Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 315

Search results for: ANOVA

45 Geometric Operators in Decision Making with Minimization of Regret

Authors: José M. Merigó, Montserrat Casanovas

Abstract:

We study different types of aggregation operators and the decision making process with minimization of regret. We analyze the original work developed by Savage and the recent work developed by Yager that generalizes the MMR method creating a parameterized family of minimal regret methods by using the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator. We suggest a new method that uses different types of geometric operators such as the weighted geometric mean or the ordered weighted geometric operator (OWG) to generalize the MMR method obtaining a new parameterized family of minimal regret methods. The main result obtained in this method is that it allows to aggregate negative numbers in the OWG operator. Finally, we give an illustrative example.

Keywords: Decision making, Regret, Aggregation operators, OWA operator, OWG operator.

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44 Effects of Computer–Based Instructional Designs among Pupils of Different Music Intelligence Levels

Authors: Aldalalah, M. Osamah, Soon Fook Fong

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of computer–based instructional designs, namely modality and redundancy principles on the attitude and learning of music theory among primary pupils of different Music Intelligence levels. The lesson of music theory was developed in three different modes, audio and image (AI), text with image (TI) and audio with image and text (AIT). The independent variables were the three modes of courseware. The moderator variable was music intelligence. The dependent variables were the post test score. ANOVA was used to determine the significant differences of the pretest scores among the three groups. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and Post hoc were carried out to examine the main effects as well as the interaction effects of the independent variables on the dependent variables. High music intelligence pupils performed significantly better than low music intelligence pupils in all the three treatment modes. The AI mode was found to help pupils with low music intelligence significantly more than the TI and AIT modes.

Keywords: Modality, Redundancy, Music theory, Cognitivetheory of multimedia learning, Cognitive load theory, Musicintelligence.

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43 Effects of Multimedia-based Instructional Designs for Arabic Language Learning among Pupils of Different Achievement Levels

Authors: Aldalalah, M. Osamah, Soon Fook Fong & Ababneh, W. Ziad

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of modality principles in instructional software among first grade pupils- achievements in the learning of Arabic Language. Two modes of instructional software were systematically designed and developed, audio with images (AI), and text with images (TI). The quasi-experimental design was used in the study. The sample consisted of 123 male and female pupils from IRBED Education Directorate, Jordan. The pupils were randomly assigned to any one of the two modes. The independent variable comprised the two modes of the instructional software, the students- achievement levels in the Arabic Language class and gender. The dependent variable was the achievements of the pupils in the Arabic Language test. The theoretical framework of this study was based on Mayer-s Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. Four hypotheses were postulated and tested. Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) showed that pupils using the (AI) mode performed significantly better than those using (TI) mode. This study concluded that the audio with images mode was an important aid to learning as compared to text with images mode.

Keywords: Cognitive theory of Multimedia Learning, ModalityPrinciple, Multimedia, Arabic Language learning

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42 Named Entity Recognition using Support Vector Machine: A Language Independent Approach

Authors: Asif Ekbal, Sivaji Bandyopadhyay

Abstract:

Named Entity Recognition (NER) aims to classify each word of a document into predefined target named entity classes and is now-a-days considered to be fundamental for many Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks such as information retrieval, machine translation, information extraction, question answering systems and others. This paper reports about the development of a NER system for Bengali and Hindi using Support Vector Machine (SVM). Though this state of the art machine learning technique has been widely applied to NER in several well-studied languages, the use of this technique to Indian languages (ILs) is very new. The system makes use of the different contextual information of the words along with the variety of features that are helpful in predicting the four different named (NE) classes, such as Person name, Location name, Organization name and Miscellaneous name. We have used the annotated corpora of 122,467 tokens of Bengali and 502,974 tokens of Hindi tagged with the twelve different NE classes 1, defined as part of the IJCNLP-08 NER Shared Task for South and South East Asian Languages (SSEAL) 2. In addition, we have manually annotated 150K wordforms of the Bengali news corpus, developed from the web-archive of a leading Bengali newspaper. We have also developed an unsupervised algorithm in order to generate the lexical context patterns from a part of the unlabeled Bengali news corpus. Lexical patterns have been used as the features of SVM in order to improve the system performance. The NER system has been tested with the gold standard test sets of 35K, and 60K tokens for Bengali, and Hindi, respectively. Evaluation results have demonstrated the recall, precision, and f-score values of 88.61%, 80.12%, and 84.15%, respectively, for Bengali and 80.23%, 74.34%, and 77.17%, respectively, for Hindi. Results show the improvement in the f-score by 5.13% with the use of context patterns. Statistical analysis, ANOVA is also performed to compare the performance of the proposed NER system with that of the existing HMM based system for both the languages.

