Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 329

Search results for: Abdul Halim Sulaiman

329 Ecological Risk Assessment of Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the North Port, Malaysia

Authors: Belin Tavakoly Sany, Aishah Salleh, Abdul Halim Sulaiman, Ghazaleh Monazami Tehrani

Abstract:

The pollution of sediments sampled from the North Port by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated. Concentrations of PAHs estimated in the port sediments ranged from 199 to 2851.2 μg/kg dw. The highest concentration was found which is closed to the Berth line, this locations affected by intensive shipping activities and Land based runoff and they were dominated by the high molecular weight PAHs (4–6- rings). Source identification showed that PAHs originated mostly from the pyrogenic source either from the combustion of fossil fuels, grass, wood and coal (majority of the samples). Ecological Risk Assessment on the port sediments presented that slightly adverse ecological effects to biological community are expected to occur at the vicinity of the stations 1 and 4. Thus PAHs are not considered as pollutants of concern in the North Port.

Keywords: PAHs, North Port, Ecological Risk, sediment

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328 Chattering-free Sliding Mode Control for an Active Magnetic Bearing System

Authors: Abdul Rashid Husain, Mohamad Noh Ahmad, Abdul Halim Mohd Yatim

Abstract:

In this paper, a few chattering-free Sliding Mode Controllers (SMC) are proposed to stabilize an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) system with gyroscopic effect that is proportional to the rotor speed. The improved switching terms of the controller inherited from the saturation-type function and boundary layer control technique is shown to be able to achieve bounded and asymptotic stability, respectively, while the chattering effect in the input is attenuated. This is proven to be advantageous for AMB system since minimization of chattering results in optimized control effort. The performance of each controller is demonstrated via result of simulation in which the measurement of the total consumed energy and maximum control magnitude of each controller illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

Keywords: Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB), Sliding Mode Control (SMC), chattering-free SMC.

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327 Application of H2 -based Sliding Mode Control for an Active Magnetic Bearing System

Authors: Abdul Rashid Husain, Mohamad Noh Ahmad, Abdul Halim Mohd. Yatim

Abstract:

In this paper, application of Sliding Mode Control (SMC) technique for an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) system with varying rotor speed is considered. The gyroscopic effect and mass imbalance inherited in the system is proportional to rotor speed in which this nonlinearity effect causes high system instability as the rotor speed increases. Transformation of the AMB dynamic model into regular system shows that these gyroscopic effect and imbalance lie in the mismatched part of the system. A H2-based sliding surface is designed which bound the mismatched parts. The solution of the surface parameter is obtained using Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI). The performance of the controller applied to the AMB model is demonstrated through simulation works under various system conditions.

Keywords: Active magnetic bearing, sliding mode control, linear matrix inequality, mismatched uncertainty and imbalance.

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326 Asymptotic Stabilization of an Active Magnetic Bearing System using LMI-based Sliding Mode Control

Authors: Abdul Rashid Husain, Mohamad Noh Ahmad, Abdul Halim Mohd. Yatim

Abstract:

In this paper, stabilization of an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) system with varying rotor speed using Sliding Mode Control (SMC) technique is considered. The gyroscopic effect inherited in the system is proportional to rotor speed in which this nonlinearity effect causes high system instability as the rotor speed increases. Also, transformation of the AMB dynamic model into a new class of uncertain system shows that this gyroscopic effect lies in the mismatched part of the system matrix. Moreover, the current gain parameter is allowed to be varied in a known bound as an uncertainty in the input matrix. SMC design method is proposed in which the sufficient condition that guarantees the global exponential stability of the reduced-order system is represented in Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI). Then, a new chattering-free control law is established such that the system states are driven to reach the switching surface and stay on it thereafter. The performance of the controller applied to the AMB model is demonstrated through simulation works under various system conditions.

Keywords: Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB), Sliding ModeControl (SMC), Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI), mismatcheduncertainty.

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325 A Hybrid Technology for a Multiagent Consultation System in Obesity Domain

Authors: Rohana Mahmud, Hairul Aysa Abdul Halim Sithiq, Haryuna Mohd Taharim

Abstract:

In this paper, the authors present architecture of a multi agent consultation system for obesity related problems, which hybrid the technology of an expert system (ES) and an intelligent agent (IA). The strength of the ES which is capable of pulling the expert knowledge is consulted and presented to the end user via the autonomous and friendly pushing environment of the intelligent agent.

