Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 110

Search results for: wake width

110 Numerical Analysis of Flow past Circular Cylinder with Triangular and Rectangular Wake Splitter

Authors: Pavan Badami, Vivek Shrivastava, Saravanan V., Nandeesh Hiremath, K. N. Seetharamu

Abstract:

In the present work flow past circular cylinder and cylinder with rectangular and triangular wake splitter is studied to improve aerodynamic parameters. The Comparison of drag coefficient is tabulated for bare cylinder, cylinder with rectangular and triangular wake splitters. Flow past circular cylinder and cylinder with triangular and rectangular wake splitter is performed at Reynoldsnumber 5, 20, 40, 50,80, 100.An incompressible PISO finite volume code employing a non-staggered grid arrangement is used, a second order upwind scheme is used for convective terms. The time discretization is implicit and a Second order Crank-Nicholson scheme is employed. Length of wake splitter in both configurations is taken to be equal to diameter of cylinder. Wake length is found to be less with rectangular wake splitter when compared to bare cylinder and cylinder with triangular wake splitter. Coefficient of drag is found to be less for triangular wake splitter when compared to bare cylinder & cylinder with rectangular wake splitter.

Keywords: Coefficient of drag and pressure, CFDFLUENT, Triangular and rectangular wake splitter, wake length.

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109 Influence of After Body Shape on the Performance of Blunt Shaped Bodies as Vortex Shedders

Authors: Lavish Ordia, A. Venugopal, Amit Agrawal, S. V. Prabhu

Abstract:

The present study explores flow visualization experiments with various blunt shaped bluff bodies placed inside a circular pipe. The bodies mainly comprise of modifications of trapezoidal cylinder, most widely used in practical applications, such as vortex flowmeters. The present configuration possesses the feature of both internal and external flows with low aspect ratio. The vortex dynamics of bluff bodies in such configuration is seldom reported in the literature. Dye injection technique is employed to visualize the complex vortex formation mechanism behind the bluff bodies. The influence of orientation, slit and after body shape is studied in an attempt to obtain better understanding of the vortex formation mechanism. Various wake parameters like Strouhal number, vortex formation length and wake width are documented for these shapes. Vortex formation both with and without shear layer interaction is observed for most of the shapes.

Keywords: Flow visualization, Reynolds number, Strouhal number, vortex, vortex formation length, wake width.

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108 Streamwise Vorticity in the Wake of a Sliding Bubble

Authors: R. O’Reilly Meehan, D. B. Murray

Abstract:

In many practical situations, bubbles are dispersed in a liquid phase. Understanding these complex bubbly flows is therefore a key issue for applications such as shell and tube heat exchangers, mineral flotation and oxidation in water treatment. Although a large body of work exists for bubbles rising in an unbounded medium, that of bubbles rising in constricted geometries has received less attention. The particular case of a bubble sliding underneath an inclined surface is common to two-phase flow systems. The current study intends to expand this knowledge by performing experiments to quantify the streamwise flow structures associated with a single sliding air bubble under an inclined surface in quiescent water. This is achieved by means of two-dimensional, two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV), performed with a continuous wave laser and high-speed camera. PIV vorticity fields obtained in a plane perpendicular to the sliding surface show that there is significant bulk fluid motion away from the surface. The associated momentum of the bubble means that this wake motion persists for a significant time before viscous dissipation. The magnitude and direction of the flow structures in the streamwise measurement plane are found to depend on the point on its path through which the bubble enters the plane. This entry point, represented by a phase angle, affects the nature and strength of the vortical structures. This study reconstructs the vorticity field in the wake of the bubble, converting the field at different instances in time to slices of a large-scale wake structure. This is, in essence, Taylor’s ”frozen turbulence” hypothesis. Applying this to the vorticity fields provides a pseudo three-dimensional representation from 2-D data, allowing for a more intuitive understanding of the bubble wake. This study provides insights into the complex dynamics of a situation common to many engineering applications, particularly shell and tube heat exchangers in the nucleate boiling regime.

