Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: zirconia

10 Machining Parameters Optimization of Developed Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Toughened Alumina Ceramic Inserts While Machining AISI 4340 Steel

Authors: Nilrudra Mandal, B Doloi, B Mondal

Abstract:

An attempt has been made to investigate the machinability of zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) inserts while turning AISI 4340 steel. The insert was prepared by powder metallurgy process route and the machining experiments were performed based on Response Surface Methodology (RSM) design called Central Composite Design (CCD). The mathematical model of flank wear, cutting force and surface roughness have been developed using second order regression analysis. The adequacy of model has been carried out based on Analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques. It can be concluded that cutting speed and feed rate are the two most influential factor for flank wear and cutting force prediction. For surface roughness determination, the cutting speed & depth of cut both have significant contribution. Key parameters effect on each response has also been presented in graphical contours for choosing the operating parameter preciously. 83% desirability level has been achieved using this optimized condition.

Keywords: Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Central Composite Design (CCD), Response Surface Methodology (RSM), Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA).

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9 Vapor Phase Transesterification of Dimethyl Malonate with Phenol over Cordierite Honeycomb Coated with Zirconia and Its Modified Forms

Authors: Prathap S. Raghavendra, Mohamed S. Z. Shamshuddin, Thimmaraju N., Venkatesh

Abstract:

The transesterification of dimethyl malonate (DMM) with phenol has been studied in vapour phase over cordierite honeycomb coated with solid acid catalysts such as ZrO2, Mo(VI)/ZrO2 and SO42-/ZrO2. The catalytic materials were prepared honeycomb coated, powder forms, and characterized for their total surface acidity by NH3-TPD and crystalinity by powder XRD methods. Phenyl methyl malonate (PMM) and diphenyl malonate (DPM) were obtained as the reaction products. A good conversion of DMM (up to 82%) of MPM with 95% selectivity was observed when the reactions were carried out at a catalyst bed temperature of 200 °C and flow-rate of 10 mL/h in presence of Mo(VI)/ZrO2 as catalyst. However, over SO4^2-/ZrO2 catalyst, the yield of DPM was found to be higher. The results have been interpreted based on the variation of acidic properties and powder XRD phases of zirconia on incorporation of Mo(VI) or SO42– ions. Transesterification reactions were also carried out over powder forms of the catalytic materials and the yield of the desired phenyl ester products were compared with that of the HC coated catalytic materials. The solid acids were found to be reusable when used for at least 5 reaction cycles.

Keywords: Cordierite honeycomb, methyl phenyl malonate, vapour phase transesterification, zirconia.

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8 Strengthening and Toughening of Dental Porcelain by the Inclusion of an Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Reinforcing Phase

Authors: Bruno Henriques, Rafaela Santos, Mihaela Buciumeanu, Júlio Matias de Souza, Filipe Silva, Rubens Nascimento, Márcio Fredel

Abstract:

Dental porcelain composites reinforced and toughened by 20 wt.% tetragonal zirconia (3Y-TZP) were processed by hot pressing at 1000°C. Two types of particles were tested: yttriastabilized zirconia (ZrO2–3%Y2O3) agglomerates and pre-sintered yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2–3%Y2O3) particles. The composites as well as the reinforcing particles were analyzed by the means of optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The mechanical properties were obtained by the transverse rupture strength test. Wear tests were also performed on the composites and monolithic porcelain. The best mechanical results were displayed by the porcelain reinforced with the pre-sintered ZrO2–3%Y2O3 agglomerates.

Keywords: Composite, dental restoration, porcelain, strengthening, toughening, wear, zirconia.

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7 Finite Element Analysis of Full Ceramic Crowns with and without Zirconia Framework

Authors: Porojan S., Sandu L., Topală F.

