur estimation.

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70 Application of GAMS and GA in the Location and Penetration of Distributed Generation

Authors: Alireza Dehghani Pilehvarani, Mojtaba Hakimzadeh, Mohammad Jafari Far, Reza Sedaghati

Abstract:

Distributed Generation (DG) can help in reducing the cost of electricity to the costumer, relieve network congestion and provide environmentally friendly energy close to load centers. Its capacity is also scalable and it provides voltage support at distribution level. Hence, DG placement and penetration level is an important problem for both the utility and DG owner. DG allocation and capacity determination is a nonlinear optimization problem. The objective function of this problem is the minimization of the total loss of the distribution system. Also high levels of penetration of DG are a new challenge for traditional electric power systems. This paper presents a new methodology for the optimal placement of DG and penetration level of DG in distribution system based on General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) and Genetic Algorithm (GA).

Keywords: Distributed Generation, Location, Loss Reduction, Distribution Network, GA, GAMS.

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69 The Effect of a Graded Band Gap Window on the Performance of a Single Junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs Solar Cell

Authors: Morteza Fathipour, Atousa Elahidoost, Alireza Mojab, Vala Fathipour

Abstract:

We have modeled the effect of a graded band gap window on the performance of a single junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs solar cell. First, we study the electrical characteristics of a single junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs solar cell, by employing an optimized structure for this solar cell, we show that grading the band gap of the window can increase the conversion efficiency of the solar cell by about 1.5%, and can also improve the quantum efficiency of the solar cell especially at shorter wavelengths.

Keywords: Conversion efficiency, Graded band gap window, Quantum efficiency, Single junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs solar cell

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68 Sliding Mode Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

Authors: Ahmad Forouzan Tabar, Mohammad Azadi, Alireza Alesaadi

Abstract:

This paper describes a sliding mode controller for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). The dynamic of AUV model is highly nonlinear because of many factors, such as hydrodynamic drag, damping, and lift forces, Coriolis and centripetal forces, gravity and buoyancy forces, as well as forces from thruster. To address these difficulties, a nonlinear sliding mode controller is designed to approximate the nonlinear dynamics of AUV and improve trajectory tracking. Moreover, the proposed controller can profoundly attenuate the effects of uncertainties and external disturbances in the closed-loop system. Using the Lyapunov theory the boundedness of AUV tracking errors and the stability of the proposed control system are also guaranteed. Numerical simulation studies of an AUV are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the presented approach.

Keywords: Lyapunov stability, autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), sliding mode controller, electronics engineering.

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67 Comparative Study of Sustainable Architecture in Stairway-like Ushtobin Village, Iran

Authors: Ahadollah Azami, Alireza Sadeghi, Zargham OstadiAsl, Hamed Pirjani, Milad Babaei

Abstract:

Stairway Ushtobin Village is one of the five villages with original and sustainable architecture in Northwest of Iran along the border of Armenia, which has been able to maintain its environment and sustainable ecosystem. Studying circulation, function and scale (grand, medium and minor) of space, ratio of full and empty spaces, number and height of stairs, ratio of compound volume to luxury spaces, openings, type of local masonry (stone, mud, wood) and form of covering elements have been carried out in four houses of this village comparatively as some samples in this article, and furthermore, this article analyzes that the architectural shapes and organic texture of the village meet the needs of cold and dry climate. Finally, some efficient plans are offered suiting the present needs of the village to have a sustainable architecture.

Keywords: Sustainable Architecture, Local Materials, Village Texture, Form, Skeleton

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66 Inter-frame Collusion Attack in SS-N Video Watermarking System

Authors: Yaser Mohammad Taheri, Alireza Zolghadr–asli, Mehran Yazdi

Abstract:

Video watermarking is usually considered as watermarking of a set of still images. In frame-by-frame watermarking approach, each video frame is seen as a single watermarked image, so collusion attack is more critical in video watermarking. If the same or redundant watermark is used for embedding in every frame of video, the watermark can be estimated and then removed by watermark estimate remodolulation (WER) attack. Also if uncorrelated watermarks are used for every frame, these watermarks can be washed out with frame temporal filtering (FTF). Switching watermark system or so-called SS-N system has better performance against WER and FTF attacks. In this system, for each frame, the watermark is randomly picked up from a finite pool of watermark patterns. At first SS-N system will be surveyed and then a new collusion attack for SS-N system will be proposed using a new algorithm for separating video frame based on watermark pattern. So N sets will be built in which every set contains frames carrying the same watermark. After that, using WER attack in every set, N different watermark patterns will be estimated and removed later.