Keywords: Expert System, Hybrid Technology, Intelligent Agent, Medical Informatics, Multi Agent Consultation System.

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324 Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Ong Kai Sheng

Abstract:

The MEMS pressure sensor has been introduced and presented in this paper. The types of pressure sensor and its theory of operation are also included. The latest MEMS technology, the fabrication processes of pressure sensor are explored and discussed. Besides, various device applications of pressure sensor such as tire pressure-monitoring system, diesel particulate filter and others are explained. Due to further miniaturization of the device nowadays, the pressure sensor with nanotechnology (NEMS) is also reviewed. The NEMS pressure sensor is expected to have better performance as well as lower in its cost. It has gained an excellent popularity in many applications.

Keywords: Pressure sensor, diaphragm, MEMS, automotive application, biomedical application, NEMS.

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323 Effect of Hartmann Number on Free Convective Flow in a Square Cavity with Different Positions of Heated Square Block

Authors: Abdul Halim Bhuiyan, M. A. Alim, Md. Nasir Uddin

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the effect of Hartmann number on the free convective flow in a square cavity with different positions of heated square block. The two-dimensional Physical and mathematical model have been developed, and mathematical model includes the system of governing mass, momentum and energy equations are solved by the finite element method. The calculations have been computed for Prandtl number Pr = 0.71, the Rayleigh number Ra = 1000 and the different values of Hartmann number. The results are illustrated with the streamlines, isotherms, velocity and temperature fields as well as local Nusselt number.

Keywords: Finite element method, free convection, Hartmann number, square cavity.

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322 A Compilation of Nanotechnology in Thin Film Solar Cell Devices

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Nik Hasniza Nik Aman

Abstract:

Nanotechnology has become the world attention in various applications including the solar cells devices due to the uniqueness and benefits of achieving low cost and better performances of devices. Recently, thin film solar cells such as Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), Copper-Indium-Gallium-diSelenide (CIGS), Copper-Zinc-Tin-Sulphide (CZTS), and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) enhanced by nanotechnology have attracted much attention. Thus, a compilation of nanotechnology devices giving the progress in the solar cells has been presented. It is much related to nanoparticles or nanocrystallines, carbon nanotubes, and nanowires or nanorods structures.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, nanocrystalline, nanowires, carbon nanotubes, nanorods, thin film solar cells.

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321 Subclasses of Bi-Univalent Functions Associated with Hohlov Operator

Authors: Rashidah Omar, Suzeini Abdul Halim, Aini Janteng

Abstract:

The coefficients estimate problem for Taylor-Maclaurin series is still an open problem especially for a function in the subclass of bi-univalent functions. A function f ϵ A is said to be bi-univalent in the open unit disk D if both f and f-1 are univalent in D. The symbol A denotes the class of all analytic functions f in D and it is normalized by the conditions f(0) = f’(0) – 1=0. The class of bi-univalent is denoted by  The subordination concept is used in determining second and third Taylor-Maclaurin coefficients. The upper bound for second and third coefficients is estimated for functions in the subclasses of bi-univalent functions which are subordinated to the function φ. An analytic function f is subordinate to an analytic function g if there is an analytic function w defined on D with w(0) = 0 and |w(z)| < 1 satisfying f(z) = g[w(z)]. In this paper, two subclasses of bi-univalent functions associated with Hohlov operator are introduced. The bound for second and third coefficients of functions in these subclasses is determined using subordination. The findings would generalize the previous related works of several earlier authors.

Keywords: Analytic functions, bi-univalent functions, Hohlov operator, subordination.

