Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1835

Search results for: 66 Acupoints under a human’s elbow and knee

1835 The Applications of Four Fingers Theory: The Proof of 66 Acupoints under the Human Elbow and Knee

Authors: Chih-I. Tsai, Yu-Chien. Lin

Abstract:

Through experiences of clinical practices, it is discovered that locations on the body at a level of four fingerbreadth above and below the joints are the points at which muscles connect to tendons, and since the muscles and tendons possess opposite characteristics, muscles are full of blood but lack qi, while tendons are full of qi but lack blood, these points on our body become easily blocked. It is proposed that through doing acupuncture or creating localized pressure to the areas four fingerbreadths above and below our joints, with an elastic bandage, we could help the energy, also known as qi, to flow smoothly in our body and further improve our health. Based on the Four Fingers Theory, we understand that human height is 22 four fingerbreadths. In addition, qi and blood travel through 24 meridians, 50 times each day, and they flow through 6 cun with every human breath. We can also understand the average number of human heartbeats is 75 times per minute. And the function of qi-blood circulation system in Traditional Chinese Medicine is the same as the blood circulation in Western Medical Science. Informed by Four Fingers Theory, this study further examined its applications in acupuncture practices. The research question is how Four Fingers Theory proves what has been mentioned in Nei Jing that there are 66 acupoints under a human’s elbow and knee. In responding to the research question, there are 66 acupoints under a human’s elbow and knee. Four Fingers Theory facilitated the creation of the acupuncture naming and teaching system. It is expected to serve as an approachable and effective way to deliver knowledge of acupuncture to the public worldwide.

Keywords: Four Fingers theory, Meridians circulation, 66 Acupoints under a human’s elbow and knee, acupuncture.

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1834 Kinematic Gait Analysis of Upper and Lower Limbs Joints in Hemiplegic Children

Authors: Zeinab A.Hussein, Manal S. Abd El-Wahab, Shorouk A. W. El-Shennawy

Abstract:

Children with hemiplgic cerebral palsy often walk with diminished reciprocal arm swing so the purpose of this study was to describe kinematic characteristics in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) during the gait suphases, and find if there is a correlation between upper(shoulder and elbow) and lower(hip, knee, and ankle) limb joints either in involved or uninvolved.48 children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (18boys, 30girls) with an average age of (5.1±0.87) years were selected randomly to evaluate joint angles during gait by 3D motion analysis system with 6 pro reflex cameras in a sagittal plane for both sides of the body. The results showed increased shoulder and elbow flexion, increased hip angular displacement, decreased knee and ankle arcs during gait cycle, also there is correlation between shoulder and elbow to hip, knee, and ankle joints during various subphases of gait.

Keywords: Cerebral palsy, Gait, Hemiplegia, Motion analysis.

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1833 The Effect of Impact on the Knee Joint Due to the Shocks during Double Impact Phase of Gait Cycle

Authors: Jobin Varghese, V. M. Akhil, P. K. Rajendrakumar, K. S. Sivanandan

Abstract:

The major contributor to the human locomotion is the knee flexion and extension. During heel strike, a huge amount of energy is transmitted through the leg towards knee joint, which in fact is damped at heel and leg muscles. During high shocks, although it is damped to a certain extent, the balance force transmits towards knee joint which could damage the knee. Due to the vital function of the knee joint, it should be protected against damage due to additional load acting on it. This work concentrates on the development of spring mass damper system which exactly replicates the stiffness at the heel and muscles and the objective function is optimized to minimize the force acting at the knee joint. Further, the data collected using force plate are put into the model to verify its integrity and are found to be in good agreement.

Keywords: Spring, mass, damper, impact, knee joint.

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1832 Design of High Torque Elbow Joint for Above Elbow Prosthesis

Authors: Irfan Hussain, Adnan Masood, Javaid Iqbal, Umar S. Khan

Abstract:

Above Elbow Prosthesis is one of the most commonly amputated or missing limbs. The research is done for modelling techniques of upper limb prosthesis and design of high torque, light weight and compact in size elbow actuator. The purposed actuator consists of a DC motor, planetary gear set and a harmonic drive. The calculations show that the actuator is good enough to be used in real life powered prosthetic upper limb or rehabilitation exoskeleton.