Keywords: Bubbly flow, particle image velocimetry, two-phase flow, wake structures.

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107 Alternative Approach in Ground Vehicle Wake Analysis

Authors: L. Sterken, S. Sebben, L. Löfdahl

Abstract:

In this paper an alternative visualisation approach of the wake behind different vehicle body shapes with simplified and fully-detailed underbody has been proposed and analysed. This allows for a more clear distinction among the different wake regions. This visualisation is based on a transformation of the cartesian coordinates of a chosen wake plane to polar coordinates, using as filter velocities lower than the freestream. This transformation produces a polar wake plot that enables the division and quantification of the wake in a number of sections. In this paper, local drag has been used to visualise the drag contribution of the flow by the different sections. Visually, a balanced wake can be observed by the concentric behaviour of the polar plots. Alternatively, integration of the local drag of each degree section as a ratio of the total local drag yields a quantifiable approach of the wake uniformity, where different sections contribute equally to the local drag, with the exception of the wheels.

Keywords: Coordinate transformation, ground vehicle, local drag, wake.

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106 Using the V-Sphere Code for the Passive Scalar in the Wake of a Bluff Body

Authors: Y. Obikane, T. Nemoto , K. Ogura, M. Iwata, K. Ono

Abstract:

The objective of this research was to find the diffusion properties of vehicles on the road by using the V-Sphere Code. The diffusion coefficient and the size of the height of the wake were estimated with the LES option and the third order MUSCL scheme. We evaluated the code with the changes in the moments of Reynolds Stress along the mean streamline. The results show that at the leading part of a bluff body the LES has some advantages over the RNS since the changes in the strain rates are larger for the leading part. We estimated that the diffusion coefficient with the computed Reynolds stress (non-dimensional) was about 0.96 times the mean velocity.

Keywords: Wake , bluff body, V-CAD, turbulence diffusion.

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105 Investigation of Self-Similarity Solution for Wake Flow of a Cylinder

Authors: A. B. Khoshnevis, F. Zeydabadi, F. Sokhanvar

Abstract:

The data measurement of mean velocity has been taken for the wake of single circular cylinder with three different diameters for two different velocities. The effects of change in diameter and in velocity are studied in self-similar coordinate system. The spatial variations of velocity defect and that of the half-width have been investigated. The results are compared with those published by H.Schlichting. In the normalized coordinates, it is also observed that all cases except for the first station are self-similar. By attention to self-similarity profiles of mean velocity, it is observed for all the cases at the each station curves tend to zero at a same point.

Keywords: Self-similarity, wake of single circular cylinder

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104 Characterization of the Near-Wake of an Ahmed Body Profile

Authors: Stéphanie Pellerin, Bérengére Podvin, Luc Pastur

Abstract:

In aerovehicles context, the flow around an Ahmed body profile is simulated using the velocity-vorticity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, associated to a penalization method for solids and Large Eddy Simulation for turbulence. The study focuses both on the ground influence on the flow and on the dissymetry of the wake, observed for a ground clearance greater than 10% of the body height H. Unsteady and mean flows are presented and analyzed. POD study completes the analysis and gives information on the most energetic structures of the flow.

Keywords: Ahmed body, bi-stability, LES, near wake.

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103 Effect of Amplitude and Mean Angle of Attack on Wake of an Oscillating Airfoil

Authors: Sadeghi H., Mani M., Ardakani M. A.

Abstract:

The unsteady wake of an EPPLER 361 airfoil in pitching motion has been investigated in a subsonic wind tunnel by hot-wire anemometry. The airfoil was given the pitching motion about the one-quarter chord axis at reduced frequency of 0182. Streamwise mean velocity profiles (wake profiles) were investigated at several vertically aligned points behind the airfoil at one-quarter chord downstream distance from trailing edge. Oscillation amplitude and mean angle of attack were varied to determine the effects on wake profiles. When the maximum dynamic angle of attack was below the static stall angle of attack, weak effects on wake were found by increasing oscillation amplitude and mean angle of attack. But, for higher angles of attack strong unsteady effects were appeared on the wake.