Keywords: Named Entity (NE), Named Entity Recognition (NER), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Bengali, Hindi.

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41 Removal of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solution using Hydrilla verticillata -Optimization, Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies

Authors: R. Rajeshkannan, M. Rajasimman, N. Rajamohan

Abstract:

In this study, the sorption of Malachite green (MG) on Hydrilla verticillata biomass, a submerged aquatic plant, was investigated in a batch system. The effects of operating parameters such as temperature, adsorbent dosage, contact time, adsorbent size, and agitation speed on the sorption of Malachite green were analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM). The proposed quadratic model for central composite design (CCD) fitted very well to the experimental data that it could be used to navigate the design space according to ANOVA results. The optimum sorption conditions were determined as temperature - 43.5oC, adsorbent dosage - 0.26g, contact time - 200min, adsorbent size - 0.205mm (65mesh), and agitation speed - 230rpm. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to the equilibrium data. The maximum monolayer coverage capacity of Hydrilla verticillata biomass for MG was found to be 91.97 mg/g at an initial pH 8.0 indicating that the optimum sorption initial pH. The external and intra particle diffusion models were also applied to sorption data of Hydrilla verticillata biomass with MG, and it was found that both the external diffusion as well as intra particle diffusion contributes to the actual sorption process. The pseudo-second order kinetic model described the MG sorption process with a good fitting.

Keywords: Response surface methodology, Hydrilla verticillata, malachite green, adsorption, central composite design

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40 Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation(SSF) of Sugarcane Bagasse - Kinetics and Modeling

Authors: E.Sasikumar, T.Viruthagiri

Abstract:

Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) of sugarcane bagasse by cellulase and Pachysolen tannophilus MTCC *1077 were investigated in the present study. Important process variables for ethanol production form pretreated bagasse were optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) experiments. A 23 five level CCD experiments with central and axial points was used to develop a statistical model for the optimization of process variables such as incubation temperature (25–45°) X1, pH (5.0–7.0) X2 and fermentation time (24–120 h) X3. Data obtained from RSM on ethanol production were subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analyzed using a second order polynomial equation and contour plots were used to study the interactions among three relevant variables of the fermentation process. The fermentation experiments were carried out using an online monitored modular fermenter 2L capacity. The processing parameters setup for reaching a maximum response for ethanol production was obtained when applying the optimum values for temperature (32°C), pH (5.6) and fermentation time (110 h). Maximum ethanol concentration (3.36 g/l) was obtained from 50 g/l pretreated sugarcane bagasse at the optimized process conditions in aerobic batch fermentation. Kinetic models such as Monod, Modified Logistic model, Modified Logistic incorporated Leudeking – Piret model and Modified Logistic incorporated Modified Leudeking – Piret model have been evaluated and the constants were predicted.

Keywords: Sugarcane bagasse, ethanol, optimization, Pachysolen tannophilus.

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39 A New Approach for Predicting and Optimizing Weld Bead Geometry in GMAW

Authors: Farhad Kolahan, Mehdi Heidari

Abstract:

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) processes is an important joining process widely used in metal fabrication industries. This paper addresses modeling and optimization of this technique using a set of experimental data and regression analysis. The set of experimental data has been used to assess the influence of GMAW process parameters in weld bead geometry. The process variables considered here include voltage (V); wire feed rate (F); torch Angle (A); welding speed (S) and nozzle-to-plate distance (D). The process output characteristics include weld bead height, width and penetration. The Taguchi method and regression modeling are used in order to establish the relationships between input and output parameters. The adequacy of the model is evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. In the next stage, the proposed model is embedded into a Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm to optimize the GMAW process parameters. The objective is to determine a suitable set of process parameters that can produce desired bead geometry, considering the ranges of the process parameters. Computational results prove the effectiveness of the proposed model and optimization procedure.