Keywords: Above Elbow prosthesis, Harmonic drive, Planetarygear set, Sagittal Plane

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1831 A Knee Modular Orthosis Design Based on Kinematic Considerations

Authors: C. Copilusi, C. Ploscaru

Abstract:

This paper addresses attention to a research regarding the design of a knee orthosis in a modular form used on children walking rehabilitation. This research is focused on the human lower limb kinematic analysis which will be used as input data on virtual simulations and prototype validation. From this analysis, important data will be obtained and used as input for virtual simulations of the knee modular orthosis. Thus, a knee orthosis concept was obtained and validated through virtual simulations by using MSC Adams software. Based on the obtained results, the modular orthosis prototype will be manufactured and presented in this article.

Keywords: Human lower limb, children orthoses, kinematic analysis, knee orthosis.

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1830 The Analysis of Knee Joint Movement During Golf Swing in Professional and Amateur Golfers

Authors: M.Somjarod, V. Tanawat, l. Weerawat

Abstract:

The understanding of knee movement during swing importance for golf swing improving and preventing injury. Thirty male professional and amateur golfers were assigned to swing time by time for 3 times. Data from a vedio-based motion capture were used to compute knee joint movement variables. The results showed that professional and amateur golfers were significantly in left knee flexion angle at the impact point and mid follow through phase. Nevertheless, left knee external rotation in both groups was also significant. The right knee were no significant different in all variable. However, pattern of knee joint movement are also likely between professional and amateur golfers.

Keywords: Golfer, Knee joint, Movement, Swing

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1829 Calculation of the Forces Acting on the Knee Joint When Rising from Kneeling Positions (Effects of the Leg Alignment and the Arm Assistance on the Knee Joint Forces)

Authors: S. Hirokawa, M. Fukunaga, M. Mawatari

Abstract:

Knee joint forces are available by in vivo measurement using an instrumented knee prosthesis for small to moderate knee flexion but not for high flexion yet. We created a 2D mathematical model of the lower limb incorporating several new features such as a patello-femoral mechanism, a thigh-calf contact at high knee flexion and co-contracting muscles' force ratio, then used it to determine knee joint forces arising from high knee flexions in four kneeling conditions: rising with legs in parallel, with one foot forward, with or without arm use. With arms used, the maximum values of knee joint force decreased to about 60% of those with arms not used. When rising with one foot forward, if arms are not used, the forward leg sustains a force as large as that sustained when rising with legs parallel.

Keywords: Knee joint force, kneeling, mathematical model, biomechanics.

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1828 Study of Human Upper Arm Girth during Elbow Isokinetic Contractions Based on a Smart Circumferential Measuring System

Authors: Xi Wang, Xiaoming Tao, Raymond C. H. So

Abstract:

As one of the convenient and noninvasive sensing approaches, the automatic limb girth measurement has been applied to detect intention behind human motion from muscle deformation. The sensing validity has been elaborated by preliminary researches but still need more fundamental studies, especially on kinetic contraction modes. Based on the novel fabric strain sensors, a soft and smart limb girth measurement system was developed by the authors’ group, which can measure the limb girth in-motion. Experiments were carried out on elbow isometric flexion and elbow isokinetic flexion (biceps’ isokinetic contractions) of 90°/s, 60°/s, and 120°/s for 10 subjects (2 canoeists and 8 ordinary people). After removal of natural circumferential increments due to elbow position, the joint torque is found not uniformly sensitive to the limb circumferential strains, but declining as elbow joint angle rises, regardless of the angular speed. Moreover, the maximum joint torque was found as an exponential function of the joint’s angular speed. This research highly contributes to the application of the automatic limb girth measuring during kinetic contractions, and it is useful to predict the contraction level of voluntary skeletal muscles.

Keywords: Fabric strain sensor, muscle deformation, isokinetic contraction, joint torque, limb girth strain.

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1827 Intact and ACL-Deficient Knee MODEL Evaluation

Authors: A. Vairis, M. Petousis, B. Kandyla, C. Chrisoulakis

Abstract:

The human knee joint has a three dimensional geometry with multiple body articulations that produce complex mechanical responses under loads that occur in everyday life and sports activities. To produce the necessary joint compliance and stability for optimal daily function various menisci and ligaments are present while muscle forces are used to this effect. Therefore, knowledge of the complex mechanical interactions of these load bearing structures is necessary when treatment of relevant diseases is evaluated and assisting devices are designed. Numerical tools such as finite element analysis are suitable for modeling such joints in order to understand their physics. They have been used in the current study to develop an accurate human knee joint and model its mechanical behavior. To evaluate the efficacy of this articulated model, static load cases were used for comparison purposes with previous experimentally verified modeling works drawn from literature.