Keywords: Unsteady wake, amplitude, mean angle, EPPLER 361 airfoil.

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102 Ginzburg-Landau Model : an Amplitude Evolution Equation for Shallow Wake Flows

Authors: Imad Chaddad, Andrei A. Kolyshkin

Abstract:

Linear and weakly nonlinear analysis of shallow wake flows is presented in the present paper. The evolution of the most unstable linear mode is described by the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (CGLE). The coefficients of the CGLE are calculated numerically from the solution of the corresponding linear stability problem for a one-parametric family of shallow wake flows. It is shown that the coefficients of the CGLE are not so sensitive to the variation of the base flow profile.

Keywords: Ginzburg-Landau equation, shallow wake flow, weakly nonlinear theory.

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101 Phase-Averaged Analysis of Three-Dimensional Vorticity in the Wake of Two Yawed Side-By-Side Circular Cylinders

Authors: T. Zhou, S. F. Mohd. Razali, Y. Zhou, H. Wang, L. Cheng

Abstract:

Thewake flow behind two yawed side-by-sidecircular  cylinders is investigated using athree-dimensional vorticity probe.  Four yaw angles (α), namely, 0°, 15°, 30° and 45° and twocylinder  spacing ratios T*  of 1.7 and 3.0 were tested. For T*  = 3.0, there exist  two vortex streets and the cylinders behave as independent and  isolated ones. The maximum contour value of the coherent streamwise  vorticity ~* ωx  is only about 10% of that of the spanwise vorticity ~* ωz .  With the increase of α,  ~* ωx  increases whereas ~* ωz  decreases. At α =  45°, ~* ωx  is about 67% of ~* ωz .For T* = 1.7, only a single peak is  detected in the energy spectrum. The spanwise vorticity contours have  an organized pattern only at α = 0°. The maximum coherent vorticity  contours of ~* ω x  and ~* ωz  for T*  = 1.7 are about 30% and 7% of those  for T*  = 3.0.The independence principle (IP)in terms of Strouhal  numbers is applicable in both wakes when α< 40°.

 

Keywords: Circular cylinder wake, vorticity, vortex shedding.

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100 Vortex Wake Formation and Its Effects on Thrust and Propulsive Efficiency of an Oscillating Airfoil

Authors: Ahmet Selim Durna, Bayram Celik, Aydin Misirlioglu

Abstract:

Flows over a harmonically oscillating NACA 0012 airfoil are simulated here using a two-dimensional, unsteady, incompressibleNavier-Stokes solver.Both pure-plunging and pitching-plunging combined oscillations are considered at a Reynolds number of 5000. Special attention is paid to the vortex shedding and interaction mechanism of the motions. For all the simulations presented here, the reduced frequency (k) is fixed at a value of 2.5 and plunging amplitude (h) is selected to be in the range of 0.2-0.5. The simulation results show that the interaction mechanism between the leading and trailing edge vortices has a decisive effect on the values of the resulting thrust and propulsive efficiency.

Keywords: pithing and plunging airfoil, leading edge vortex, trailing edge vortex, vortex interaction, wake structure.

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99 Study of Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Unmanned Aircraft in the Wake

Authors: O. Solovyov, S. Eryomenko, V. Kobrin, V. Chmovzh

Abstract:

The methodology of numerical simulation and calculation of aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft taking into account impact of wake on it has been developed. The results of numerical experiment in comparison with the data obtained in the wind tunnel are presented. Efficiency of methodology of calculation and the reliability of the results is shown.

Keywords: Unmanned aircraft, vortex wake, aerodynamic characteristics.

