Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 421

Search results for: waste bank

421 An Integrated Solid Waste Management Strategy for Semi-Urban and Rural Areas of Pakistan

Authors: Z. Zaman Asam, M. Ajmal, R. Saeed, H. Miraj, M. Muhammad Ahtisham, B. Hameed, A. -Sattar Nizami

Abstract:

In Pakistan, environmental degradation and consequent human health deterioration has rapidly accelerated in the past decade due to solid waste mismanagement. As the situation worsens with time, establishment of proper waste management practices is urgently needed especially in semi urban and rural areas of Pakistan. This study uses a concept of Waste Bank, which involves a transfer station for collection of sorted waste fractions and its delivery to the targeted market such as recycling industries, biogas plants, composting facilities etc. The management efficiency and effectiveness of Waste Bank depend strongly on the proficient sorting and collection of solid waste fractions at household level. However, the social attitude towards such a solution in semi urban/rural areas of Pakistan demands certain prerequisites to make it workable. Considering these factors the objectives of this study are to: [A] Obtain reliable data about quantity and characteristics of generated waste to define feasibility of business and design factors, such as required storage area, retention time, transportation frequency of the system etc. [B] Analyze the effects of various social factors on waste generation to foresee future projections. [C] Quantify the improvement in waste sorting efficiency after awareness campaign. We selected Gujrat city of Central Punjab province of Pakistan as it is semi urban adjoined by rural areas. A total of 60 houses (20 from each of the three selected colonies), belonging to different social status were selected. Awareness sessions about waste segregation were given through brochures and individual lectures in each selected household. Sampling of waste, that households had attempted to sort, was then carried out in the three colored bags that were provided as part of the awareness campaign. Finally, refined waste sorting, weighing of various fractions and measurement of dry mass was performed in environmental laboratory using standard methods. It was calculated that sorting efficiency of waste improved from 0 to 52% as a result of the awareness campaign. The generation of waste (dry mass basis) on average from one household was 460 kg/year whereas per capita generation was 68 kg/year. Extrapolating these values for Gujrat Tehsil, the total waste generation per year is calculated to be 101921 tons dry mass (DM). Characteristics found in waste were (i) organic decomposable (29.2%, 29710 tons/year DM), (ii) recyclables (37.0%, 37726 tons/year DM) that included plastic, paper, metal and glass, and (iii) trash (33.8%, 34485 tons/year DM) that mainly comprised of polythene bags, medicine packaging, pampers and wrappers. Waste generation was more in colonies with comparatively higher income and better living standards. In future, data collection for all four seasons and improvements due to expansion of awareness campaign to educational institutes will be quantified. This waste management system can potentially fulfill vital sustainable development goals (e.g. clean water and sanitation), reduce the need to harvest fresh resources from the ecosystem, create business and job opportunities and consequently solve one of the most pressing environmental issues of the country.

Keywords: Integrated solid waste management, waste segregation, waste bank, community development.

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420 Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Recyclable Material Bank Project of Universities in Central Region of Thailand

Authors: Ronbanchob Apiratikul

Abstract:

This research studied recycled waste by the Recyclable Material Bank Project of 4 universities in the central region of Thailand for the evaluation of reducing greenhouse gas emissions compared with landfilling activity during July 2012 to June 2013. The results showed that the projects collected total amount of recyclable wastes of about 911,984.80 kilograms. Office paper had the largest amount among these recycled wastes (50.68% of total recycled waste). Groups of recycled waste can be prioritized from high to low according to their amount as paper, plastic, glass, mixed recyclables, and metal, respectively. The project reduced greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to about 2814.969 metric tons of carbon dioxide. The most significant recycled waste that affects the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is office paper which is 70.16% of total reduced greenhouse gasses emission. According to amount of reduced greenhouse gasses emission, groups of recycled waste can be prioritized from high to low significances as paper, plastic, metals, mixed recyclables, and glass, respectively.

Keywords: Recycling, garbage bank, waste management, recyclable wastes, greenhouse gasses.