Keywords: Watermark estimation remodulation (WER), Frame Temporal Averaging (FTF), switching watermark system.

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65 Performance Analysis of Certificateless Signature for IKE Authentication

Authors: Nazrul M. Ahmad, Asrul H. Yaacob, Ridza Fauzi, Alireza Khorram

Abstract:

Elliptic curve-based certificateless signature is slowly gaining attention due to its ability to retain the efficiency of identity-based signature to eliminate the need of certificate management while it does not suffer from inherent private key escrow problem. Generally, cryptosystem based on elliptic curve offers equivalent security strength at smaller key sizes compared to conventional cryptosystem such as RSA which results in faster computations and efficient use of computing power, bandwidth, and storage. This paper proposes to implement certificateless signature based on bilinear pairing to structure the framework of IKE authentication. In this paper, we perform a comparative analysis of certificateless signature scheme with a well-known RSA scheme and also present the experimental results in the context of signing and verification execution times. By generalizing our observations, we discuss the different trade-offs involved in implementing IKE authentication by using certificateless signature.

Keywords: Certificateless signature, IPSec, RSA signature, IKE authentication.

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64 Level Set and Morphological Operation Techniques in Application of Dental Image Segmentation

Authors: Abdolvahab Ehsani Rad, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim, Alireza Norouzi

Abstract:

Medical image analysis is one of the great effects of computer image processing. There are several processes to analysis the medical images which the segmentation process is one of the challenging and most important step. In this paper the segmentation method proposed in order to segment the dental radiograph images. Thresholding method has been applied to simplify the images and to morphologically open binary image technique performed to eliminate the unnecessary regions on images. Furthermore, horizontal and vertical integral projection techniques used to extract the each individual tooth from radiograph images. Segmentation process has been done by applying the level set method on each extracted images. Nevertheless, the experiments results by 90% accuracy demonstrate that proposed method achieves high accuracy and promising result.

Keywords: Integral production, level set method, morphological operation, segmentation.

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63 Study and Evaluation of Added Stresses under Foundation due to Adjacent Structure

Authors: Alireza M. goltabar, Issa shooshpasha , Reza Shamstabar kami , Mostafa Habibi

Abstract:

Added stresses due to adjacent structure should be considered in foundation design and stress control in soil under the structure. This case is considered less than other cases in design and calculation whereas stresses in implementation are greater than analytical stress. Structure load are transmitted to earth by foundation and role of foundation is propagation of load on the continuous and half extreme soil. This act cause that, present stresses lessen to allowable strength of soil. Some researchers such as Boussinesq and westergaurd by using of some assumption studied on this issue, theorically. Target of this paper is study and evaluation of added stresses under structure due to adjacent structure. For this purpose, by using of assumption, theoric relation and numeral methods, effects of adjacent structure with 4 to 10 storeys on the main structure with 4 storeys are studied and effect of parameters and sensitivity of them are evaluated.

Keywords: stress, soil, adjacent structure, foundation, loading.

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62 Artificial Neural Network Models of the Ruminal pH in Holstein Steers

Authors: Alireza Vakili, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Majid Abdollazade

Abstract:

In this study four Holstein steers with rumen fistula fed 7 kg of dry matter (DM) of diets differing in concentrate to alfalfa hay ratios as 60:40, 70:30, 80:20, and 90:10 in a 4 × 4 latin square design. The pH of the ruminal fluid was measured before the morning feeding (0.0 h) to 8 h post feeding. In this study, a two-layered feed-forward neural network trained by the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used for modelling of ruminal pH. The input variables of the network were time, concentrate to alfalfa hay ratios (C/F), non fiber carbohydrate (NFC) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). The output variable was the ruminal pH. The modeling results showed that there was excellent agreement between the experimental data and predicted values, with a high determination coefficient (R2 >0.96). Therefore, we suggest using these model-derived biological values to summarize continuously recorded pH data.