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98 Linear Instability of Wake-Shear Layers in Two-Phase Shallow Flows

Authors: Inta Volodko, Valentina Koliskina

Abstract:

Linear stability analysis of wake-shear layers in twophase shallow flows is performed in the present paper. Twodimensional shallow water equations are used in the analysis. It is assumed that the fluid contains uniformly distributed solid particles. No dynamic interaction between the carrier fluid and particles is expected in the initial moment. The stability calculations are performed for different values of the particle loading parameter and two other parameters which characterize the velocity ratio and the velocity deficit. The results show that the particle loading parameter has a stabilizing effect on the flow while the increase in the velocity ratio or in the velocity deficit destabilizes the flow.

Keywords: Linear stability, Shallow flows, Wake-shear flows.

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97 Linear Stability Characteristics of Wake-Shear Layers in Two-Phase Shallow Flows

Authors: Inta Volodko, Valentina Koliskina

Abstract:

Linear stability of wake-shear layers in two-phase shallow flows is analyzed in the present paper. Stability analysis is based on two-dimensional shallow water equations. It is assumed that the fluid contains uniformly distributed solid particles. No dynamic interaction between the carrier fluid and particles is expected in the initial moment. Linear stability curves are obtained for different values of the particle loading parameter, the velocity ratio and the velocity deficit. It is shown that the increase in the velocity ratio destabilizes the flow. The particle loading parameter has a stabilizing effect on the flow. The role of the velocity deficit is also destabilizing: the increase of the velocity deficit leads to less stable flow.

Keywords: Linear stability, Shallow flows, Wake-shear flows.

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96 Crack Width Evaluation for Flexural RC Members with Axial Tension

Authors: Sukrit Ghorai

Abstract:

Proof of controlling crack width is a basic condition for securing suitable performance in serviceability limit state. The cracking in concrete can occur at any time from the casting of time to the years after the concrete has been set in place. Most codes struggle with offering procedure for crack width calculation. There is lack in availability of design charts for designers to compute crack width with ease. The focus of the study is to utilize design charts and parametric equations in calculating crack width with minimum error. The paper contains a simplified procedure to calculate crack width for reinforced concrete (RC) sections subjected to bending with axial tensile force following the guidelines of Euro code [DS EN-1992-1-1 & DS EN-1992-1-2]. Numerical examples demonstrate the application of the suggested procedure. Comparison with parallel analytical tools supports the validity of result and show the percentage deviation of crack width in both the procedures. The technique is simple, user friendly and ready to evolve for a greater spectrum of section sizes and materials.

Keywords: Concrete structures, crack width calculation, serviceability limit state, structural design, bridge engineering.

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95 Novel Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation with Least Correlated Noise

Authors: Shiang-Hwua Yu, Han-Sheng Tseng

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel sinusoidal modulation scheme that features least correlated noise and high linearity. The modulation circuit, which is composed of a quantizer, a resonator, and a comparator, is capable of eliminating correlated modulation noise while doing modulation. The proposed modulation scheme combined with the linear quadratic optimal control is applied to a single-phase voltage source inverter and validated with the experiment results. The experiments show that the inverter supplies stable 60Hz 110V AC power with a total harmonic distortion of less than 1%, under the DC input variation from 190 V to 300 V and the output power variation from 0 to 600 W.

Keywords: Pulse width modulation, feedback dithering, linear quadratic control, inverter.

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94 Simulation and Experimentation on the Contact Width of New Metal Gasket for Asbestos Substitution

Authors: Moch. Agus Choiron, Yoshihiro Kurata, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

The contact width is important design parameter for optimizing the design of new metal gasket for asbestos substitution gasket. The contact width is found have relationship with the helium leak quantity. In the increasing of axial load value, the helium leak quantity is decreasing and the contact width is increasing. This study provides validity method using simulation analysis and the result is compared to experimental using pressure sensitive paper. The results denote similar trend data between simulation and experimental result. Final evaluation is determined by helium leak quantity to check leakage performance of gasket design. Considering the phenomena of position change on the convex contact, it can be developed the optimization of gasket design by increasing contact width.

Keywords: contact width, simulation, pressure sensitive paper.