Keywords: Weld Bead Geometry, GMAW welding, Processparameters Optimization, Modeling, SA algorithm

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38 A Statistical Approach for Predicting and Optimizing Depth of Cut in AWJ Machining for 6063-T6 Al Alloy

Authors: Farhad Kolahan, A. Hamid Khajavi

Abstract:

In this paper, a set of experimental data has been used to assess the influence of abrasive water jet (AWJ) process parameters in cutting 6063-T6 aluminum alloy. The process variables considered here include nozzle diameter, jet traverse rate, jet pressure and abrasive flow rate. The effects of these input parameters are studied on depth of cut (h); one of most important characteristics of AWJ. The Taguchi method and regression modeling are used in order to establish the relationships between input and output parameters. The adequacy of the model is evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. In the next stage, the proposed model is embedded into a Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm to optimize the AWJ process parameters. The objective is to determine a suitable set of process parameters that can produce a desired depth of cut, considering the ranges of the process parameters. Computational results prove the effectiveness of the proposed model and optimization procedure.

Keywords: AWJ machining, Mathematical modeling, Simulated Annealing, Optimization

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37 A Study on Removal Characteristics of (Mn2+) from Aqueous Solution by CNT

Authors: Nassereldeen A. Kabashi, Suleyman A. Muyibi. Mohammed E. Saeed., Farhana I. Yahya

Abstract:

It is important to remove manganese from water because of its effects on human and the environment. Human activities are one of the biggest contributors for excessive manganese concentration in the environment. The proposed method to remove manganese in aqueous solution by using adsorption as in carbon nanotubes (CNT) at different parameters: The parameters are CNT dosage, pH, agitation speed and contact time. Different pHs are pH 6.0, pH 6.5, pH 7.0, pH 7.5 and pH 8.0, CNT dosages are 5mg, 6.25mg, 7.5mg, 8.75mg or 10mg, contact time are 10 min, 32.5 min, 55 min, 87.5 min and 120 min while the agitation speeds are 100rpm, 150rpm, 200rpm, 250rpm and 300rpm. The parameters chosen for experiments are based on experimental design done by using Central Composite Design, Design Expert 6.0 with 4 parameters, 5 levels and 2 replications. Based on the results, condition set at pH 7.0, agitation speed of 300 rpm, 7.5mg and contact time 55 minutes gives the highest removal with 75.5%. From ANOVA analysis in Design Expert 6.0, the residual concentration will be very much affected by pH and CNT dosage. Initial manganese concentration is 1.2mg/L while the lowest residual concentration achieved is 0.294mg/L, which almost satisfy DOE Malaysia Standard B requirement. Therefore, further experiments must be done to remove manganese from model water to the required standard (0.2 mg/L) with the initial concentration set to 0.294 mg/L.

Keywords: Adsorption, CNT, DOE, Manganese, Parameters.

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36 Modeling and Optimization of Abrasive Waterjet Parameters using Regression Analysis

Authors: Farhad Kolahan, A. Hamid Khajavi

Abstract:

Abrasive waterjet is a novel machining process capable of processing wide range of hard-to-machine materials. This research addresses modeling and optimization of the process parameters for this machining technique. To model the process a set of experimental data has been used to evaluate the effects of various parameter settings in cutting 6063-T6 aluminum alloy. The process variables considered here include nozzle diameter, jet traverse rate, jet pressure and abrasive flow rate. Depth of cut, as one of the most important output characteristics, has been evaluated based on different parameter settings. The Taguchi method and regression modeling are used in order to establish the relationships between input and output parameters. The adequacy of the model is evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. The pairwise effects of process parameters settings on process response outputs are also shown graphically. The proposed model is then embedded into a Simulated Annealing algorithm to optimize the process parameters. The optimization is carried out for any desired values of depth of cut. The objective is to determine proper levels of process parameters in order to obtain a certain level of depth of cut. Computational results demonstrate that the proposed solution procedure is quite effective in solving such multi-variable problems.

Keywords: AWJ cutting, Mathematical modeling, Simulated Annealing, Optimization

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35 Modeling and Analysis of Process Parameters on Surface Roughness in EDM of AISI D2 Tool Steel by RSM Approach

Authors: M. K. Pradhan, C. K. Biswas

Abstract:

In this research, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used to investigate the effect of four controllable input variables namely: discharge current, pulse duration, pulse off time and applied voltage Surface Roughness (SR) of on Electrical Discharge Machined surface. To study the proposed second-order polynomial model for SR, a Central Composite Design (CCD) is used to estimation the model coefficients of the four input factors, which are alleged to influence the SR in Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) process. Experiments were conducted on AISI D2 tool steel with copper electrode. The response is modeled using RSM on experimental data. The significant coefficients are obtained by performing Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at 5% level of significance. It is found that discharge current, pulse duration, and pulse off time and few of their interactions have significant effect on the SR. The model sufficiency is very satisfactory as the Coefficient of Determination (R2) is found to be 91.7% and adjusted R2-statistic (R2 adj ) 89.6%.