Keywords: biomechanics, finite element modeling, knee joint

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1826 The Low-Cost Design and 3D Printing of Structural Knee Orthotics for Athletic Knee Injury Patients

Authors: Alexander Hendricks, Sean Nevin, Clayton Wikoff, Melissa Dougherty, Jacob Orlita, Rafiqul Noorani

Abstract:

Knee orthotics play an important role in aiding in the recovery of those with knee injuries, especially athletes. However, structural knee orthotics is often very expensive, ranging between $300 and $800. The primary reason for this project was to answer the question: can 3D printed orthotics represent a viable and cost-effective alternative to present structural knee orthotics? The primary objective for this research project was to design a knee orthotic for athletes with knee injuries for a low-cost under $100 and evaluate its effectiveness. The initial design for the orthotic was done in SolidWorks, a computer-aided design (CAD) software available at Loyola Marymount University. After this design was completed, finite element analysis (FEA) was utilized to understand how normal stresses placed upon the knee affected the orthotic. The knee orthotic was then adjusted and redesigned to meet a specified factor-of-safety of 3.25 based on the data gathered during FEA and literature sources. Once the FEA was completed and the orthotic was redesigned based from the data gathered, the next step was to move on to 3D-printing the first design of the knee brace. Subsequently, physical therapy movement trials were used to evaluate physical performance. Using the data from these movement trials, the CAD design of the brace was refined to accommodate the design requirements. The final goal of this research means to explore the possibility of replacing high-cost, outsourced knee orthotics with a readily available low-cost alternative.

Keywords: Knee Orthotics, 3D printing, finite element analysis.

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1825 Effect of Horizontal Joint Reinforcement on Shear Behaviour of RC Knee Connections

Authors: N. Zhang, J. S. Kuang, S. Mogili

Abstract:

To investigate seismic performance of beam-column knee joints, four full-scale reinforced concrete beam-column knee joints, which were fabricated to simulate those in as-built RC frame buildings designed to ACI 318-14 and ACI-ASCE 352R-02, were tested under reversed cyclic loading. In the experimental programme, particular emphasis was given to the effect of horizontal reinforcement (in format of inverted U-shape bars) on the shear strength and ductility capacity of knee joints. Test results are compared with those predicted by four seismic design codes, including ACI 318-14, EC8, NZS3101 and GB50010. It is seen that the current design codes of practice cannot accurately predict the shear strength of seismically designed knee joints.

Keywords: Large-scale tests, RC beam-column knee joints, seismic performance, shear strength.

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1824 An Intelligent System for Knee and Ankle Rehabilitation

Authors: Dimitar Karastoyanov, Vladimir Monov

Abstract:

The paper is concerned with the state examination as well as the problems during the post surgical (orthopedic) rehabilitation of the knee and ankle joint. An observation of the current appliances for a passive rehabilitation devices is presented. The major necessary and basic features of the intelligent rehabilitation devices are considered. An approach for a new intelligent appliance is suggested. The main advantages of the device are: both active as well as passive rehabilitation of the patient based on the human - patient reactions and a real time feedback. The basic components: controller; electrical motor; encoder, force – torque sensor are discussed in details. The main modes of operation of the device are considered.

Keywords: Ankle, knee, rehabilitation, computer control.

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1823 Bio-mechanical Analysis of Human Joints and Extension of the Study to Robot

Authors: S. Parasuraman, Ler Shiaw Pei

Abstract:

In this paper, the bio-mechanical analysis of human joints is carried out and the study is extended to the robot manipulator. This study will first focus on the kinematics of human arm which include the movement of each joint in shoulder, wrist, elbow and finger complexes. Those analyses are then extended to the design of a human robot manipulator. A simulator is built for Direct Kinematics and Inverse Kinematics of human arm. In the simulation of Direct Kinematics, the human joint angles can be inserted, while the position and orientation of each finger tips (end-effector) are shown. Inverse Kinematics does the reverse of the Direct Kinematics. Based on previous materials obtained from kinematics analysis, the human manipulator joints can be designed to follow prescribed position trajectories.

Keywords: Kinematics, Human Joints, Robotics, Robot Dynamics, Manipulators.