Keywords: Ruminal pH, Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Non Fiber Carbohydrate, Neutral Detergent Fiber.

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61 Association of Overweight and Obesity with Breast Cancer

Authors: Amir Ghasemlouei, Alireza Khalaj

Abstract:

Breast cancer is in the top rate of cancer. We analyzed the prevalence of obesity and its association with breast cancer and finally we reviewed 25 article that 320 patient and 320 control which enrolled to our study. The distribution of breast cancer patients and controls with respect to their anthropometric indices in patients with higher weight, which was statistically significant (60.2 ± 10.2 kg) compared with control group (56.1 ± 11.3 kg). The body mass index of patients was (26.06+/-3.42) and significantly higher than the control group (24.1+/-1.7). Obesity leads to increased levels of adipose tissue in the body that can be stored toxins and carcinogens to produce a continuous supply. Due to the high level of fat and the role of estrogen in a woman which is endogenous estrogen of the tumor and regulates the activities of growth steroids, obesity has confirmed as a risk factor for breast cancer. Our study and other studies have shown that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer. And it can be prevented with a weight loss intervention for breast cancer in the future.

Keywords: Breast cancer, review study, obesity, overweight.

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60 Over-Height Vehicle Detection in Low Headroom Roads Using Digital Video Processing

Authors: Vahid Khorramshahi, Alireza Behrad, Neeraj K. Kanhere

Abstract:

In this paper we present a new method for over-height vehicle detection in low headroom streets and highways using digital video possessing. The accuracy and the lower price comparing to present detectors like laser radars and the capability of providing extra information like speed and height measurement make this method more reliable and efficient. In this algorithm the features are selected and tracked using KLT algorithm. A blob extraction algorithm is also applied using background estimation and subtraction. Then the world coordinates of features that are inside the blobs are estimated using a noble calibration method. As, the heights of the features are calculated, we apply a threshold to select overheight features and eliminate others. The over-height features are segmented using some association criteria and grouped using an undirected graph. Then they are tracked through sequential frames. The obtained groups refer to over-height vehicles in a scene.

Keywords: Feature extraction, over-height vehicle detection, traffic monitoring, vehicle tracking.

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59 Appraisal of Humanitarian Supply Chain Risks Using Best-Worst Method

Authors: Ali Mohaghar, Iman Ghasemian Sahebi, Alireza Arab

Abstract:

In the last decades, increasing in human and natural disaster occurrence had very irreparable effects on human life. Hence, one of the important issues in humanitarian supply chain management is identifying and prioritizing the different risks and finding suitable solutions for encountering them at the time of disaster occurrence. This study is an attempt to provide a comprehensive review of humanitarian supply chain risks in a case study of Tehran Red Crescent Societies. For this purpose, Best-Worst method (BWM) has been used for analyzing the risks of the humanitarian supply chain. 22 risks of the humanitarian supply chain were identified based on the literature and interviews with four experts. According to BWM method, the importance of each risk was calculated. The findings showed that culture contexts, little awareness of people, and poor education system are the most important humanitarian supply chain risks. This research provides a useful guideline for managers so that they can benefit from the results to prioritize their solutions.

Keywords: Best worst method, humanitarian logistics, humanitarian supply chain, risk management.

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58 Analysis of Endovascular Graft Features Affecting Endotension Following Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

Authors: Zeinab Hooshyar, Alireza Mehdizadeh

Abstract:

Endovascular aneurysm repair is a new and minimally invasive repair for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). This method has potential advantages that are incomparable with other repair methods. However, the enlargement of aneurysm in the absence of endoleak, which is known as endotension, may occur as one of post-operative compliances of this method. Typically, endotension is mainly as a result of pressure transmitted to aneurysm sac by endovascular installed graft. After installation of graft the aneurysm sac reduces significantly but remains non-zero. There are some factors which affect this pressure transmitted. In this study, the geometry features of installed vascular graft have been considered. It is inferred that graft neck angle and iliac bifurcation angle are two factors which can affect the drag force on graft and consequently the pressure transmitted to aneurysm.

Keywords: Endovascular graft, transmitted pressure, Drag force, Finite Element Modeling, neck angle, iliac bifurcation angle.