Keywords: Electrical discharge machining, surface roughness, response surface methodology, ANOVA, central composite design.

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34 A Method under Uncertain Information for the Selection of Students in Interdisciplinary Studies

Authors: José M. Merigó, Pilar López-Jurado, M.Carmen Gracia, Montserrat Casanovas

Abstract:

We present a method for the selection of students in interdisciplinary studies based on the hybrid averaging operator. We assume that the available information given in the problem is uncertain so it is necessary to use interval numbers. Therefore, we suggest a new type of hybrid aggregation called uncertain induced generalized hybrid averaging (UIGHA) operator. It is an aggregation operator that considers the weighted average (WA) and the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator in the same formulation. Therefore, we are able to consider the degree of optimism of the decision maker and grades of importance in the same approach. By using interval numbers, we are able to represent the information considering the best and worst possible results so the decision maker gets a more complete view of the decision problem. We develop an illustrative example of the proposed scheme in the selection of students in interdisciplinary studies. We see that with the use of the UIGHA operator we get a more complete representation of the selection problem. Then, the decision maker is able to consider a wide range of alternatives depending on his interests. We also show other potential applications that could be used by using the UIGHA operator in educational problems about selection of different types of resources such as students, professors, etc.

Keywords: Decision making, Selection of students, Uncertainty, Aggregation operators.

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33 Treatment or Re-Victimizing the Victims

Authors: Juliana Panova

Abstract:

Severe symptoms, such as dissociation, depersonalization, self-mutilation, suicidal ideations and gestures, are the main reasons for a person to be diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and admitted to an inpatient Psychiatric Hospital. However, these symptoms are also indicators of a severe traumatic history as indicated by the extensive research on the topic. Unfortunately patients with such clinical presentation often are treated repeatedly only for their symptomatic behavior, while the main cause for their suffering, the trauma itself, is usually left unaddressed therapeutically. All of the highly structured, replicable, and manualized treatments lack the recognition of the uniqueness of the person and fail to respect his/her rights to experience and react in an idiosyncratic manner. Thus the communicative and adaptive meaning of such symptomatic behavior is missed. Only its pathological side is recognized and subjected to correction and stigmatization, and the message that the person is damaged goods that needs fixing is conveyed once again. However, this time the message would be even more convincing for the victim, because it is sent by mental health providers, who have the credibility to make such a judgment. The result is a revolving door of very expensive hospitalizations for only a temporary and patchy fix. In this way the patients, once victims of abuse and hardship are left invalidated and thus their re-victimization is perpetuated in their search for understanding and help. Keywordsborderline personality disorder (BPD), complex PTSD, integrative treatment of trauma, re-victimization of trauma victims.

Keywords: borderline personality disorder (BPD), complex PTSD, integrative treatment of trauma, re-victimization of trauma victims.

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32 The Induced Generalized Hybrid Averaging Operator and its Application in Financial Decision Making

Authors: José M. Merigó, Montserrat Casanovas

Abstract:

We present the induced generalized hybrid averaging (IGHA) operator. It is a new aggregation operator that generalizes the hybrid averaging (HA) by using generalized means and order inducing variables. With this formulation, we get a wide range of mean operators such as the induced HA (IHA), the induced hybrid quadratic averaging (IHQA), the HA, etc. The ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator and the weighted average (WA) are included as special cases of the HA operator. Therefore, with this generalization we can obtain a wide range of aggregation operators such as the induced generalized OWA (IGOWA), the generalized OWA (GOWA), etc. We further generalize the IGHA operator by using quasi-arithmetic means. Then, we get the Quasi-IHA operator. Finally, we also develop an illustrative example of the new approach in a financial decision making problem. The main advantage of the IGHA is that it gives a more complete view of the decision problem to the decision maker because it considers a wide range of situations depending on the operator used.

Keywords: Decision making, Aggregation operators, OWA operator, Generalized means, Selection of investments.

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31 The Effect of Combining Real Experimentation With Virtual Experimentation on Students-Success

Authors: I. Oral, E. Bozkurt, H. Guzel

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combining Real Experimentation (RE) With Virtual Experimentation (VE) on students- conceptual understanding of photo electric effect. To achieve this, a pre–post comparison study design was used that involved 46 undergraduate students. Two groups were set up for this study. Participants in the control group used RE to learn photo electric effect, whereas, participants in the experimental group used RE in the first part of the curriculum and VE in another part. Achievement test was given to the groups before and after the application as pre-test and post test. The independent samples t- test, one way Anova and Tukey HSD test were used for testing the data obtained from the study. According to the results of analyzes, the experimental group was found more successful than the control group.