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1822 CFD Prediction of the Round Elbow Fitting Loss Coefficient

Authors: Ana Paula P. dos Santos, Claudia R. Andrade, Edson L. Zaparoli

Abstract:

Pressure loss in ductworks is an important factor to be considered in design of engineering systems such as power-plants, refineries, HVAC systems to reduce energy costs. Ductwork can be composed by straight ducts and different types of fittings (elbows, transitions, converging and diverging tees and wyes). Duct fittings are significant sources of pressure loss in fluid distribution systems. Fitting losses can be even more significant than equipment components such as coils, filters, and dampers. At the present work, a conventional 90o round elbow under turbulent incompressible airflow is studied. Mass, momentum, and k-e turbulence model equations are solved employing the finite volume method. The SIMPLE algorithm is used for the pressure-velocity coupling. In order to validate the numerical tool, the elbow pressure loss coefficient is determined using the same conditions to compare with ASHRAE database. Furthermore, the effect of Reynolds number variation on the elbow pressure loss coefficient is investigated. These results can be useful to perform better preliminary design of air distribution ductworks in air conditioning systems.

Keywords: Duct fitting, Pressure loss, Elbow.

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1821 An Inflatable and Foldable Knee Exosuit Based on Intelligent Management of Biomechanical Energy

Authors: Jing Fang, Yao Cui, Mingming Wang, Shengli She, Jianping Yuan

Abstract:

Wearable robotics is a potential solution in aiding gait rehabilitation of lower limbs dyskinesia patients, such as knee osteoarthritis or stroke afflicted patients. Many wearable robots have been developed in the form of rigid exoskeletons, but their bulk devices, high cost and control complexity hinder their popularity in the field of gait rehabilitation. Thus, the development of a portable, compliant and low-cost wearable robot for gait rehabilitation is necessary. Inspired by Chinese traditional folding fans and balloon inflators, the authors present an inflatable, foldable and variable stiffness knee exosuit (IFVSKE) in this paper. The pneumatic actuator of IFVSKE was fabricated in the shape of folding fans by using thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) fabric materials. The geometric and mechanical properties of IFVSKE were characterized with experimental methods. To assist the knee joint smartly, an intelligent control profile for IFVSKE was proposed based on the concept of full-cycle energy management of the biomechanical energy during human movement. The biomechanical energy of knee joints in a walking gait cycle of patients could be collected and released to assist the joint motion just by adjusting the inner pressure of IFVSKE. Finally, a healthy subject was involved to walk with and without the IFVSKE to evaluate the assisting effects.

Keywords: Biomechanical energy management, gait rehabilitation, knee exosuit, wearable robotics.

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1820 Multicriteria Synthesis of a Polycentric Knee Prosthesis For Transfemoral Amputees

Authors: Oleksandr Poliakov, Olena Chepenyuk, Yevgen Pashkov, Mykhaylo Kalinin, Vadym Kramar

Abstract:

In one of the prosthesis designs for lower limb transfemoral amputations artificial knee joints with polycentric mechanisms are used. Such prostheses are characterized by high stability during the stance phase of the movement. The existing variety of polycentric mechanisms indicates the possibility of finding the optimal prosthesis design satisfying several quality criteria.In this paper we present a multicriteria method for the synthesis of the artifical polycentric knee mechanism based on the uniform systematic study of the design parameters space and on the analysis of Pareto optimal solutions.

Keywords: Optimalcriteria, polycentric knee, prosthesis, synthesis, transfemoral amputee.

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1819 Biomechanics Analysis of Bicross Start

Authors: M. Kalichová, S. Hřebíčková, R. Labounková, P. Hedbávný, G. Bago

Abstract:

The article deals with a biomechanics analysis of the classic bicross start with a backward movement of the bike. This is a case study analyzing this type of start in two bicross riders representing the Czech Republic. Based on the 3D kinematic analysis and with a special emphasis on the ankle movement we have divided the start into five phases – phase n. 1 – reaction time, phase n. 2 – preparation movements time, phase n. 3 – first pedal stroke time, phase n. 4 – dead point pedal passage time, phase n. 5 – second pedal stroke time. Further we have demonstrated the significance of kinematic characteristics in various stages of the bicross start including their values and the extent of change. These primarily include the vector of the instantaneous velocity of the head, wrists, elbows, shoulders, hip and knee joints. The significant angle characteristics have been noted in elbow, shoulder, hip and knee joints. The results of this work indicate the types of movement prevailing in the respective phases and as such are expected to serve as a basis for further analyses of this movement structure performed, however, on a large research sample.