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320 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination in Sediment and Wastewater from the Imam Khomeini and Razi Petrochemical Companies- Iran

Authors: Ghazaleh Monazami Tehrani, A. Halim Sulaiman, Rosli Hashim, Ahmad Savari, Belin Tavakoly Sany T Mohamad Taqi Jafarzadeh, Reza Khani Jazani, Zhamak Monazami Tehrani

Abstract:

The present study was performed in Musa bay (northern part of the Persian Gulf) around the coastal area of Bandare-Imam Khomeini and Razi Petrochemical Companies. Sediment samples and effluent samples were collected from the selected stations, from June 2009 to June 2010. The samples were analyzed to determine the degree of hydrocarbon contamination. The average level of TPH concentration in the study area was more than the natural background value at all of the stations, especially at station BI1 which was the main effluent outlet of Bandar-e- Imam Khomeini petrochemical company. Also the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon was monitored in the effluents of aforementioned petrochemical companies and the results showed that the concentration of TPH in the effluents of Bandar-e- Imam Khomeini petrochemical company was greater than Razi petrochemical company which is may be related to the products of Bandar-e- Imam Khomeini petrochemical company (aromatics, polymers, chemicals, fuel).

Keywords: Musa bay, Bandar-e- Imam Khomeini and Razi Petrochemical Companies, TPH

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319 Optimal Embedded Generation Allocation in Distribution System Employing Real Coded Genetic Algorithm Method

Authors: Mohd Herwan Sulaiman, Omar Aliman, Siti Rafidah Abdul Rahim

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new methodology for the optimal allocation and sizing of Embedded Generation (EG) employing Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) to minimize the total power losses and to improve voltage profiles in the radial distribution networks. RCGA is a method that uses continuous floating numbers as representation which is different from conventional binary numbers. The RCGA is used as solution tool, which can determine the optimal location and size of EG in radial system simultaneously. This method is developed in MATLAB. The effect of EG units- installation and their sizing to the distribution networks are demonstrated using 24 bus system.

Keywords: Embedded generation (EG), load flow study, optimal allocation, real coded genetic algorithm (RCGA).

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318 WPRiMA Tool: Managing Risks in Web Projects

Authors: Thamer Al-Rousan, Shahida Sulaiman, Rosalina Abdul Salam

Abstract:

Risk management is an essential fraction of project management, which plays a significant role in project success. Many failures associated with Web projects are the consequences of poor awareness of the risks involved and lack of process models that can serve as a guideline for the development of Web based applications. To circumvent this problem, contemporary process models have been devised for the development of conventional software. This paper introduces the WPRiMA (Web Project Risk Management Assessment) as the tool, which is used to implement RIAP, the risk identification architecture pattern model, which focuses upon the data from the proprietor-s and vendor-s perspectives. The paper also illustrates how WPRiMA tool works and how it can be used to calculate the risk level for a given Web project, to generate recommendations in order to facilitate risk avoidance in a project, and to improve the prospects of early risk management.

Keywords: Architecture pattern model, risk factors, risk identification, web project, web project risk management assessment.

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317 A Review on Soft Computing Technique in Intrusion Detection System

Authors: Noor Suhana Sulaiman, Rohani Abu Bakar, Norrozila Sulaiman

Abstract:

Intrusion Detection System is significant in network security. It detects and identifies intrusion behavior or intrusion attempts in a computer system by monitoring and analyzing the network packets in real time. In the recent year, intelligent algorithms applied in the intrusion detection system (IDS) have been an increasing concern with the rapid growth of the network security. IDS data deals with a huge amount of data which contains irrelevant and redundant features causing slow training and testing process, higher resource consumption as well as poor detection rate. Since the amount of audit data that an IDS needs to examine is very large even for a small network, classification by hand is impossible. Hence, the primary objective of this review is to review the techniques prior to classification process suit to IDS data.

Keywords: Intrusion Detection System, security, soft computing, classification.

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316 Performance of Phytogreen Zone for BOD5 and SS Removal for Refurbishment Conventional Oxidation Pond in an Integrated Phytogreen System

Authors: A. R. Abdul Syukor, A. W. Zularisam, Z. Ideris, M. S. Mohd Ismid, H. M. Nakmal, S. Sulaiman, A. H. Hasmanie, M. R. Siti Norsita, M. Nasrullah

Abstract:

In this study, the effectiveness of an integrated aquatic plants in phytogreen zone was studied and statistical analysis for the promotional integrated phytogreen system approached was discussed. It was found that's the effectiveness of using aquatic plant such as Typha angustifolia sp., Lepironia articulata sp., Limnocharis flava sp., Monochoria vaginalis sp., Pistia stratiotes sp., and Eichhornia crassipes sp., in the conventional oxidation pond process in order to comply the standard A according to Malaysia Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127); Environmental Quality (Sewage) Regulation 2009 for effluent discharge into inland water near the residential area was successfully shown. It was concluded that the integrated phtogreen system developed in this study has great potential for refurbishment wastewater in conventional oxidation pond.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, integrated phytogreen system, sewage treatment plant, oxidation pond, aquatic plants.