Keywords: Computer Based Teaching, Java, Physics Education, Virtual Laboratory.

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30 Mathematical Modeling to Predict Surface Roughness in CNC Milling

Authors: Ab. Rashid M.F.F., Gan S.Y., Muhammad N.Y.

Abstract:

Surface roughness (Ra) is one of the most important requirements in machining process. In order to obtain better surface roughness, the proper setting of cutting parameters is crucial before the process take place. This research presents the development of mathematical model for surface roughness prediction before milling process in order to evaluate the fitness of machining parameters; spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut. 84 samples were run in this study by using FANUC CNC Milling α-Τ14ιE. Those samples were randomly divided into two data sets- the training sets (m=60) and testing sets(m=24). ANOVA analysis showed that at least one of the population regression coefficients was not zero. Multiple Regression Method was used to determine the correlation between a criterion variable and a combination of predictor variables. It was established that the surface roughness is most influenced by the feed rate. By using Multiple Regression Method equation, the average percentage deviation of the testing set was 9.8% and 9.7% for training data set. This showed that the statistical model could predict the surface roughness with about 90.2% accuracy of the testing data set and 90.3% accuracy of the training data set.

Keywords: Surface roughness, regression analysis.

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29 A Study on the Leadership Behavior, Safety Culture, and Safety Performance of the Healthcare Industry

Authors: Cheng-Chia Yang , Yi-Shun Wang , Sue-Ting Chang, Suh-Er Guo, Mei-Fen Huang

Abstract:

Object: Review recent publications of patient safety culture to investigate the relationship between leadership behavior, safety culture, and safety performance in the healthcare industry. Method: This study is a cross-sectional study, 350 questionnaires were mailed to hospital workers with 195 valid responses obtained, and a 55.7% valid response rate. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out to test the factor structure and determine if the composite reliability was significant with a factor loading of >0.5, resulting in an acceptable model fit. Results: Through the analysis of One-way ANOVA, the results showed that physicians significantly have more negative patient safety culture perceptions and safety performance perceptions than non- physicians. Conclusions: The path analysis results show that leadership behavior affects safety culture and safety performance in the health care industry. Safety performance was affected and improved with contingency leadership and a positive patient safety organization culture. The study suggests improving safety performance by providing a well-managed system that includes: consideration of leadership, hospital worker training courses, and a solid safety reporting system.

Keywords: Leadership Behavior, Patient Safety, Safety Culture, Safety Performance

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28 Design and Analysis of Gauge R&R Studies: Making Decisions Based on ANOVA Method

Authors: Afrooz Moatari Kazerouni

Abstract:

In a competitive production environment, critical decision making are based on data resulted by random sampling of product units. Efficiency of these decisions depends on data quality and also their reliability scale. This point leads to the necessity of a reliable measurement system. Therefore, the conjecture process and analysing the errors contributes to a measurement system known as Measurement System Analysis (MSA). The aim of this research is on determining the necessity and assurance of extensive development in analysing measurement systems, particularly with the use of Repeatability and Reproducibility Gages (GR&R) to improve physical measurements. Nowadays in productive industries, repeatability and reproducibility gages released so well but they are not applicable as well as other measurement system analysis methods. To get familiar with this method and gain a feedback in improving measurement systems, this survey would be on “ANOVA" method as the most widespread way of calculating Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R).

Keywords: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), MeasurementSystem Analysis (MSA), Part-Operator interaction effect, Repeatability and Reproducibility.

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27 Mathematical Modeling of Machining Parameters in Electrical Discharge Machining of FW4 Welded Steel

Authors: M.R.Shabgard, R.M.Shotorbani

Abstract:

FW4 is a newly developed hot die material widely used in Forging Dies manufacturing. The right selection of the machining conditions is one of the most important aspects to take into consideration in the Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) of FW4. In this paper an attempt has been made to develop mathematical models for relating the Material Removal Rate (MRR), Tool Wear Ratio (TWR) and surface roughness (Ra) to machining parameters (current, pulse-on time and voltage). Furthermore, a study was carried out to analyze the effects of machining parameters in respect of listed technological characteristics. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicate that the proposed mathematical models, can adequately describe the performance within the limits of the factors being studied.