Keywords: Bicross, start, kinematic analysis.

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1818 Seismic Behaviour of Steel Frames Investigation with Knee Brace Based on Pushover Analysis

Authors: Mahmoud Miri, Abdolreza Zare, Hossein Abbas zadeh

Abstract:

The knee bracing steel frame (KBF) is a new kind of energy dissipating frame, which combines excellent ductility and lateral stiffness. In this framing system, a special form of diagonal brace connected to a knee element instead of beam-column joint, is investigated. Recently, a similar system was proposed and named as chevron knee bracing system (CKB) which in comparison with the former system has a better energy absorption characteristic and at the same time retains the elastic nature of the structures. Knee bracing can provide a stiffer bracing system but reduces the ductility of the steel frame. Chevron knee bracing can be employed to provide the desired ductility level for a design. In this article, relation between seismic performance and structural parameters of the two above mentioned systems are investigated and compared. Frames with similar dimensions but various heights in both systems are designed according to Iranian code of practice for seismic resistant design of building, and then based on a non-linear push over static analysis; the seismic parameters such as behavior factor and performance levels are compared.

Keywords: Seismic behaviour, ordinary knee bracing frame, Chevron knee brace, behaviour factor, performance level.

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1817 Robotic Arm Allowing a Diabetic Quadriplegic Patient to Self-Administer Insulin

Authors: L. Parisi

Abstract:

A method which allows a diabetic quadriplegic patient that has had four limb amputations (above the knee and elbow) to self-administer injections of insulin has been designed. The aim of this research project is to improve a quadriplegic patient’s selfmanagement, affected by diabetes, by designing a suitable device for self-administering insulin. The quadriplegic patient affected by diabetes has to be able to selfadminister insulin safely and independently to guarantee stable healthy conditions. The device also should be designed to adapt to a number of different varying personal characteristics such as height and body weight.

Keywords: Robotics, diabetes, quadriplegia, self-management.

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1816 Energy Efficient Autonomous Lower Limb Exoskeleton for Human Motion Enhancement

Authors: Nazim Mir-Nasiri, Hudyjaya Siswoyo Jo

Abstract:

The paper describes conceptual design, control strategies, and partial simulation for a new fully autonomous lower limb wearable exoskeleton system for human motion enhancement that can support its weight and increase strength and endurance. Various problems still remain to be solved where the most important is the creation of a power and cost efficient system that will allow an exoskeleton to operate for extended period without batteries being frequently recharged. The designed exoskeleton is enabling to decouple the weight/mass carrying function of the system from the forward motion function which reduces the power and size of propulsion motors and thus the overall weight, cost of the system. The decoupling takes place by blocking the motion at knee joint by placing passive air cylinder across the joint. The cylinder is actuated when the knee angle has reached the minimum allowed value to bend. The value of the minimum bending angle depends on usual walk style of the subject. The mechanism of the exoskeleton features a seat to rest the subject’s body weight at the moment of blocking the knee joint motion. The mechanical structure of each leg has six degrees of freedom: four at the hip, one at the knee, and one at the ankle. Exoskeleton legs are attached to subject legs by using flexible cuffs. The operation of all actuators depends on the amount of pressure felt by the feet pressure sensors and knee angle sensor. The sensor readings depend on actual posture of the subject and can be classified in three distinct cases: subject stands on one leg, subject stands still on both legs and subject stands on both legs but transit its weight from one leg to other. This exoskeleton is power efficient because electrical motors are smaller in size and did not participate in supporting the weight like in all other existing exoskeleton designs.

Keywords: Energy efficient system, exoskeleton, motion enhancement, robotics.