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419 Reducing Greenhouse Gasses Emissions by Recyclable Material Bank Project in Universities of Thailand

Authors: Ronbanchob Apiratikul

Abstract:

This research studied recycled wastes by Recyclable Material Bank project of 17 universities of Thailand for evaluation of reducing greenhouse gasses emission compared with landfilling activity during January 2011 to December 2011. The results showed that the projects collected total amount of recyclable wastes about 1,626.917 metric ton. The office paper has the largest amount among these recycled wastes (55.61 % of total recycled wastes). Groups of recycled waste can be prioritized from high to low according to their amount as paper, plastic, glass, mixed recyclables and metal, respectively. The project reduced greenhouse gasses emission equivalent to about 5,263.481 metric ton of carbon dioxide. The most significant recycled waste that affects the reduction of greenhouse gasses emission is office paper which is 73.45% of total reduced greenhouse gasses emission. According to amount of reduced greenhouse gasses emission, groups of recycled waste can be prioritized from high to low significances as paper, plastic, metal, mixed recyclables and glass, respectively.

Keywords: recycling, garbage bank, waste management, recyclable wastes, greenhouse gasses

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418 The Model to Calculate the Cost of Money to the Breakdown of Deposits and Banking Service

Authors: Javad Elkaie Behjati, Mehrzad Minouei

Abstract:

The present study aimed to assess the cost of money based on separating deposits and identifying actions and costs affecting in the process of cost of money in EN Bank of Iran (also known as Eghtesad Novin Bank). The method to calculate the cost of money is based on Activity-Based Costing (ABC). To conduct the study, the required data including deposits in banks and absorbed costs related to the same deposits were extracted from the financial statements of the bank. In order to cost the bank services properly as well as determining the commercial strategies required by commercial units, the data are precisely studied and the cost of each deposit is calculated according to the ABC. Eventually, the factors helping to improve the cost management and also a new model to calculate the cost of money in the bank are presented by some applicable formulas. Furthermore, some offers have been provided for users of both sections, in the practical section in commercial units and the theoretical one in universities.

Keywords: The cost of money, activity-based costing, banking, bank deposits, bank fees, services bank.

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417 Quantification of E-Waste: A Case Study in Federal University of Espírito Santo, Brazil

Authors: Andressa S. T. Gomes, Luiza A. Souza, Luciana H. Yamane, Renato R. Siman

Abstract:

The segregation of waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in the generating source, its characterization (quali-quantitative) and identification of origin, besides being integral parts of classification reports, are crucial steps to the success of its integrated management. The aim of this paper was to count WEEE generation at the Federal University of Espírito Santo (UFES), Brazil, as well as to define sources, temporary storage sites, main transportations routes and destinations, the most generated WEEE and its recycling potential. Quantification of WEEE generated at the University in the years between 2010 and 2015 was performed using data analysis provided by UFES’s sector of assets management. EEE and WEEE flow in the campuses information were obtained through questionnaires applied to the University workers. It was recorded 6028 WEEEs units of data processing equipment disposed by the university between 2010 and 2015. Among these waste, the most generated were CRT screens, desktops, keyboards and printers. Furthermore, it was observed that these WEEEs are temporarily stored in inappropriate places at the University campuses. In general, these WEEE units are donated to NGOs of the city, or sold through auctions (2010 and 2013). As for recycling potential, from the primary processing and further sale of printed circuit boards (PCB) from the computers, the amount collected could reach U$ 27,839.23. The results highlight the importance of a WEEE management policy at the University.

Keywords: Solid waste, waste of electric and electronic equipment, waste management, institutional generation of solid waste.