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93 Pulse Generator with Constant Pulse Width

Authors: Hanif Che Lah, Wee Leong Son, Rozita Borhan

Abstract:

This paper is about method to produce a stable and accurate constant output pulse width regardless of the amplitude, period and pulse width variation of the input signal source. The pulse generated is usually being used in numerous applications as the reference input source to other circuits in the system. Therefore, it is crucial to produce a clean and constant pulse width to make sure the system is working accurately as expected.

Keywords: Amplitude, Constant Pulse Width, Frequency Divider, Pulse Generator.

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92 Bendability Analysis for Bending of C-Mn Steel Plates on Heavy Duty 3-Roller Bending Machine

Authors: Himanshu V. Gajjar, Anish H. Gandhi, Tanvir A Jafri, Harit K. Raval

Abstract:

Bendability is constrained by maximum top roller load imparting capacity of the machine. Maximum load is encountered during the edge pre-bending stage of roller bending. Capacity of 3-roller plate bending machine is specified by maximum thickness and minimum shell diameter combinations that can be pre-bend for given plate material of maximum width. Commercially available plate width or width of the plate that can be accommodated on machine decides the maximum rolling width. Original equipment manufacturers (OEM) provide the machine capacity chart based on reference material considering perfectly plastic material model. Reported work shows the bendability analysis of heavy duty 3-roller plate bending machine. The input variables for the industry are plate thickness, shell diameter and material property parameters, as it is fixed by the design. Analytical models of equivalent thickness, equivalent width and maximum width based on power law material model were derived to study the bendability. Equation of maximum width provides bendability for designed configuration i.e. material property, shell diameter and thickness combinations within the machine limitations. Equivalent thicknesses based on perfectly plastic and power law material model were compared for four different materials grades of C-Mn steel in order to predict the bend-ability. Effect of top roller offset on the bendability at maximum top roller load imparting capacity is reported.

Keywords: 3-Roller bending, Bendability, Equivalent thickness, Equivalent width, Maximum width.

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91 Advanced Pulse Width Modulation Techniques for Z Source Multi Level Inverter

Authors: B. M. Manjunatha, D. V. Ashok Kumar, M. Vijay Kumar

Abstract:

This paper proposes five level diode clamped Z source Inverter. The existing PWM techniques used for ZSI are restricted for two level. The two level Z Source Inverter have high harmonic distortions which effects the performance of the grid connected PV system. To improve the performance of the system the number of voltage levels in the output waveform need to be increased. This paper presents comparative analysis of a five level diode clamped Z source Inverter with different carrier based Modified Pulse Width Modulation techniques. The parameters considered for comparison are output voltage, voltage gain, voltage stress across switch and total harmonic distortion when powered by same DC supply. Analytical results are verified using MATLAB.

Keywords: Diode Clamped, Pulse Width Modulation, total harmonic distortion, Z Source Inverter.

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90 General Purpose Pulse Width Modulation Based Sliding Mode Controller for Buck DC-DC

Authors: M.Bensaada , A.Boudghene Stambouli , M.Bekhti, A. Bellar, L. Boukhris

Abstract:

This paper is a simple and systematic approaches to the design and analysis a pulse width modulation (PWM) based sliding mode controller for buck DC-DC Converters. Various aspects of the design, including the practical problems and the proposed solutions, are detailed. However, these control strategies can't compensate for large load current and input voltage variations. In this paper, a new control strategy by compromising both schemes advantages and avoiding their drawbacks is proposed, analyzed and simulated.

Keywords: Buck, DC/DC converters, sliding mode control, pulse width modulation.

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89 Synchronization Technique for Random Switching Frequency Pulse-Width Modulation

Authors: Apinan Aurasopon, Worawat Sa-ngiavibool

Abstract:

This paper proposes a synchronized random switching frequency pulse width modulation (SRSFPWM). In this technique, the clock signal is used to control the random noise frequency which is produced by the feedback voltage of a hysteresis circuit. These make the triangular carrier frequency equaling to the random noise frequency in each switching period with the symmetrical positive and negative slopes of triangular carrier. Therefore, there is no error voltage in PWM signal. The PSpice simulated results shown the proposed technique improved the performance in case of low frequency harmonics of PWM signal comparing with conventional random switching frequency PWM.