Abstract:

Simulation of occlusal function during laboratory material-s testing becomes essential in predicting long-term performance before clinical usage. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of chamfer preparation depth on failure risk of heat pressed ceramic crowns with and without zirconia framework by means of finite element analysis. 3D models of maxillary central incisor, prepared for full ceramic crowns with different depths of the chamfer margin (between 0.8 and 1.2 mm) and 6-degree tapered walls together with the overlying crowns were generated using literature data (Fig. 1, 2). The crowns were designed with and without a zirconia framework with a thickness of 0.4 mm. For all preparations and crowns, stresses in the pressed ceramic crown, zirconia framework, pressed ceramic veneer, and dentin were evaluated separately. The highest stresses were registered in the dentin. The depth of the preparations had no significant influence on the stress values of the teeth and pressed ceramics for the studied cases, only for the zirconia framework. The zirconia framework decreases the stress values in the veneer.

Keywords: Finite element analysis, full ceramic crown, zirconia framework, stresses.

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6 Development of a Nano-Alumina-Zirconia Composite Catalyst as an Active Thin Film in Biodiesel Production

Authors: N. Marzban, J. K. Heydarzadeh M. Pourmohammadbagher, M. H. Hatami, A. Samia

Abstract:

A nano-alumina-zirconia composite catalyst was synthesized by a simple aqueous sol-gel method using AlCl3.6H2O and ZrCl4 as precursors. Thermal decomposition of the precursor and subsequent formation of γ-Al2O3 and t-Zr were investigated by thermal analysis. XRD analysis showed that γ-Al2O3 and t-ZrO2 phases were formed at 700 °C. FT-IR analysis also indicated that the phase transition to γ-Al2O3 occurred in corroboration with X-ray studies. TEM analysis of the calcined powder revealed that spherical particles were in the range of 8-12 nm. The nano-alumina-zirconia composite particles were mesoporous and uniformly distributed in their crystalline phase. In order to measure the catalytic activity, esterification reaction was carried out. Biodiesel, as a renewable fuel, was formed in a continuous packed column reactor. Free fatty acid (FFA) was esterified with ethanol in a heterogeneous catalytic reactor. It was found that the synthesized γ-Al2O3/ZrO2 composite had the potential to be used as a heterogeneous base catalyst for biodiesel production processes.

Keywords: Nano-alumina-zirconia, composite catalyst, thin film, biodiesel.

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5 Dielectric Studies on Nano Zirconium Dioxide Synthesized through Co-Precipitation Process

Authors: K. Geethalakshmi, T. Prabhakaran, J. Hemalatha

Abstract:

Nano sized zirconium dioxide in monoclinic phase (m-ZrO2) has been synthesized in pure form through co-precipitation processing at different calcination temperatures and has been characterized by several techniques such as XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis Spectroscopy and SEM. The dielectric and capacitance values of the pelletized samples have been examined at room temperature as the functions of frequency. The higher dielectric constant value of the sample having larger grain size proves the strong influence of grain size on the dielectric constant.

Keywords: capacitance, dielectric constant, m-ZrO2, nano zirconia

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4 Preparation of Homogeneous Dense Composite of Zirconia and Alumina (ZTA)using Colloidal Filtration

Authors: H. Wakily, M. Mehrali, H. S. C. Metselaar

Abstract:

Homogeneous composites of alumina and zirconia with a small amount of MgO (<1 wt %) were prepared by colloidal filtration. The object of using ZrO2 (15wt %) was to provide zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA). Suspensions of alumina and Zirconia with various solid loadings and various concentrations of Dolapix CE64 as surfactant were studied. The stability of these suspensions was investigated using rheological measurements. The optimum amount of using Dolapix was 0.8wt% for ZTA containing MgO suspension which gave low apparent viscosity in basic area (100 mPa s at shear rate of 50 s-1). The satisfactory mixtures were made into sample pallets using colloidal filtration. The process was completed with pressureless sintering in suitable temperature. Phase, grain size and qualitative compositional analysis were done using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. ZTA containing 0.05 wt% MgO shows the lowest grain size for alumina around 0.5 μm. Densification studies show that near full densities (>99%) were obtained for ZTA ceramic containing 0.05 wt% MgO in 1500 °C.

Keywords: Colloidal filtration, Dolapix, MgO, Zirconiatoughened alumina.