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416 Credit Risk Management and Analysis in an Iranian Bank

Authors: Isa Nakhai Kamal Abadi, Esmaeel Saberi, Ehsan Mirjafari

Abstract:

While financial institutions have faced difficulties over the years for a multitude of reasons, the major cause of serious banking problems continues to be directly related to lax credit standards for borrowers and counterparties, poor portfolio risk management, or a lack of attention to changes in economic or other circumstances that can lead to a deterioration in the credit standing of a bank's counterparties. Credit risk is most simply defined as the potential that a bank borrower or counterparty will fail to meet its obligations in accordance with agreed terms. The goal of credit risk management is to maximize a bank's risk-adjusted rate of return by maintaining credit risk exposure within acceptable parameters. Banks need to manage the credit risk inherent in the entire portfolio as well as the risk in individual credits or transactions. Banks should also consider the relationships between credit risk and other risks. The effective management of credit risk is a critical component of a comprehensive approach to risk management and essential to the long-term success of any banking organization. In this research we also study the relationship between credit risk indices and borrower-s timely payback in Karafarin bank.

Keywords: Financial Ratios; Spearman Test; Bank OperationsRisk

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415 The Key Challenges of the New Bank Regulations

Authors: Petr Teply

Abstract:

The New Basel Capital Accord (Basel II) influences how financial institutions around the world, and especially European Union institutions, determine the amount of capital to reserve. However, as the recent global crisis has shown, the revision of Basel II is needed to reflect current trends, such as increased volatility and correlation, in the world financial markets. The overall objective of Basel II is to increase the safety and soundness of the international financial system. Basel II builds on three main pillars: Pillar I deals with the minimum capital requirements for credit, market and operational risk, Pillar II focuses on the supervisory review process and finally Pillar III promotes market discipline through enhanced disclosure requirements for banks. The aim of this paper is to provide the historical background, key features and impact of Basel II on financial markets. Moreover, we discuss new proposals for international bank regulation (sometimes referred to as Basel III) which include requirements for higher quality, constituency and transparency of banks' capital and risk management, regulation of OTC markets and introduction of new liquidity standards for internationally active banks.

Keywords: Basel II, Basel III, risk management, bank regulation

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414 The Impact of Bank Consolidation on the Performance of SMES in Nigeria

Authors: Okolo Chimaobi Valentine

Abstract:

This paper seeks to assess the implications of bank consolidation on the performance of small and medium scale enterprises in the Nigerian economy. Multiple linear regression technique and correlation matrix test were employed to measure the extent to which small and medium scale enterprises asset size, survival and access to credit were influenced. The result showed that bank deposit (BD) and bank credit (L or BC) impacted on asset size and survival of small and medium scale enterprises. None of the variables had significant impact on SMEs access to credit. There is a shift of focus by commercial banks away from small and medium scale enterprises (small customers), which is evidenced by the significant negative influence of bank credit to both the survival and asset size of small and medium enterprises. While micro finance banks work hard at providing funds to small and medium scale entrepreneurs, their capacity to meet the needs of these entrepreneurs is constrained. CBN should make policies that will boost micro finance bank’s capital and also monitor closely the management of the banks to ensure prudent financing of small and medium scale investments.

Keywords: Bank consolidation, small and medium enterprises.

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413 Alternative Approach toward Waste Treatment: Biodrying for Solid Waste in Malaysia

Authors: Nurul' Ain Ab Jalil, Hassan Basri

Abstract:

This paper reviews the objectives, methods and results of previous studies on biodrying of solid waste in several countries. Biodrying of solid waste is a novel technology in developing countries such as in Malaysia where high moisture content in organic waste makes the segregation process for recycling purposes complicated and diminishes the calorific value for the use of fuel source. In addition, the high moisture content also encourages the breeding of vectors and disease-bearing animals. From the laboratory results, the average moisture content of organic waste, paper, plastics and metals are 58.17%, 37.93%, 29.79% and 1.03% respectively for UKM campus. Biodrying of solid waste is a simple method of waste treatment as well as a cost-efficient technology to dry the solid waste. The process depends on temperature monitoring and air flow control along with the natural biodegradable process of organic waste. This review shows that the biodrying of solid waste method has high potential in treatment and recycling of solid waste, be useful for biodrying study and implementation in Malaysia.

Keywords: Biodrying of solid waste, Organic waste, Fuel source.