Keywords: Random switching frequency pulse - width modulation.

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88 Comparative Analysis of SVPWM and the Standard PWM Technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor

Authors: L. Lakhdari, B. Bouchiba, M. Bechar

Abstract:

The multi-level inverters present an important novelty in the field of energy control with high voltage and power. The major advantage of all multi-level inverters is the improvement and spectral quality of its generated output signals. In recent years, various pulse width modulation techniques have been developed. From these technics we have: Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM). This work presents a detailed analysis of the comparative advantage of space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and the standard SPWM technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor. The comparison is based on the evaluation of harmonic distortion THD.

Keywords: Induction motor, multi-level inverters, NPC inverter, sinusoidal pulse width modulation, space vector pulse width modulation.

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87 A Digital Pulse-Width Modulation Controller for High-Temperature DC-DC Power Conversion Application

Authors: Jingjing Lan, Jun Yu, Muthukumaraswamy Annamalai Arasu

Abstract:

This paper presents a digital non-linear pulse-width modulation (PWM) controller in a high-voltage (HV) buck-boost DC-DC converter for the piezoelectric transducer of the down-hole acoustic telemetry system. The proposed design controls the generation of output signal with voltage higher than the supply voltage and is targeted to work under high temperature. To minimize the power consumption and silicon area, a simple and efficient design scheme is employed to develop the PWM controller. The proposed PWM controller consists of serial to parallel (S2P) converter, data assign block, a mode and duty cycle controller (MDC), linearly PWM (LPWM) and noise shaper, pulse generator and clock generator. To improve the reliability of circuit operation at higher temperature, this design is fabricated with the 1.0-μm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS process. The implementation results validated that the proposed design has the advantages of smaller size, lower power consumption and robust thermal stability.

Keywords: DC-DC power conversion, digital control, high temperatures, pulse-width modulation.

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86 Comparative Review of Modulation Techniques for Harmonic Minimization in Multilevel Inverter

Authors: M. Suresh Kumar, K. Ramani

Abstract:

This paper proposed the comparison made between Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation, Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation and Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation technique for minimization of Total Harmonic Distortion in Cascaded H-Bridge Multi-Level Inverter. In Multicarrier Pulse Width Modulation method by using Alternate Position of Disposition scheme for switching pulse generation to Multi-Level Inverter. Another carrier based approach; Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation method is also implemented to define the switching pulse generation system in the multi-level inverter. In Selective Harmonic Elimination method using Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm for define the required switching angles to eliminate low order harmonics from the inverter output voltage waveform and reduce the total harmonic distortion value. So, the results validate that the Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation method does capably eliminate a great number of precise harmonics and minimize the Total Harmonic Distortion value in output voltage waveform in compared with Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation method, Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation method. In this paper, comparison of simulation results shows that the Selective Harmonic Elimination method can attain optimal harmonic minimization solution better than Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation method, Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation method.

Keywords: Multi-level inverter, Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation, Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation, Total Harmonic Distortion, Genetic Algorithm.

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85 Analysis of Contact Width and Contact Stress of Three-Layer Corrugated Metal Gasket

Authors: I. Made Gatot Karohika, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi, Oke Oktavianty, Didik Nurhadiyanto

Abstract:

Contact width and contact stress are important parameters related to the leakage behavior of corrugated metal gasket. In this study, contact width and contact stress of three-layer corrugated metal gasket are investigated due to the modulus of elasticity and thickness of surface layer for 2 type gasket (0-MPa and 400-MPa mode). A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution to analysis the effect of each parameter. The result indicated that lowering the modulus of elasticity ratio of surface layer will result in better contact width but the average contact stresses are smaller. When the modulus of elasticity ratio is held constant with thickness ratio increase, its contact width has an increscent trend otherwise the average contact stress has decreased trend.

Keywords: Contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation.