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315 An Assessment of Technological Competencies on Professional Service Firms Business Performance

Authors: Sulaiman Ainin, Yusniza Kamar ulzaman, Abdul Ghani Farinda

Abstract:

This study was initiated with a three prong objective. One, to identify the relationship between Technological Competencies factors (Technical Capability, Firm Innovativeness and E-Business Practices and professional service firms- business performance. To investigate the predictors of professional service firms business performance and finally to evaluate the predictors of business performance according to the type of professional service firms, a survey questionnaire was deployed to collect empirical data. The questionnaire was distributed to the owners of the professional small medium size enterprises services in the Accounting, Legal, Engineering and Architecture sectors. Analysis showed that all three Technology Competency factors have moderate effect on business performance. In addition, the regression models indicate that technical capability is the most highly influential that could determine business performance, followed by e-business practices and firm innovativeness. Subsequently, the main predictor of business performance for all types of firms is Technical capability.

Keywords: technology competency, technology capability, innovativeness, E-business practice

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314 A Numerical Study on the Seismic Performance of Built-Up Battened Columns

Authors: Sophia C. Alih, Mohammadreza Vafaei, Farnoud Rahimi Mansour, Nur Hajarul Falahi Abdul Halim

Abstract:

Built-up columns have been widely employed by practice engineers in the design and construction of buildings and bridges. However, failures have been observed in this type of columns in previous seismic events. This study analyses the performance of built-up columns with different configurations of battens when it is subjected to seismic loads. Four columns with different size of battens were simulated and subjected to three different intensities of axial load along with a lateral cyclic load. Results indicate that the size of battens influences significantly the seismic behavior of columns. Lower shear capacity of battens results in higher ultimate strength and ductility for built-up columns. It is observed that intensity of axial load has a significant effect on the ultimate strength of columns, but it is less influential on the yield strength. For a given drift value, the stress level in the centroid of smaller size battens is significantly more than that of larger size battens signifying damage concentration in battens rather than chords. It is concluded that design of battens for shear demand lower than code specified values only slightly reduces initial stiffness of columns; however, it improves seismic performance of battened columns.

Keywords: Battened column, built-up column, cyclic behavior, seismic design, steel column.

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313 Performance Analysis of Evolutionary ANN for Output Prediction of a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System

Authors: S.I Sulaiman, T.K Abdul Rahman, I. Musirin, S. Shaari

Abstract:

This paper presents performance analysis of the Evolutionary Programming-Artificial Neural Network (EPANN) based technique to optimize the architecture and training parameters of a one-hidden layer feedforward ANN model for the prediction of energy output from a grid connected photovoltaic system. The ANN utilizes solar radiation and ambient temperature as its inputs while the output is the total watt-hour energy produced from the grid-connected PV system. EP is used to optimize the regression performance of the ANN model by determining the optimum values for the number of nodes in the hidden layer as well as the optimal momentum rate and learning rate for the training. The EPANN model is tested using two types of transfer function for the hidden layer, namely the tangent sigmoid and logarithmic sigmoid. The best transfer function, neural topology and learning parameters were selected based on the highest regression performance obtained during the ANN training and testing process. It is observed that the best transfer function configuration for the prediction model is [logarithmic sigmoid, purely linear].

Keywords: Artificial neural network (ANN), Correlation coefficient (R), Evolutionary programming-ANN (EPANN), Photovoltaic (PV), logarithmic sigmoid and tangent sigmoid.