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412 A Decision Support Model for Bank Branch Location Selection

Authors: Nihan Cinar

Abstract:

Location selection is one of the most important decision making process which requires to consider several criteria based on the mission and the strategy. This study-s object is to provide a decision support model in order to help the bank selecting the most appropriate location for a bank-s branch considering a case study in Turkey. The object of the bank is to select the most appropriate city for opening a branch among six alternatives in the South-Eastern of Turkey. The model in this study was consisted of five main criteria which are Demographic, Socio-Economic, Sectoral Employment, Banking and Trade Potential and twenty one subcriteria which represent the bank-s mission and strategy. Because of the multi-criteria structure of the problem and the fuzziness in the comparisons of the criteria, fuzzy AHP is used and for the ranking of the alternatives, TOPSIS method is used.

Keywords: MCDM, bank branch location, fuzzy AHP, TOPSIS.

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411 Dynamic Shock Bank Liquidity Analysis

Authors: C. Recommandé, J.C. Blind, A. Clavel, R. Gourichon, V. Le Gal

Abstract:

Simulations are developed in this paper with usual DSGE model equations. The model is based on simplified version of Smets-Wouters equations in use at European Central Bank which implies 10 macro-economic variables: consumption, investment, wages, inflation, capital stock, interest rates, production, capital accumulation, labour and credit rate, and allows take into consideration the banking system. Throughout the simulations, this model will be used to evaluate the impact of rate shocks recounting the actions of the European Central Bank during 2008.

Keywords: CC-LM, Central Bank, DSGE, Liquidity Shock, Non-standard Intervention.

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410 The Impact of Bank Consolidation on Lending to SMES in Nigeria

Authors: Chimaobi Valentine Okolo

Abstract:

This paper seeks to assess the implications of bank consolidation on lending, which largely determine the survival and performance of small and medium scale enterprises and in turn the development of the Nigerian economy. Ordinary least square technique, correlation matrix test and Granger –causality test were employed to measure the extent to which lending to small and medium scale enterprises were influenced. The result showed that bank deposit (BD) impacted on lending to small and medium scale enterprises. Commercial and merchant bank lending rate had statistically insignificant effect on the dependent variable. There is a shift of focus by commercial banks from small and medium scale enterprises (small customers) to major investors (big customers). While micro finance banks work hard at providing funds to small and medium scale entrepreneurs, their capacity to meet the needs of these entrepreneurs is constrained. The capital and deposits of micro finance bank should be boosted in order to effectively support small and medium scale enterprises through loans.

Keywords: Asset size, bank consolidation, lending, small and medium enterprises.

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409 Effect of Using Stone Cutting Waste on the Compression Strength and Slump Characteristics of Concrete

Authors: Kamel K. Alzboon, Khalid N.Mahasneh

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to study the possible use of stone cutting sludge waste in concrete production, which would reduce both the environmental impact and the production cost .Slurry sludge was used a source of water in concrete production, which was obtained from Samara factory/Jordan, The physico-chemical and mineralogical characterization of the sludge was carried out to identify the major components and to compare it with the typical sand used to produce concrete. Samples analysis showed that 96% of slurry sludge volume is water, so it should be considered as an important source of water. Results indicated that the use of slurry sludge as water source in concrete production has insignificant effect on compression strength, while it has a sharp effect on the slump values. Using slurry sludge with a percentage of 25% of the total water content obtained successful concrete samples regarding slump and compression tests. To clarify slurry sludge, settling process can be used to remove the suspended solid. A settling period of 30 min. obtained 99% removal efficiency. The clarified water is suitable for using in concrete mixes, which reduce water consumption, conserve water recourses, increase the profit, reduce operation cost and save the environment. Additionally, the dry sludge could be used in the mix design instead of the fine materials with sizes < 160 um. This application could conserve the natural materials and solve the environmental and economical problem caused by sludge accumulation.

Keywords: Concrete, recycle, sludge, slurry waste, stone cutting waste, waste.