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3 A Review of the Characteristics and Optimization of Optical Properties of Zirconia Ceramics for Aesthetic Dental Restorations

Authors: R. A. Shahmiri, O. C. Standard, J. N. Hart, C. C. Sorrell

Abstract:

The ceramic yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) has been used as a dental biomaterial for several decades. The strength and toughness of this material can be accounted for by its toughening mechanisms, which include transformation toughening, crack deflection, zone shielding, contact shielding, and crack bridging. Prevention of crack propagation is of critical importance in high-fatigue situations, such as those encountered in mastication and para-function. However, the poor translucence of Y-TZP in polycrystalline form is such that it may not meet the aesthetic requirements due to its white/grey appearance. To improve the optical properties of Y-TZP, more detailed study of the optical properties is required; in particular, precise evaluation of the refractive index, absorption coefficient, and scattering coefficient are necessary. The measurement of the optical parameters has been based on the assumption that light scattered from biological media is isotropically distributed over all angles. In fact, the optical behavior of real biological materials depends on the angular scattering of light due to the anisotropic nature of the materials. The purpose of the present work is to evaluate the optical properties (including color, opacity/translucence, scattering, and fluorescence) of zirconia dental ceramics and their control through modification of the chemical composition, phase composition, and surface microstructure.

Keywords: Optical properties, opacity/translucence, scattering, fluorescence, chemical composition, phase composition, surface microstructure.

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2 Esterification of Free Fatty Acids in Crude Palm Oil with Sulfated Zirconia: Effect of Calcination Temperature

Authors: Suthat Turapan, Cattareya Yotkamchornkun, Kamchai Nuithitikul

Abstract:

The production of biodiesel from crude palm oil with a homogeneous base catalyst is unlikely owing to considerable formation of soap. Free fatty acids (FFA) in crude palm oil need to be reduced, e.g. by esterification. This study investigated the activity of sulfated zirconia calcined at various temperatures for esterification of FFA in crude palm oil to biodiesel. It was found that under a proper reaction condition, sulfated zirconia well catalyzes esterification. FFA content can be reduced to an acceptable value for typical biodiesel production with a homogeneous base catalyst. Crystallinity and sulfate attachment of sulfated zirconia depend on calcination temperature during the catalyst preparation. Too low temperature of calcination gives amorphous sulfated zirconia which has low activity for esterification of FFA. In contrast, very high temperature of calcination removes sulfate group, consequently, conversion of FFA is reduced. The appropriate temperature range of calcination is 550-650 oC.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Esterification, Free fatty acids, Sulfatedzirconia.

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1 The Fracture Resistance of Zirconia Based Dental Crowns from Cyclic Loading: A Function of Relative Wear Depth

Authors: T. Qasim, B. El Masoud, D. Ailabouni

Abstract:

This in vitro study focused on investigating the fatigue resistance of veneered zirconia molar crowns with different veneering ceramic thicknesses, simulating the relative wear depths under simulated cyclic loading. A mandibular first molar was prepared and then scanned using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology to fabricate 32 zirconia copings of uniform 0.5 mm thickness. The manufactured copings then veneered with 1.5 mm, 1.0 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.0 mm representing 0%, 33%, 66%, and 100% relative wear of a normal ceramic thickness of 1.5 mm. All samples were thermally aged to 6000 thermo-cycles for 2 minutes with distilled water between 5 ˚C and 55 ˚C. The samples subjected to cyclic fatigue and fracture testing using SD Mechatronik chewing simulator. These samples are loaded up to 1.25x10⁶ cycles or until they fail. During fatigue, testing, extensive cracks were observed in samples with 0.5 mm veneering layer thickness. Veneering layer thickness 1.5-mm group and 1.0-mm group were not different in terms of resisting loads necessary to cause an initial crack or final failure. All ceramic zirconia-based crown restorations with varying occlusal veneering layer thicknesses appeared to be fatigue resistant. Fracture load measurement for all tested groups before and after fatigue loading exceeded the clinical chewing forces in the posterior region. In general, the fracture loads increased after fatigue loading and with the increase in the thickness of the occlusal layering ceramic.

Keywords: All ceramic, dental crowns, relative wear, chewing simulator, cyclic loading, thermally ageing.

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