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312 Using Thinking Blocks to Encourage the Use of Higher Order Thinking Skills among Students When Solving Problems on Fractions

Authors: Abdul Halim Abdullah, Nur Liyana Zainal Abidin, Mahani Mokhtar

Abstract:

Problem-solving is an activity which can encourage students to use Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). Learning fractions can be challenging for students since empirical evidence shows that students experience difficulties in solving the fraction problems. However, visual methods can help students to overcome the difficulties since the methods help students to make meaningful visual representations and link abstract concepts in Mathematics. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were any changes in students’ HOTS at the four highest levels when learning the fractions by using Thinking Blocks. 54 students participated in a quasi-experiment using pre-tests and post-tests. Students were divided into two groups. The experimental group (n=32) received a treatment to improve the students’ HOTS and the other group acted as the control group (n=22) which used a traditional method. Data were analysed by using Mann-Whitney test. The results indicated that during post-test, students who used Thinking Blocks showed significant improvement in their HOTS level (p=0.000). In addition, the results of post-test also showed that the students’ performance improved significantly at the four highest levels of HOTS; namely, application (p=0.001), analyse (p=0.000), evaluate (p=0.000), and create (p=0.000). Therefore, it can be concluded that Thinking Blocks can effectively encourage students to use the four highest levels of HOTS which consequently enable them to solve fractions problems successfully.

Keywords: Thinking blocks, higher order thinking skills, fractions, problem solving.

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311 IT/IS Outsourcing Relationship Factors in Higher Education Institution: Behavioral Dimensions from Client Perspectives

Authors: Nor Aziati Abdul Hamid, Rajeev SuberamanyNor Aziati Abdul Hamid, Rajeev Suberamany

Abstract:

Higher education institutions are increasingly opting to outsourcing methods in order to sustain themselves and this creates a gap of literature in terms of how they perceive the relationship. This research paper attempts to identify the behavioral and psychological factors that exist in the engagement thus providing valuable information to practicing and potential clients, and vendors. The determinants were gathered from previous literatures and analyzed to formulate the factors. This study adopts the case study and survey approaches in which interviews and questionnaires are deployed on employees of IT-related department in a Malaysian higher education institution.

Keywords: Higher education institution, information technology, outsourcing, relationship

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310 Performance Evaluation of Distributed and Co-Located MIMO LTE Physical Layer Using Wireless Open-Access Research Platform

Authors: Ishak Suleiman, Ahmad Kamsani Samingan, Yeoh Chun Yeow, Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

In this paper, we evaluate the benefits of distributed 4x4 MIMO LTE downlink systems compared to that of the co-located 4x4 MIMO LTE downlink system. The performance evaluation was carried out experimentally by using Wireless Open-Access Research Platform (WARP), where the comparison between the 4x4 MIMO LTE transmission downlink system in distributed and co-located techniques was examined. The measured Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) results showed that the distributed technique achieved better system performance compared to the co-located arrangement.

Keywords: Multiple-input-multiple-output, MIMO, distributed MIMO, co-located MIMO, LTE.

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309 The Investigation of Green Roof and White Roof Cooling Potential on Single Storey Residential Building in the Malaysian Climate

Authors: Asmat Ismail, Muna Hanim Abdul Samad, Abdul Malek Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

The phenomenon of global warming or climate change has led to many environmental issues including higher atmospheric temperatures, intense precipitation, increased greenhouse gaseous emissions and increased indoor discomfort. Studies have shown that bringing nature to the roof such as constructing green roof and implementing high-reflective roof may give positive impact in mitigating the effects of global warming and in increasing thermal comfort sensation inside buildings. However, no study has been conducted to compare both types of passive roof treatments in Malaysia in order to increase thermal comfort in buildings. Therefore, this study is conducted to investigate the effect of green roof and white painted roof as passive roof treatment in improving indoor comfort of Malaysian homes. This study uses an experimental approach in which the measurements of temperatures are conducted on the case study building. The measurements of outdoor and indoor environments were conducted on the flat roof with two different types of roof treatment that are green roof and white roof. The measurement of existing black bare roof was also conducted to act as a control for this study.

Keywords: global warming, green roof, white painted roof, indoor temperature reduction.

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308 Free Fatty Acid Assessment of Crude Palm Oil Using a Non-Destructive Approach

Authors: Siti Nurhidayah Naqiah Abdull Rani, Herlina Abdul Rahim, Rashidah Ghazali, Noramli Abdul Razak

Abstract:

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has always been of great interest in the food and agriculture industries. The development of prediction models has facilitated the estimation process in recent years. In this study, 110 crude palm oil (CPO) samples were used to build a free fatty acid (FFA) prediction model. 60% of the collected data were used for training purposes and the remaining 40% used for testing. The visible peaks on the NIR spectrum were at 1725 nm and 1760 nm, indicating the existence of the first overtone of C-H bands. Principal component regression (PCR) was applied to the data in order to build this mathematical prediction model. The optimal number of principal components was 10. The results showed R2=0.7147 for the training set and R2=0.6404 for the testing set.