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1815 Effect of Cold, Warm or Contrast Therapy on Controlling Knee Osteoarthritis Associated Problems

Authors: Amal E. Shehata, Manal E. Fareed

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent and far common debilitating form of arthritis which can be defined as a degenerative condition affecting synovial joint. Patients suffering from osteoarthritis often complain of dull ache pain on movement. Physical agents can fight the painful process when correctly indicated and used such as heat or cold therapy Aim. This study was carried out to: Compare the effect of cold, warm and contrast therapy on controlling knee osteoarthritis associated problems. Setting: The study was carried out in orthopedic outpatient clinics of Menoufia University and teaching Hospitals, Egypt. Sample: A convenient sample of 60 adult patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis. Tools: three tools were utilized to collect the data. Tool I : An interviewing questionnaire. It comprised of three parts covering  sociodemographic data, medical data and adverse effects of the treatment protocol. Tool II : Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) It consists of five main parts. Tool II1 : 0-10 Numeric pain rating scale. Results: reveled that the total knee symptoms score was decreased from moderate symptoms pre intervention to mild symptoms after warm and contrast method of therapy, but the contrast therapy had significant effect in reducing the knee symptoms and pain than the other symptoms. Conclusions: all of the three methods of therapy resulted in improvement in all knee symptoms and pain but the most appropriate protocol of treatment to relive symptoms and pain was contrast therapy.

Keywords: Knee Osteoarthritis, Cold, Warm and Contrast Therapy.

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1814 Seismic Behaviour of RC Knee Joints in Closing and Opening Actions

Authors: S. Mogili, J. S. Kuang, N. Zhang

Abstract:

Knee joints, the beam column connections found at the roof level of a moment resisting frame buildings, are inherently different from conventional interior and exterior beam column connections in the way that forces from adjoining members are transferred into joint and then resisted by the joint. A knee connection has two distinct load resisting mechanisms, each for closing and opening actions acting simultaneously under reversed cyclic loading. In spite of many distinct differences in the behaviour of shear resistance in knee joints, there are no special design provisions in the major design codes available across the world due to lack of in-depth research on the knee connections. To understand the relative importance of opening and closing actions in design, it is imperative to study knee joints under varying shear stresses, especially at higher opening-to-closing shear stress ratios. Three knee joint specimens, under different input shear stresses, were designed to produce a varying ratio of input opening to closing shear stresses. The design was carried out in such a way that the ratio of flexural strength of beams with consideration of axial forces in opening to closing actions are maintained at 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0, thereby resulting in the required variation of opening to closing joint shear stress ratios among the specimens. The behaviour of these specimens was then carefully studied in terms of closing and opening capacities, hysteretic behaviour, and envelope curves to understand the differences in joint performance based on which an attempt to suggest design guidelines for knee joints is made emphasizing the relative importance of opening and closing actions. Specimens with relatively higher opening stresses were observed to be more vulnerable under the action of seismic loading.

Keywords: Knee-joints, large-scale testing, opening and closing shear stresses, seismic performance.

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1813 Foot Recognition Using Deep Learning for Knee Rehabilitation

Authors: Rakkrit Duangsoithong, Jermphiphut Jaruenpunyasak, Alba Garcia

Abstract:

The use of foot recognition can be applied in many medical fields such as the gait pattern analysis and the knee exercises of patients in rehabilitation. Generally, a camera-based foot recognition system is intended to capture a patient image in a controlled room and background to recognize the foot in the limited views. However, this system can be inconvenient to monitor the knee exercises at home. In order to overcome these problems, this paper proposes to use the deep learning method using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) for foot recognition. The results are compared with the traditional classification method using LBP and HOG features with kNN and SVM classifiers. According to the results, deep learning method provides better accuracy but with higher complexity to recognize the foot images from online databases than the traditional classification method.

Keywords: Convolutional neural networks, deep learning, foot recognition, knee rehabilitation.

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1812 Effect of Submaximal Eccentric versus Maximal Isometric Contraction on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

Authors: Mohamed M. Ragab, Neveen A. Abdel Raoof, Reham H. Diab

Abstract:

Background: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is the most common symptom when ordinary individuals and athletes are exposed to unaccustomed physical activity, especially eccentric contraction which impairs athletic performance, ordinary people work ability and physical functioning. Multitudes of methods have been investigated to reduce DOMS. One of the valuable methods to control DOMS is repeated bout effect (RBE) as a prophylactic method. Purpose: To compare the repeated bout effect of submaximal eccentric with maximal isometric contraction on induced DOMS. Methods: Sixty normal male volunteers were assigned randomly into three equal groups: Group A (first study group): 20 subjects received submaximal eccentric contraction on non-dominant elbow flexors as a prophylactic exercise. Group B (second study group): 20 subjects received maximal isometric contraction on nondominant elbow flexors as a prophylactic exercise. Group C (control group): 20 subjects did not receive any prophylactic exercises. Maximal isometric peak torque of elbow flexors and patient related elbow evaluation (PREE) scale were measured for each subject 3 times before, immediately after, and 48 hours after induction of DOMS. Results: Post-hoc test for maximal isometric peak torque and PREE scale immediately and 48 hours after induction of DOMS revealed that group (A) and group (B) resulted in significant decrease in maximal isometric strength loss and elbow pain and disability rather than control group (C), but submaximal eccentric group (A) was more effective than maximal isometric group (B) as it showed more rapid recovery of functional strength and less degrees of elbow pain and disability. Conclusion: Both submaximal eccentric contraction and maximal isometric contraction were effective in prevention of DOMS but submaximal eccentric contraction produced a greater protective effect against muscle damage induced by maximal eccentric exercise performed 2 days later.