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57 Assessing Relationship between Type of Financial Market and Market Indices in Tehran Stock Exchange

Authors: Zahra Amirhosseini, Alireza Bashiri

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine and identify the type of Iranian financial market in terms of being symmetrical or asymmetrical and to measure relationship between type of market and the market's indices. In this study, daily information on the market-s Share Price Index, Industrial Index and Top Fifty Most Active Companies during the years 1999-2010 has been used. In addition, to determine type of the financial market, rate of return on Security is taken into account. In this research, by using logistic regression analysis methods, relationship of the market type with the above mentioned indices have been examined. The results showed that the type of the financial market has a positive significant association with market share price index and Industrial Index. Index of Top Fifty Most Active Companies is significantly associated with type of financial market, however this relationship is inverse.

Keywords: All Share Price Index, Asymmetrical Market, Industrial Index, Symmetrical Market, Top Fifty Most Active Companies Index

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56 The effects of Garlic Oil (Allium sativa), Turmeric Powder (Curcuma longa Linn) and Monensin on Total Apparent Digestibility of Nutrients in Baloochi Lambs

Authors: Ahmad Khalesizadeh, Alireza Vakili, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Reza Valizadeh

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of garlic oil (Allium sativa), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa Linn) and Monensin on Total apparent digestibility of nutrients in Baloochi lambs. The experiment was designed as a 4 x 4 Latin square using 4 ruminally baloochi lambs with 4 treatments in four 28-d periods. Treatments were control (no additive), garlic oil (0. 4 g/d), monensin (0. 2 g/d) and turmeric powder (20 g/d). Total apparent digestibility's (% of intake) of organic matter (OM), dry matter (DM), crud protein (CP), ether extract(EE), non fiber carbohydrate (NFC), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in the total tract were not influenced by addition of either additives.

Keywords: apparent digestibility, essential oil, garlic oil, monensin, turmeric

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55 Principal Role and School Structure

Authors: Behnaz Mohajeran, Alireza Ghaleei

Abstract:

This main purpose of the study reported here was to investigate the extent to which the form of school governance (particularly decision-making) had an impact upon the effectiveness of the school with reference to parental involvement, planning and budgeting, professional development of teachers, school facilities and resources, and student outcomes. Particular attention was given to decision-making within the governance arrangements. The study was based on four case studies of high schools in New South Wales, Australia including one government school, one independent Christian community school, one independent Catholic school, and one Catholic systemic school. The focus of the research was principals, teachers, parents, and students of four schools with varying governance structures. To gain a greater insight into the issues, the researchers collected information by questionnaire, semi-structured interview, and review of school key documents. This study found that it was not so much structure but the centrality of the school Principal and the way that the Principal perceived his/her roles in relation to others that impacted most on school governance.

Keywords: governance structure, principal role, schooleffectiveness, stakeholder involvement

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54 Mycorrhizal Fungi Influence on Physiological Growth Indices in Basil Induced by Phosphorus Fertilizer under Irrigation Deficit Conditions

Authors: Seyed Alireza Valadabadi, Hossein Aliabadi Farahani

Abstract:

This experiment was carried out to study the effect of AMF, drought stress and phosphorus on physiological growth indices of basil at Iran using by a split-plot design with three replications. The main-plot factor included: two levels of irrigation regimes (control=no drought stress and irrigation after 80 evaporation= drought stress condition) while the sub-plot factors included phosphorus (0, 35 and 70 kg/ha) and application and non-application of Glomus fasciculatum. The results showed that total dry matter (TDM), life area index (LAI), relative growth rate (RGR) and crop growth rate (CGR) were all highly significantly different among the phosphorus, whereas drought stress had effect of practical significance on TDM, LAI, RGR and CGR. The results also showed that the highest TDM, LAI, RGR and CGR were obtained from application of Glomus fasciculatum under no-drought condition.

Keywords: Drought stress, Glomus fasciculatum, physiological growth indices

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53 A Method to Improve Test Process in Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework Using ISTQB Framework

Authors: Hamideh Mahdavifar, Ramin Nassiri, Alireza Bagheri

Abstract:

Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a framework for description, coordination and alignment of all activities across the organization in order to achieve strategic goals using ICT enablers. A number of EA-compatible frameworks have been developed. We, in this paper, mainly focus on Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF) since its reference models are plentiful. Among these models we are interested here in its business reference model (BRM). The test process is one important subject of an EA project which is to somewhat overlooked. This lack of attention may cause drawbacks or even failure of an enterprise architecture project. To address this issue we intend to use International Software Testing Qualification Board (ISTQB) framework and standard test suites to present a method to improve EA testing process. The main challenge is how to communicate between the concepts of EA and ISTQB. In this paper, we propose a method for integrating these concepts.