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408 Different Approaches for the Design of IFIR Compaction Filter

Authors: Sheeba V.S, Elizabeth Elias

Abstract:

Optimization of filter banks based on the knowledge of input statistics has been of interest for a long time. Finite impulse response (FIR) Compaction filters are used in the design of optimal signal adapted orthonormal FIR filter banks. In this paper we discuss three different approaches for the design of interpolated finite impulse response (IFIR) compaction filters. In the first method, the magnitude squared response satisfies Nyquist constraint approximately. In the second and third methods Nyquist constraint is exactly satisfied. These methods yield FIR compaction filters whose response is comparable with that of the existing methods. At the same time, IFIR filters enjoy significant saving in the number of multipliers and can be implemented efficiently. Since eigenfilter approach is used here, the method is less complex. Design of IFIR filters in the least square sense is presented.

Keywords: Principal Component Filter Bank, InterpolatedFinite Impulse Response filter, Orthonormal Filter Bank, Eigen Filter.

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407 Sustainable Development: The Human Rights Approach to Environmental Protection in South Africa

Authors: C. M. van der Bank, Marjoné van der Bank

Abstract:

International and domestic environmental law has evolved quite rapidly in the last few decades. At the international level the Stockholm and Rio Declarations paved the way for a broad based consensus of the international community on environmental issues and principles. At the Domestic level also many states have incorporated environmental protection in their constitutions and even more states are doing the same at least in their domestic legislations. In this process of evolution environmental law has unleashed a number of novel principles such as; the participatory principle, the polluter pays principle, the precautionary principle, the intergenerational and intra-generational principles, the prevention principle, the sustainable development principle and so on.

Keywords: Environment, human rights, international, protection.

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406 Bank Loans and the Business Cycle: The Case of the Czech Republic

Authors: Libena Cernohorska, Jan Cernohorsky

Abstract:

This article aims to evaluate the impact of loans provided within the Czech banking sector on the growth of the Czech economy. The article is based on research of current scientific findings in respect to bank loans and economic development. The paper is based on data taken from the Czech Statistical Office on the development of the gross domestic product and data from the Czech National Bank on the development of loans from the period 2004-2015. Links between selected variables are tested using Granger causality tests. The results calculated confirm the hypothesis of the impact of the loans on economic growth, with a six-month delay. The results thus correspond to the standard economic findings and results of most previous studies.

Keywords: Bank, business cycle, economic growth, loans.

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405 Moving towards Zero Waste in a UK Local Authority Area: Challenges to the Introduction of Separate Food Waste Collections

Authors: C. Cole, M. Osmani, A. Wheatley, M. Quddus

Abstract:

EU and UK Government targets for minimising and recycling household waste has led the responsible authorities to research the alternatives to landfill. In the work reported here the local waste collection authority (Charnwood Borough Council) has adopted the aspirational strategy of becoming a “Zero Waste Borough” to lead the drive for public participation. The work concludes that the separate collection of food waste would be needed to meet the two regulatory standards on recycling and biologically active wastes.

An analysis of a neighbouring Authority (Newcastle-Under-Lyne Borough Council (NBC), a similar sized local authority that has a successful weekly food waste collection service was undertaken. Results indicate that the main challenges for Charnwood Borough Council would be gaining householder co-operation, the extra costs of collection and organising alternative treatment. The analysis also demonstrated that there was potential offset value via anaerobic digestion for CBC to overcome these difficulties and improve its recycling performance.

Keywords: England, Food Waste Collections, Household Waste, Local Authority.

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404 Approaches to Determining Optimal Asset Structure for a Commercial Bank

Authors: Svetlana Saksonova

Abstract:

Every commercial bank optimises its asset portfolio depending on the profitability of assets and chosen or imposed constraints. This paper proposes and applies a stylized model for optimising banks' asset and liability structure, reflecting profitability of different asset categories and their risks as well as costs associated with different liability categories and reserve requirements. The level of detail for asset and liability categories is chosen to create a suitably parsimonious model and to include the most important categories in the model. It is shown that the most appropriate optimisation criterion for the model is the maximisation of the ratio of net interest income to assets. The maximisation of this ratio is subject to several constraints. Some are accounting identities or dictated by legislative requirements; others vary depending on the market objectives for a particular bank. The model predicts variable amount of assets allocated to loan provision.