Keywords: Delayed onset muscle soreness, maximal isometric peak torque, patient related elbow evaluation scale, repeated bout effect.

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1811 A Method for Controlling of Hand Prosthesis Based on Neural Network

Authors: Fereidoun Nowshiravan Rahatabad, Mohammad Ali Nekoui, Mohammad Reza Hashemi Golpaygani, AliFallah, Mehdi Kazemzadeh Narbat

Abstract:

The people are differed by their capabilities, skills and mental agilities. The evolution of human from childhood when they are completely dependent up to adultness the time they gradually set the dependency free is too complicated, by considering they have all started from almost one point but some become cleverer and some less. The main control command of a cybernetic hand should be posted by remaining healthy organs of disabled Person. These commands can be from several channels, which their recording and detecting are different and need complicated study. In this research, we suppose that, this stage has been done or in the other words, the command has been already sent and detected. So the main goal is to control a long hand, upper elbow hand missing, by an interest angle define by disabled. It means that, the system input is the position desired by disables and the output is the elbow-joint angle variation. Therefore the goal is a suitable control design based on neural network theory in order to meet the given mapping.

Keywords: Control - system design, Upper limb prosthesis, neuralnetwork.

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1810 Nanoindentation Behaviour and Microstructural Evolution of Annealed Single-Crystal Silicon

Authors: Woei-Shyan Lee, Shuo-Ling Chang

Abstract:

The nanoindentation behaviour and phase transformation of annealed single-crystal silicon wafers are examined. The silicon specimens are annealed at temperatures of 250, 350 and 450ºC, respectively, for 15 minutes and are then indented to maximum loads of 30, 50 and 70 mN. The phase changes induced in the indented specimens are observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy (RSS). For all annealing temperatures, an elbow feature is observed in the unloading curve following indentation to a maximum load of 30 mN. Under higher loads of 50 mN and 70 mN, respectively, the elbow feature is replaced by a pop-out event. The elbow feature reveals a complete amorphous phase transformation within the indented zone, whereas the pop-out event indicates the formation of Si XII and Si III phases. The experimental results show that the formation of these crystalline silicon phases increases with an increasing annealing temperature and indentation load. The hardness and Young’s modulus both decrease as the annealing temperature and indentation load are increased.

Keywords: Nanoindentation, silicon, phase transformation, amorphous, annealing.

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1809 A New Controlling Parameter in Design of Above Knee Prosthesis

Authors: M. Tahani, G. Karimi

Abstract:

In this paper after reviewing some previous studies, in order to optimize the above knee prosthesis, beside the inertial properties a new controlling parameter is informed. This controlling parameter makes the prosthesis able to act as a multi behavior system when the amputee is opposing to different environments. This active prosthesis with the new controlling parameter can simplify the control of prosthesis and reduce the rate of energy consumption in comparison to recently presented similar prosthesis “Agonistantagonist active knee prosthesis". In this paper three models are generated, a passive, an active, and an optimized active prosthesis. Second order Taylor series is the numerical method in solution of the models equations and the optimization procedure is genetic algorithm. Modeling the prosthesis which comprises this new controlling parameter (SEP) during the swing phase represents acceptable results in comparison to natural behavior of shank. Reported results in this paper represent 3.3 degrees as the maximum deviation of models shank angle from the natural pattern. The natural gait pattern belongs to walking at the speed of 81 m/min.

Keywords: Above knee prosthesis, active controlling parameter, ballistic motion, swing phase.