Keywords: Business Reference Model (BRM), Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA), ISTQB, Test Techniques.

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52 Parametric Analysis of Effective Factors on the Seismic Rehabilitation of the Foundations by Network Micropile

Authors: Keivan Abdollahi, Alireza Mortezaei

Abstract:

The main objective of seismic rehabilitation in the foundations is decreasing the range of horizontal and vertical vibrations and omitting high frequencies contents under the seismic loading. In this regard, the advantages of micropiles network is utilized. Reduction in vibration range of foundation can be achieved by using high dynamic rigidness module such as deep foundations. In addition, natural frequency of pile and soil system increases in regard to rising of system rigidness. Accordingly, the main strategy is decreasing of horizontal and vertical seismic vibrations of the structure. In this case, considering the impact of foundation, pile and improved soil foundation is a primary concern. Therefore, in this paper, effective factors are studied on the seismic rehabilitation of foundations applying network micropiles in sandy soils with nonlinear reaction.

Keywords: Micropile network, rehabilitation, vibration, seismic load.

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51 Impact of Customer Management System in Improving Customer Retention: Optimization of Negative Customer Feedback

Authors: Alireza Faed, David Forbes

Abstract:

Complaints today have the ability to retain customer loyalty using state of the art systems and strategies in customer relationship management to analyze and respond to a plethora of customer perception. The Majority of companies are not aware of the beneficiary utilization of customer complaints for the sake of quality improvements. Also, some companies have problems determining how resolution of complaints can be profitable. In this study, we will define the problems and ascertain the importance of customer management system on the companies. Furthermore, we will determine the impact of such a system on efficiency, confidence, profitability and customer complaints. Eventually, we will develop methods and address the issues. In this paper, we used an open-ended questionnaire and distributed that to 30 randomly chosen respondents which were the passengers in an airport. We also define three hypotheses for our study and we will validate each of them. Then using frequency, Chi- Square and quality control method we optimized the size of customers- negative feedback and improved the process of customer retention.

Keywords: Complaint, Complaint management system, Customer relationship management, Retention.

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50 Instability Analysis of Laminated Composite Beams Subjected to Parametric Axial Load

Authors: Alireza Fereidooni, Kamran Behdinan, Zouheir Fawaz

Abstract:

The integral form of equations of motion of composite beams subjected to varying time loads are discretized using a developed finite element model. The model consists of a straight five node twenty-two degrees of freedom beam element. The stability analysis of the beams is studied by solving the matrix form characteristic equations of the system. The principle of virtual work and the first order shear deformation theory are employed to analyze the beams with large deformation and small strains. The regions of dynamic instability of the beam are determined by solving the obtained Mathieu form of differential equations. The effects of nonconservative loads, shear stiffness, and damping parameters on stability and response of the beams are examined. Several numerical calculations are presented to compare the results with data reported by other researchers.

Keywords: Finite element beam model, Composite Beams, stability analysis

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49 Numerical Investigations on Group Piles’ Lateral Bearing Capacity Considering Interaction of Soil and Structure

Authors: Mahdi Sadeghian, Mahmoud Hassanlourad, Alireza Ardakani, Reza Dinarvand

Abstract:

In this research, the behavior of monopiles, under lateral loads, was investigated with vertical and oblique piles by Finite Element Method. In engineering practice when soil-pile interaction comes to the picture some simplifications are applied to reduce the design time. As a simplified replacement of soil and pile interaction analysis, pile could be replaced by a column. The height of the column would be equal to the free length of the pile plus a portion of the embedded length of it. One of the important factors studied in this study was that columns with an equivalent length (free length plus a part of buried depth) could be used instead of soil and pile modeling. The results of the analysis show that the more internal friction angle of the soil increases, the more the bearing capacity of the soil is achieved. This additional length is 6 to 11 times of the pile diameter in dense soil although in loose sandy soil this range might increase.