Keywords: asset structure, commercial bank, model, optimisation

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403 Comprehensive Characteristics of the Municipal Solid Waste Generated in the Faculty of Engineering, UKM

Authors: A. Salsabili, M.Aghajani Mir, S.Saheri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad Basri

Abstract:

The main aims in this research are to study the solid waste generation in the Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment in the UKM and at the same time to determine composition and some of the waste characteristics likewise: moisture content, density, pH and C/N ratio. For this purpose multiple campaigns were conducted to collect the wastes produced in all hostels, faculties, offices and so on, during 24th of February till 2nd of March 2009, measure and investigate them with regard to both physical and chemical characteristics leading to highlight the necessary management policies. Research locations are Faculty of Engineering and the Canteen nearby that. From the result gained, the most suitable solid waste management solution will be proposed to UKM. The average solid waste generation rate in UKM is 203.38 kg/day. The composition of solid waste generated are glass, plastic, metal, aluminum, organic and inorganic waste and others waste. From the laboratory result, the average moisture content, density, pH and C/N ratio values from the solid waste generated are 49.74%, 165.1 kg/m3, 5.3, and 7:1 respectively. Since, the food waste (organic waste) were the most dominant component, around 62% from the total waste generated hence, the most suitable solid waste management solution is composting.

Keywords: Solid Waste, Waste Management, Characterizationand Composition

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402 Waste Management in a Hot Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency – 3: Volume Reduction and Stabilization of Solid Waste

Authors: Masaumi Nakahara, Sou Watanabe, Hiromichi Ogi, Atsuhiro Shibata, Kazunori Nomura

Abstract:

In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, three types of experimental research, advanced reactor fuel reprocessing, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear fuel cycle technology, have been carried out at the Chemical Processing Facility. The facility has generated high level radioactive liquid and solid wastes in hot cells. The high level radioactive solid waste is divided into three main categories, a flammable waste, a non-flammable waste, and a solid reagent waste. A plastic product is categorized into the flammable waste and molten with a heating mantle. The non-flammable waste is cut with a band saw machine for reducing the volume. Among the solid reagent waste, a used adsorbent after the experiments is heated, and an extractant is decomposed for its stabilization. All high level radioactive solid wastes in the hot cells are packed in a high level radioactive solid waste can. The high level radioactive solid waste can is transported to the 2nd High Active Solid Waste Storage in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

Keywords: High level radioactive solid waste, advanced reactor fuel reprocessing, radioactive waste disposal, nuclear fuel cycle technology.

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401 A Legal Opinion on Mitigation and Adaptation on Air Pollution Strategies for Local Governments in South Africa

Authors: Marjone Van Der Bank, C. M. Van Der Bank

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the foundation and evolution of environmental related problems in local governments with specific reference on air pollution in South Africa. Local government has a direct mandate in terms of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (hereafter, the Constitution). This mandate to protect, fulfil, respect and promote the Bill of Rights by local governments in respect of the powers and functions creates confusion around the role of where a local government fits in, in addressing the problem of climate change in South Africa. A reflection of the evolving legislations, developments, and processes regarding climate change that shaped local government dispensation in South Africa is addressed by the notion of developmental local governments. This paper seeks to examine the advances for mitigation and adaptation regulation of air pollution and application in South Africa. This study involves a qualitative approach that will involve South African national legislation as well as an interpretation of international strategies. A literature review study was conducted to undertake the various aspects of law in order to support the argument undertaken of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The paper presents a detailed discussion of the current legislation and the position as it currently stands, as well as the relevant protections as outlined in the National Environmental Management Act and the National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act. It then proceeds to outline the responsibilities of local governments in South Africa to mitigate and adapt to air pollution strategies.

Keywords: Adaptation, climate change, disaster, local governments, mitigation.