Keywords: Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM), linearregression technique, Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

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26 Statistical Analysis of Different Configurations of Hybrid Doped Fiber Amplifiers

Authors: Inderpreet Kaur, Neena Gupta

Abstract:

Wavelength multiplexing (WDM) technology along with optical amplifiers is used for optical communication systems in S-band, C-band and L-band. To improve the overall system performance Hybrid amplifiers consisting of cascaded TDFA and EDFA with different gain bandwidths are preferred for long haul wavelength multiplexed optical communication systems. This paper deals with statistical analysis of different configuration of hybrid amplifier i.e. analysis of TDFA-EDFA configuration and EDFA – TDFA configuration. In this paper One-Way ANOVA method is used for statistical analysis.

Keywords: WDM, EDFA, TDFA, hybrid amplifier, One-wayANOVA.

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25 A New Approach for Prioritization of Failure Modes in Design FMEA using ANOVA

Authors: Sellappan Narayanagounder, Karuppusami Gurusami

Abstract:

The traditional Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) uses Risk Priority Number (RPN) to evaluate the risk level of a component or process. The RPN index is determined by calculating the product of severity, occurrence and detection indexes. The most critically debated disadvantage of this approach is that various sets of these three indexes may produce an identical value of RPN. This research paper seeks to address the drawbacks in traditional FMEA and to propose a new approach to overcome these shortcomings. The Risk Priority Code (RPC) is used to prioritize failure modes, when two or more failure modes have the same RPN. A new method is proposed to prioritize failure modes, when there is a disagreement in ranking scale for severity, occurrence and detection. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is used to compare means of RPN values. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) statistical analysis package is used to analyze the data. The results presented are based on two case studies. It is found that the proposed new methodology/approach resolves the limitations of traditional FMEA approach.

Keywords: Failure mode and effects analysis, Risk priority code, Critical failure mode, Analysis of variance.

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24 Using Fuzzy Numbers in Heavy Aggregation Operators

Authors: José M. Merigó, Montserrat Casanovas

Abstract:

We consider different types of aggregation operators such as the heavy ordered weighted averaging (HOWA) operator and the fuzzy ordered weighted averaging (FOWA) operator. We introduce a new extension of the OWA operator called the fuzzy heavy ordered weighted averaging (FHOWA) operator. The main characteristic of this aggregation operator is that it deals with uncertain information represented in the form of fuzzy numbers (FN) in the HOWA operator. We develop the basic concepts of this operator and study some of its properties. We also develop a wide range of families of FHOWA operators such as the fuzzy push up allocation, the fuzzy push down allocation, the fuzzy median allocation and the fuzzy uniform allocation.

Keywords: Aggregation operators, Fuzzy numbers, Fuzzy OWAoperator, Heavy OWA operator.

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23 Effect of One-Handed Pushing and Puling Strength at Different Handle Heights in Vertical Direction

Authors: Tarik H. Badi, Amer A. Boushaala

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to measure the maximal isometric strength and to investigate the effects of different handleheights and elbow angles with respect to Mid. sagittal plane on the pushing and pulling strength in vertical direction. Eight male subjects performed a series of static strength measurement for each subject. The highest isometric strength was found in pulling at shoulder height (S.H.) (Mean = 60.29 lb., SD = 16.78 lb.) and the lowest isometric strength was found also in pulling at elbow height (E.H.) (Mean = 33.06 lb., SD = 6.56 lb.). Although the isometric strengths were higher at S.H than at E.H. for both activities, the maximal isometric strengths were compared statistically. ANOVA was performed. The results of the experiment revealed that there was a significant different between handle heights. However, there were no significant different between angles and activities, also no correlation between grip strength and activities.

Keywords: Pushing and pulling, one arm, vertical direction, isometric strength.

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22 Decision Making with Dempster-Shafer Theory of Evidence Using Geometric Operators

Authors: José M. Merigó, Montserrat Casanovas

Abstract:

We study the problem of decision making with Dempster-Shafer belief structure. We analyze the previous work developed by Yager about using the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator in the aggregation of the Dempster-Shafer decision process. We discuss the possibility of aggregating with an ascending order in the OWA operator for the cases where the smallest value is the best result. We suggest the introduction of the ordered weighted geometric (OWG) operator in the Dempster-Shafer framework. In this case, we also discuss the possibility of aggregating with an ascending order and we find that it is completely necessary as the OWG operator cannot aggregate negative numbers. Finally, we give an illustrative example where we can see the different results obtained by using the OWA, the Ascending OWA (AOWA), the OWG and the Ascending OWG (AOWG) operator.