Keywords: Lateral bearing capacity, pile group, oblique pile, soil-structure interaction, depth of fixity.

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48 Target and Kaizen Costing

Authors: Alireza Azimi Sani , Mahdi Allahverdizadeh

Abstract:

increased competition and increased costs of designing made it important for the firms to identify the right products and the right methods for manufacturing the products. Firms should focus on customers and identify customer demands directly to design the right products. Several management methods and techniques that are currently available improve one or more functions or processes in an industry and do not take the complete product life cycle into consideration. On the other hand target costing is a method / philosophy that takes financial, manufacturing and customer aspects into consideration during designing phase and helps firms in making product design decisions to increase the profit / value of the company. It uses various techniques to identify customer demands, to decrease costs of manufacturing and finally to achieve strategic goals. Target Costing forms an integral part of total product design / redesign based on strategic plans.

Keywords: Target Costing, Target Cost Management, Cost Management, Activity Based Costing, New product design

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47 Stability Improvement of AC System by Controllability of the HVDC

Authors: Omid Borazjani, Alireza Rajabi, Mojtaba Saeedimoghadam, Khodakhast Isapour

Abstract:

High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) power transmission is employed to move large amounts of electric power. There are several possibilities to enhance the transient stability in a power system. One adequate option is by using the high controllability of the HVDC if HVDC is available in the system. This paper presents a control technique for HVDC to enhance the transient stability. The strategy controls the power through the HVDC to help make the system more transient stable during disturbances. Loss of synchronism is prevented by quickly producing sufficient decelerating energy to counteract accelerating energy gained during. In this study, the power flow in the HVDC link is modulated with the addition of an auxiliary signal to the current reference of the rectifier firing angle controller. This modulation control signal is derived from speed deviation signal of the generator utilizing a PD controller; the utilization of a PD controller is suitable because it has the property of fast response. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated with a SMIB test system.

Keywords: HVDC, SMIB, Stability, Power System.

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46 Carbon Isotope Discrimination, A Tool for Screening of Salinity Tolerance of Genotypes

Authors: Alireza Dadkhah, Mahmoud Ghorbanzadeh- Neghab

Abstract:

This study carried out in order to investigate the effects of salinity on carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) of shoots and roots of four sugar beet cultivars (cv) including Madison (British origin) and three Iranian culivars (7233-P12, 7233-P21 and 7233-P29). Plants were grown in sand culture medium in greenhouse conditions. Plants irrigated with saline water (tap water as control, 50 mM, 150 mM, 250 mM and 350 mM of NaCl + CaCl2 in 5 to 1 molar ratio) from 4 leaves stage for 16 weeks. Carbon isotope discrimination significantly decreased with increasing salinity. Significant differences of Δ between shoot and root were observed in all cvs and all levels of salinity. Madison cv showed lower Δ in shoot and root than other three cvs at all levels of salinity expect control, but cv 7233-P29 had significantly higher Δ values at saline conditions of 150 mM and above. Therefore, Δ might be applicable, as a useful tool, for study of salinity tolerance of sugar beet genotypes.

Keywords: Carbon isotope discrimination, Photosynthesis, Salt stress, Sugar beet

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45 Experimental and Finite Element Study of Bending Fatigue Failure: A Case Study on Main Shaft of a Gyrator Crusher

Authors: Rahim Sotoudeh Bahreini, Alireza Foroughi Nematollahi, Akbar Jafari

Abstract:

This study investigates the mechanism of a Gyratory crusher-located in Golgohar mining and industrial Co. specifically with a focus on stresses distribution and fatigue failure of its main shaft. At first step, the cross section of the fractured shaft is studied, and the crack growth is analyzed. Then, the rotational motion of the shaft and the oil temperature of oil circuit of equipment are monitored. Condition monitoring is used to help finding a better modification. Based on the results of this study, the main causes of shaft failure are identified, and corrective solution is offered to increase crusher performance, especially its main shaft life. To predict the efficiency of the proposed modification, finite element simulation is performed, and its results are compared with the similar modified cases. The comparison and interpretation of simulation results confirm the efficiency of proposed corrective method.

Keywords: Fatigue failure, finite element method, gyratory crusher, condition monitoring.

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