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1808 Dynamic Balance, Pain and Functional Performance in Cruciate Retaining, Posterior Stabilized and Uni-Compartmental Knee Arthroplasty

Authors: Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi, Amira A. A. Abdallah

Abstract:

Background: With the perceived pain and poor function experienced following knee arthroplasty, patients usually feel un-satisfied. Yet, a controversy still persists on the appropriate operative technique that doesn’t affect proprioception much.

Purpose: This study compared the effects of Cruciate Retaining (CR) and Posterior Stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and uni-compartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) on dynamic balance, pain and functional performance following rehabilitation.

Methods: Fifteen patients with CRTKA (group I), fifteen with PSTKA (group II), fifteen with UKA (group III) and fifteen indicated for arthroplasty but weren’t operated on yet (group IV) participated in the study. The mean age was 54.53±3.44, 55.13±3.48, 52.8±1.93 and 55.33±2.32 years and BMI 35.7±3.03, 35.7±1.99, 35.6±1.88 and 35.73±1.03 kg/m2 for group I, II, III and IV respectively. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS), WOMAC pain subscale and Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) and Stair-Climbing (SC) tests were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted four and eight weeks pre- and post-operatively with the control group being assessed at the same time intervals. The post-operative rehabilitation involved hospitalization (1st week), home-based (2nd-4th weeks), and outpatient clinic (5th-8th weeks) programs.

Results: The Mixed design MANOVA revealed that group III had significantly higher BBS scores, and lower pain scores and TUG and SC time than groups I and II four and eight weeks post-operatively. In addition, group I had significantly lower pain scores and SC time compared with group II eight weeks post-operatively. Moreover, the BBS scores increased significantly and the pain scores and TUG and SC time decreased significantly eight weeks post-operatively compared with the three other assessments in group I, II and III with the opposite being true four weeks post-operatively.

Interpretation/Conclusion: CRTKA is preferable to PSTKA with UKA being generally superior to TKA, possibly due to the preserved human proprioceptors in the un-excised compartmental articular surface.

Keywords: Dynamic Balance, Functional Performance, Knee Arthroplasty, Pain.

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1807 Gel-Based Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (GACI) in the Knee: Multicentric Short Term Study

Authors: Shaival Dalal, Nilesh Shah, Dinshaw Pardiwala, David Rajan, Satyen Sanghavi, Charul Bhanji

Abstract:

Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI) is used worldwide since 1998 to treat cartilage defect. GEL based ACI is a new tissue-engineering technique to treat full thickness cartilage defect with fibrin and thrombin as scaffold for chondrocytes. Purpose of this study is to see safety and efficacy of gel based ACI for knee cartilage defect in multiple centres with different surgeons. Gel-based Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (GACI) has shown effectiveness in treating isolated cartilage defect of knee joint. Long term results are still needed to be studied. This study was followed-up up to two years and showed benefit to patients. All enrolled patients with a mean age of 28.5 years had an average defect size of3 square centimeters, and were grade IV as per ICRS grading. All patients were followed up several times and at several intervals at 6th week, 8th week, 11th week, 17th week, 29th week, 57th week after surgery. The outcomes were measured based on the IKDC (subjective and objective) and MOCART scores.

Keywords: Knee, chondrocyte, autologous chondrocyte implantation, gel.

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1806 Seismic Behavior Evaluation of Semi-Rigid Steel Frames with Knee Bracing by Modal Pushover Analysis (MPA)

Authors: Farzan Namvari, Panam Zarfam

Abstract:

Nowadays use of a new structural bracing system called 'Knee Bracing System' have taken the specialists attention too much. On the other hand nonlinear static analysis procedures in estimate structures performance in earthquake time have taken attention too much. One of these procedure is modal pushover analysis (MPA) procedure. The accuracy of MPA procedure for simple steel moment resisting frame has been verified and considered in Chintanapakdee and Chopra-s article in 2003. Since the accuracy of MPA procedure has not verified for semi-rigid steel frames with knee bracing, we are going to get through with this matter in this study. For this purpose, the selected structures are four frames with different heights, 5 to 20 stories, will be designed according to AISC criteria. Then MPA procedure is used for the same frames with different rigidity percentiles of connections. The results of seismic responses are compared with dynamic nonlinear response history analysis as exact procedure and accuracy of MPA procedure is evaluated. It seems that MPA procedure accuracy will come down by reduction of the rigidity percentiles of semi-rigid connections.

Keywords: Knee Bracing, Modal Pushover Analysis, SeismicBehavior, Semi-Rigid Connections.

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