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400 Development of Monitoring Blood Bank Center Based PIC Microcontroller Using CAN Communication

Authors: Kaiwan S. Ismael, Ergun Ercelebi, Majeed Nader

Abstract:

This paper describes the design and implementation of a hardware setup for online monitoring of 24 refrigerators inside blood bank center using the microcontroller and CAN bus for communications between each node. Due to the security of locations in the blood bank hall and difficulty of monitoring of each refrigerator separately, this work proposes a solution to monitor all the blood bank refrigerators in one location. CAN-bus system is used because it has many applications and advantages, especially for this system due to easy in use, low cost, providing a reduction in wiring, fast to repair and easily expanding the project without a problem.

Keywords: Control Area Network (CAN), monitoring blood bank center, PIC microcontroller, MPLAB IDE.

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399 Strategies for E-Waste Management: A Literature Review

Authors: Linh Thi Truc Doan, Yousef Amer, Sang-Heon Lee, Phan Nguyen Ky Phuc

Abstract:

During the last few decades, with the high-speed upgrade of electronic products, electronic waste (e-waste) has become one of the fastest growing wastes of the waste stream. In this context, more efforts and concerns have already been placed on the treatment and management of this waste. To mitigate their negative influences on the environment and society, it is necessary to establish appropriate strategies for e-waste management. Hence, this paper aims to review and analysis some useful strategies which have been applied in several countries to handle e-waste. Future perspectives on e-waste management are also suggested. The key findings found that, to manage e-waste successfully, it is necessary to establish effective reverse supply chains for e-waste, and raise public awareness towards the detrimental impacts of e-waste. The result of the research provides valuable insights to governments, policymakers in establishing e-waste management in a safe and sustainable manner.

Keywords: E-waste, e-waste management, life cycle assessment, recycling regulations.

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398 Into the Bank Lending Channel of SEE: Greek Banks- Buffering Effects

Authors: Stefanos V. Fotopoulos, Harry V. Papapanagos, Fotios M. Siokis

Abstract:

This paper tries to shed light on the existence of a bank lending channel (BLC) in South Eastern European countries (SEE). Based on a VAR framework we test the responsiveness of credit supply to monetary policy shocks. By compiling a new data set and using the reserve requirement ratio, among others, as the policy instrument we measure the effectiveness of the BLC and the buffering effect of the banks in the SEE countries. The results indicate that loan supply is significantly affected by shifts in monetary policy, when demand factors are controlled. Furthermore, by analyzing the effect of the Greek banks in the region we conclude that Greek banks do buffer the negative effects of monetary policy transmission. By having a significant market share of the SEE-s banking markets we argue that Greek banks influence positively the economic growth of SEE countries.

Keywords: Bank Lending Channel, Monetary Policy Transmission, Policy Buffering, South Eastern Europe

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397 A Model of Market Segmentation for the Customers of Mellat Bank in Iran

Authors: Nader Gharibnavaz, Hossein Yazdi

Abstract:

If organizations like Mellat Bank want to identify its customer market completely to reach its specified goals, it can segment the market to offer the product package to the right segment. Our objective is to offer a segmentation model for Iran banking market in Mellat bank view. The methodology of this project is combined by “segmentation on the basis of four part-quality variables" and “segmentation on the basis of different in means". Required data are gathered from E-Systems and researcher personal observation. Finally, the research offers the organization that at first step form a four dimensional matrix with 756 segments using four variables named value-based, behavioral, activity style, and activity level, and at the second step calculate the means of profit for every cell of matrix in two distinguished work level (levels α1:normal condition and α2: high pressure condition) and compare the segments by checking two conditions that are 1- homogeneity every segment with its sub segment and 2- heterogeneity with other segments, and so it can do the necessary segmentation process. After all, the last offer (more explained by an operational example and feedback algorithm) is to test and update the model because of dynamic environment, technology, and banking system.

Keywords: market segmentation model, banking system, Mellat bank

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396 An Investigation of Customers’ Perception and Attitude towards Krung Thai Bank in Thailand

Authors: Phatthanan Chaiyabut

Abstract:

The purposes of this research were to identify the perception of customers towards Krung Thai Bank’s image and to understand the customer attitude towards Krung Thai Bank’s image in Bangkok, Thailand. This research utilized quantitative approach and used questionnaire as data collection tool. A sample size of 420 respondents was selected by simple random sampling. The findings revealed that the majority of respondents received information, news, and feeds concerning the bank through televisions the most. This information channel had significantly influenced on the customers and their decisions to utilize the bank’s products and services.