Keywords: Palm oil, fatty acid, NIRS, regression.

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307 Principal Component Regression in Noninvasive Pineapple Soluble Solids Content Assessment Based On Shortwave Near Infrared Spectrum

Authors: K. S. Chia, H. Abdul Rahim, R. Abdul Rahim

Abstract:

The Principal component regression (PCR) is a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR). The objective of this paper is to revise the use of PCR in shortwave near infrared (SWNIR) (750-1000nm) spectral analysis. The idea of PCR was explained mathematically and implemented in the non-destructive assessment of the soluble solid content (SSC) of pineapple based on SWNIR spectral data. PCR achieved satisfactory results in this application with root mean squared error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.7611 Brix°, coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.5865 and root mean squared error of crossvalidation (RMSECV) of 0.8323 Brix° with principal components (PCs) of 14.

Keywords: Pineapple, Shortwave near infrared, Principal component regression, Non-invasive measurement; Soluble solids content

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306 Design Resilient Building Strategies in Face of Climate Change

Authors: Yahya Alfraidi, Abdel Halim Boussabaine

Abstract:

Climate change confronts the built environment with many new challenges in the form of more severe and frequent hydrometeorological events. A series of strategies is proposed whereby the various aspects of buildings and their sites can be made more resilient to the effects of such events.

Keywords: Design resilience building, resilience strategies, climate change risks, design resilience aspects.

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305 Boundary Segmentation of Microcalcification using Parametric Active Contours

Authors: Abdul Kadir Jumaat, Siti Salmah Yasiran, Wan Eny Zarina Wan Abd Rahman, Aminah Abdul Malek

Abstract:

A mammography image is composed of low contrast area where the breast tissues and the breast abnormalities such as microcalcification can hardly be differentiated by the medical practitioner. This paper presents the application of active contour models (Snakes) for the segmentation of microcalcification in mammography images. Comparison on the microcalcifiation areas segmented by the Balloon Snake, Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) Snake, and Distance Snake is done against the true value of the microcalcification area. The true area value is the average microcalcification area in the original mammography image traced by the expert radiologists. From fifty images tested, the result obtained shows that the accuracy of the Balloon Snake, GVF Snake, and Distance Snake in segmenting boundaries of microcalcification are 96.01%, 95.74%, and 95.70% accuracy respectively. This implies that the Balloon Snake is a better segmentation method to locate the exact boundary of a microcalcification region.

Keywords: Balloon Snake, GVF Snake, Distance Snake, Mammogram, Microcalcifications, Segmentation

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304 An Overview of Sludge Utilization into Fired Clay Brick

Authors: Aeslina Binti Abdul Kadir, Ahmad Shayuti Bin Abdul Rahim

Abstract:

Brick is one of the most common masonry units used as building material. Due to the demand, different types of waste have been investigated to be incorporated into the bricks. Many types of sludge have been incorporated in fired clay brick for example marble sludge, stone sludge, water sludge, sewage sludge, and ceramic sludge. The utilization of these waste materials in fired clay bricks usually has positive effects on the properties such as lightweight bricks with improved shrinkage, porosity, and strength. This paper reviews on utilization of different types of sludge wastes into fired clay bricks. Previous investigations have demonstrated positive effects on the physical and mechanical properties as well as less impact towards the environment. Thus, the utilizations of sludge waste could produce a good quality of brick and could be one of alternative disposal methods for the sludge wastes.

Keywords: Fired Clay Brick, Sludge waste, Compressive strength, Shrinkage, Water absorption.

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303 Application of Natural Clay to Formulate Nontraditional Completion Fluid that Triples Oil Productivity

Authors: Munawar Khalil, Badrul Mohamed Jan, Abdul Aziz Abdul Raman

Abstract:

In the last decades, the problem of perforation damage has been considered as the major factor for the reduction of oil productivity. Underbalance perforation is considered as one of the best means to minimize or overcome this problem. By maintaining wellbore pressure lower than formation pressure, perforation damage could be minimize or eliminated. This can be achieved by the use of nontraditional lightweight completion fluid. This paper presents the effect of natural clay in formulating nontraditional completion fluid to ensure successful perforation job and increase of production rate. Natural clay is used as homogenizing agent to create a stable and non-damaging low-density completion fluid. Results indicate that the addition of natural clay dramatically increase the stability of the final fluids. In addition, field test has shown that the application of nontraditional completion fluid increases oil production by three folds.