Keywords: Decision making, aggregation operators, Dempster- Shafer theory of evidence, Uncertainty, OWA operator, OWG operator.

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21 Web Based Remote Access Microcontroller Laboratory

Authors: H. Çimen, İ. Yabanova, M. Nartkaya, S. M. Çinar

Abstract:

This paper presents a web based remote access microcontroller laboratory. Because of accelerated development in electronics and computer technologies, microcontroller-based devices and appliances are found in all aspects of our daily life. Before the implementation of remote access microcontroller laboratory an experiment set is developed by teaching staff for training microcontrollers. Requirement of technical teaching and industrial applications are considered when experiment set is designed. Students can make the experiments by connecting to the experiment set which is connected to the computer that set as the web server. The students can program the microcontroller, can control digital and analog inputs and can observe experiment. Laboratory experiment web page can be accessed via www.elab.aku.edu.tr address.

Keywords: Embedded systems education, distance learning, internet-based control, remote microcontroller laboratory.

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20 Bioinformatic Analysis of Retroelement-Associated Sequences in Human and Mouse Promoters

Authors: Nadezhda M. Usmanova, Nikolai V. Tomilin

Abstract:

Mammalian genomes contain large number of retroelements (SINEs, LINEs and LTRs) which could affect expression of protein coding genes through associated transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Activity of the retroelement-associated TFBS in many genes is confirmed experimentally but their global functional impact remains unclear. Human SINEs (Alu repeats) and mouse SINEs (B1 and B2 repeats) are known to be clustered in GCrich gene rich genome segments consistent with the view that they can contribute to regulation of gene expression. We have shown earlier that Alu are involved in formation of cis-regulatory modules (clusters of TFBS) in human promoters, and other authors reported that Alu located near promoter CpG islands have an increased frequency of CpG dinucleotides suggesting that these Alu are undermethylated. Human Alu and mouse B1/B2 elements have an internal bipartite promoter for RNA polymerase III containing conserved sequence motif called B-box which can bind basal transcription complex TFIIIC. It has been recently shown that TFIIIC binding to B-box leads to formation of a boundary which limits spread of repressive chromatin modifications in S. pombe. SINEassociated B-boxes may have similar function but conservation of TFIIIC binding sites in SINEs located near mammalian promoters has not been studied earlier. Here we analysed abundance and distribution of retroelements (SINEs, LINEs and LTRs) in annotated sequences of the Database of mammalian transcription start sites (DBTSS). Fractions of SINEs in human and mouse promoters are slightly lower than in all genome but >40% of human and mouse promoters contain Alu or B1/B2 elements within -1000 to +200 bp interval relative to transcription start site (TSS). Most of these SINEs is associated with distal segments of promoters (-1000 to -200 bp relative to TSS) indicating that their insertion at distances >200 bp upstream of TSS is tolerated during evolution. Distribution of SINEs in promoters correlates negatively with the distribution of CpG sequences. Using analysis of abundance of 12-mer motifs from the B1 and Alu consensus sequences in genome and DBTSS it has been confirmed that some subsegments of Alu and B1 elements are poorly conserved which depends in part on the presence of CpG dinucleotides. One of these CpG-containing subsegments in B1 elements overlaps with SINE-associated B-box and it shows better conservation in DBTSS compared to genomic sequences. It has been also studied conservation in DBTSS and genome of the B-box containing segments of old (AluJ, AluS) and young (AluY) Alu repeats and found that CpG sequence of the B-box of old Alu is better conserved in DBTSS than in genome. This indicates that Bbox- associated CpGs in promoters are better protected from methylation and mutation than B-box-associated CpGs in genomic SINEs. These results are consistent with the view that potential TFIIIC binding motifs in SINEs associated with human and mouse promoters may be functionally important. These motifs may protect promoters from repressive histone modifications which spread from adjacent sequences. This can potentially explain well known clustering of SINEs in GC-rich gene rich genome compartments and existence of unmethylated CpG islands.

Keywords: Retroelement, promoter, CpG island, DNAmethylation.

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19 The Development of New Technologies for Medicine and Agroecology by Using Spherosomes

Authors: Gilmanov M. K., Gilmanova S. M.