From the information concerning the attitudes towards overall image of the bank, it was found that the majority respondents rated the bank’s image at the good level. The top three average attitudes included the bank’s images in supports government's monetary policies, being renowned and stable, and contributing in economical amendments and developments, with the mean average of 4.01, 3.96 and 3.81 respectively. The attitudes toward the images included a business leader in banking, marketing, and competitions. Offering prompt services, and provided appropriate servicing time were rated moderate with the attitudes of 3.36 and 3.30 respectively.

Keywords: Attitude, Image, Krung Thai bank, Perception.

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395 Sampling and Characterization of Fines Created during the Shredding of Non Hazardous Waste

Authors: Soukaina Oujana, Peggy Zwolinski

Abstract:

Fines are heterogeneous residues created during the shredding of non-hazardous waste. They are one of the most challenging issues faced by recyclers, because they are at the present time considered as non-sortable and non-reusable mixtures destined to landfill. However, fines contain a large amount of recoverable materials that could be recycled or reused for the production of solid recovered fuel. This research is conducted in relation to a project named ValoRABES. The aim is to characterize fines and establish a suitable sorting process in order to extract the materials contained in the mixture and define their suitable recovery paths. This paper will highlight the importance of a good sampling and will propose a sampling methodology for fines characterization. First results about the characterization will be also presented.

Keywords: Fines, non-hazardous waste, recovery, shredding residues, waste characterization, waste sampling.

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394 Deficiency Risk in Islamic and Conventional Banks

Authors: Korbi Fakhri

Abstract:

In this article, we have elaborated a study over the nature of financial intermediation in Islamic banks by comparison to those of conventional ones. We have found a striking difference between two kinds of intermediation. We tried, from another side, to study the relationship between the capital level and deficiency risk relying on econometric model, and we have obtained a positive and significant relation between the capital and the deficiency risk for the conventional banks. This means that when the capital of these banks increases, the deficiency risk increases as well. In return, since the Islamic banks are constrained to respect the Sharia Committee as well as customers’ demands that may, in certain contracts, choose to invest their capitals in projects they are interested in. These constraints have as effects to reduce the deficiency risk even when the capital increases.

Keywords: Conventional bank, deficiency risk, financial intermediation, Islamic bank.

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393 Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Financing Practice and Accessing Bank Loan Issues -The Case of Libya

Authors: Kalsom Abd Wahab, Khalid Hassan Abdesamed

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to examine the financing practices of SMEs in Libya in two different phases of business life cycle: start-up and matured stages. Moreover, SMEs- accessing bank loan issues is also identified. The study was conducted by taking into account the aspect of demand. The findings are based on a sample of 76 SMEs in Libya through the adoption of questionnaires. The results have pinpointed several things- evidently, SMEs use informal financing sources which prefer personal savings; SME owners are willing to apply for bank loan, that the most pressing problem has been identified, not to apply bank loan is loan with interest (religion factor).

Keywords: SMEs, Formal Finance (loan from bank), Informal Finance, Loan with interest (religion factor), Libya.

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392 A Computationally Efficient Design for Prototype Filters of an M-Channel Cosine Modulated Filter Bank

Authors: Neela. R. Rayavarapu, Neelam Rup Prakash

Abstract:

The paper discusses a computationally efficient method for the design of prototype filters required for the implementation of an M-band cosine modulated filter bank. The prototype filter is formulated as an optimum interpolated FIR filter. The optimum interpolation factor requiring minimum number of multipliers is used. The model filter as well as the image suppressor will be designed using the Kaiser window. The method will seek to optimize a single parameter namely cutoff frequency to minimize the distortion in the overlapping passband.

Keywords: Cosine modulated filter bank, interpolated FIR filter, optimum interpolation factor, prototype filter.

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