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84 Diagonal Crack Width of RC Members with High Strength Materials

Authors: J. Y. Lee, H. S. Lim, S. H. Yoon

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis of the diagonal crack widths of RC members with various types of materials by simulating a compatibility-aided truss model. The analytical results indicated that the diagonal crack width was influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. The yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete decreased the diagonal shear crack width of RC members for the same shear force because of the change of shear failure modes. However, regarding the maximum shear crack width at shear failure, the shear crack width of the beam with high strength materials was greater than that of the beam with normal strength materials.

Keywords: Diagonal crack width, high strength stirrups, high strength concrete, RC members, shear behavior.

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83 A Comparative Analysis of Modulation Control Strategies for Cascade H-Bridge 11-Level Inverter

Authors: Joshi Manohar. V., Sujatha. P., Anjaneyulu K. S. R

Abstract:

The range of the output power is a very important and evident limitation of two-level inverters. In order to overcome this disadvantage, multilevel inverters are introduced. Recently, Cascade H-Bridge inverters have emerged as one of the popular converter topologies used in numerous industrial applications. The modulation switching strategies such as phase shifted carrier based Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique and Stair case modulation with Selective Harmonic Elimination (SHE) PWM technique are generally used. NR method is used to solve highly non linear transcendental equations which are formed by SHEPWM method. Generally NR method has a drawback of requiring good initial guess but in this paper a new approach is implemented for NR method with any random initial guess. A three phase CHB 11-level inverter is chosen for analysis. MATLAB/SIMULINK programming environment and harmonic profiles are compared. Finally this paper presents a method at fundamental switching frequency with least % THDV.

Keywords: Cascade H-bridge 11- level Inverter, NR method, Phase shifted carrier based pulse width modulation (PSCPWM), Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (SHEPWM), Total Harmonic Distortion (%THDv).

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82 Fuzzy Logic Based Cascaded H-Bridge Eleven Level Inverter for Photovoltaic System Using Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation Technique

Authors: M. S. Sivagamasundari, P. Melba Mary

Abstract:

Multilevel inverter is a promising inverter topology for high voltage and high power applications. This inverter synthesizes several different levels of DC voltages to produce a stepped AC output that approaches the pure sine waveform. The three different topologies, diode-clamped inverter, capacitor-clamped inverter and cascaded h-bridge multilevel inverter are widely used in these multilevel inverters. Among the three topologies, cascaded h-bridge multilevel inverter is more suitable for photovoltaic applications since each PV array can act as a separate dc source for each h-bridge module. This research especially focus on photovoltaic power source as input to the system and shows the potential of a Single Phase Cascaded H-bridge Eleven level inverter governed by the fuzzy logic controller to improve the power quality by reducing the total harmonic distortion at the output voltage. Hence the efficiency of the system will be improved. Simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK has been done to verify the performance of cascaded h-bridge eleven level inverter using sinusoidal pulse width modulation technique. The simulated output shows very favorable result.

Keywords: Multilevel inverter, Cascaded H-Bridge multilevel inverter, Total Harmonic Distortion, Photovoltaic cell, Sinusoidal pulse width modulation.

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81 Multi-Level Pulse Width Modulation to Boost the Power Efficiency of Switching Amplifiers for Analog Signals with Very High Crest Factor

Authors: Jan Doutreloigne

Abstract:

The main goal of this paper is to develop a switching amplifier with optimized power efficiency for analog signals with a very high crest factor such as audio or DSL signals. Theoretical calculations show that a switching amplifier architecture based on multi-level pulse width modulation outperforms all other types of linear or switching amplifiers in that respect. Simulations on a 2 W multi-level switching audio amplifier, designed in a 50 V 0.35 mm IC technology, confirm its superior performance in terms of power efficiency. A real silicon implementation of this audio amplifier design is currently underway to provide experimental validation.

Keywords: Audio amplifier, multi-level switching amplifier, power efficiency, pulse width modulation, PWM, self-oscillating amplifier.

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