Abstract:

Article devoted to the development of technologies for medicine and agroecology by using plant organelle – spherosome. Technological method of purification and isolation of this organelle by using novel nanostructured carbon sorbent – “nanocarbosorb" ARK type are presented. Also the methods of preparation of nanocontainers based on using of spherosome with loaded isosorbide dinitrate, piroxicam or diclofenak are exhibited. We found that the spherosome could be applied for ecological aims as bioregulator and also as biosensor for determination of ammonia ions in water reservoirs at concentration range 1mM to 100mM.

Keywords: Biosensor, nanocontainer, phosphatidylinositol, spherosome, vegetative reproduction.

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18 Blind Low Frequency Watermarking Method

Authors: Dimitar Taskovski, Sofija Bogdanova, Momcilo Bogdanov

Abstract:

We present a low frequency watermarking method adaptive to image content. The image content is analyzed and properties of HVS are exploited to generate a visual mask of the same size as the approximation image. Using this mask we embed the watermark in the approximation image without degrading the image quality. Watermark detection is performed without using the original image. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking method is robust against most common image processing operations, which can be easily implemented and usually do not degrade the image quality.

Keywords: Blind, digital watermarking, low frequency, visualmask.

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17 Organizational Commitment of Anadolu University Open Education Faculty Students

Authors: Emine Demiray, Şensu Curabay

Abstract:

Distance education program is a dimension of contemporary and new education technologies. Concepts and applications in this field are the results of a series of educational demands and developments in various communication and education technologies. Distance education applications have some conceptual bases. These are creating new education opportunities, realizing work-education unity, getting democratic in education, lifelong education, tendency to individual matters, effective use of institutions, integration of technology and education, tendency to individual and social needs, taking three dimensional integration as the main principle (publishing, printed materials and face to face education), reaching maximum mass, individual and mass education integrity and education demand and financial matters balance. Economics, Business Administration and Open Education faculties, which have been giving education within Anadolu University since 1982 in Turkey, are carrying on education with nearly 1.000.000 students. The aim of this study is to determine organizational commitment levels of students who have been studying at Anadolu University Economics, Business Administration and Open Education faculties in the scope of affective, continuance and nominative commitment in Allen&Meyer model. In the study, organizational commitment of the Economics, Business Administration and Open Education faculty students, who are receiving education by means of distance education, to their faculties is dealt after introducing Anadolu University Distance Education system which gives higher education via distance education method in Turkey. In order to increase the success level of faculties it is required for students to have high level of organizational commitment to their faculties. A questionnaire has been applied by using “Organizational Commitment Scale", developed by Meyer&Allen to determine organizational commitments of Economics, Business Administration and Open Education students. Organizational commitment is dealt with as affective, continuance and nominative commitment. The questionnaire was applied face to face to randomly chosen 500 students living in Eskişehir and the data was downloaded to the computer by using SPSS program and the results were analyzed in terms of demographic features (gender, age, marital status, years of study, work and income level) of students by using frequency test, ttest and ANOVA test. As a result of these analyses, when the comments of Open Education Faculty students on levels of affective, continuance and nominative commitment to their faculties were examined, it has been revealed that continuance commitment level has the highest rate. Among the female participants; continuance commitment is high in the age range of 30-40, for normative commitment it is 17-22. However no dominant age range was defined for affective commitment. Regarding the marital status; continuance commitment average is higher among married participants; but nominative affective commitment average is higher among single participants. As to the years of study, affective and continuance commitment is higher among senior students while normative commitment is higher among junior students. Moreover; in terms of continuance, affective and normative commitment, those who do not work and have low income have higher level of all there commitment types than those who work and have relatively high income.

Keywords: Open education, Organizational commitment, Distance education.

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16 Decision Making using Maximization of Negret

Authors: José M. Merigó, Montserrat Casanovas

Abstract:

We analyze the problem of decision making under ignorance with regrets. Recently, Yager has developed a new method for decision making where instead of using regrets he uses another type of transformation called negrets. Basically, the negret is considered as the dual of the regret. We study this problem in detail and we suggest the use of geometric aggregation operators in this method. For doing this, we develop a different method for constructing the negret matrix where all the values are positive. The main result obtained is that now the model is able to deal with negative numbers because of the transformation done in the negret matrix. We further extent these results to another model developed also by Yager about mixing valuations and negrets. Unfortunately, in this case we are not able to deal with negative numbers because the valuations can be either positive or negative.

Keywords: Decision Making, Aggregation operators, Negret, OWA operator, OWG operator.

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