Keywords: Completion fluid, underbalance, clay, oil production.

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302 Structural and Computational Studies of N-[(2,6-Diethylphenyl) carbamothioyl]-2,2-diphenylacetamide, N-[(3 Ethylphenyl) carbamothioyl]-2,2-diphenylacetamide and 2,2-Diphenyl-N-{[2-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl]carbamothioyl}acetamide

Authors: Ibrahim Abdul Razak, Suhana Arshad, Nur Rafikah Razali, Azhar Abdul Rahman, Mohd Sukeri Mohd Yusof

Abstract:

Theoretical investigations are performed by DFT method of B3LYP/6-31G+(2d,p) and B3LYP/6-311G+(2d,p) basis sets for three carbonyl thiourea compounds, namely N-[(2,6-Diethylphenyl)carbamothioyl]-2,2-diphenylacetamide (Compound I), N-[(3-Ethylphenyl)carbamothioyl]-2,2-diphenylacetamide (Compound II) and 2,2-Diphenyl-N-{[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]carbamothioyl}acetamide (Compound III). Theoretical calculations for bond parameters, harmonic vibration frequencies and isotropic chemical shifts are in good agreement with the experimental results. The calculated molecular vibrations show good correlation values, which are 0.998 and 0.999 with the experimental data. The energy gap for compounds I, II and III calculated at B3LYP/6-31G+(2d,p) basis set are 4.455866117, 4.297495791 and 4.313550514 eV respectively, while for B3LYP/6-311G+(2d,p) basis set the energy gap obtained are 4.453689205 (Compound I), 4.311373603 (Compound II) and 4.315727426 (Compound III) eV.

Keywords: Crystallization, DFT studies, Spectroscopic Analysis, Thiourea.

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301 Sound Exposure Effects towards Ross Broilers Growth Rate

Authors: Rashidah Ghazali, Herlina Abdul Rahim, Mashitah Shikh Maidin, Shafishuhaza Sahlan, Noramli Abdul Razak

Abstract:

Sound exposure effects have been investigated by broadcasting a group of broilers with sound of Quran verses (Group B) whereas the other group is the control broilers (Group C). The growth rate comparisons in terms of weight and raw meat texture measured by shear force have been investigated. Twenty-seven broilers were randomly selected from each group on Day 24 and weight measurement was carried out every week till the harvest day (Day 39).Group B showed a higher mean weight on Day 24 (1.441 ± 0.013 kg) than Group C. Significant difference in the weight on Day 39 existed for Group B compared to Group C (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant (p >0.05) difference of shear force in the same muscles (breast and drumstick raw meat) of both groups but the shear force of the breast meat for Group B and C broilers was lower (p < 0.05) than that of their drumstick meat. Thus, broadcasting the sound of Quran verses in the coop can be applied to improve the growth rate of broilers for producing better quality poultry.

Keywords: Broilers, sound, shear force, weight.

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300 The Design and Development of Driving Game as an Evaluation Instrument for Driving License Test

Authors: Abdul Hadi Abdul Razak, Mohd Hairy Manap

Abstract:

The focus of this paper is to highlight the design and development of an educational game prototype as an evaluation instrument for the Malaysia driving license static test. This educational game brings gaming technology into the conventional objective static test to make it more effective, real and interesting. From the feeling of realistic, the future driver can learn something, memorized and use it in the real life. The current online objective static test only make the user memorized the answer without knowing and understand the true purpose of the question. Therefore, in real life, they will not behave as expected due to behavior and moral lacking. This prototype has been developed inform of multiple-choice questions integrated with 3D gaming environment to make it simulate the real environment and scenarios. Based on the testing conducted, the respondent agrees with the use of this game prototype it can increase understanding and promote obligation towards traffic rules.

Keywords: Educational game, evaluation instrument, game, game prototype.

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