Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: viscous damping

7 A Numerical Study on Semi-Active Control of a Bridge Deck under Seismic Excitation

Authors: A. Yanik, U. Aldemir

Abstract:

This study investigates the benefits of implementing the semi-active devices in relation to passive viscous damping in the context of seismically isolated bridge structures. Since the intrinsically nonlinear nature of semi-active devices prevents the direct evaluation of Laplace transforms, frequency response functions are compiled from the computed time history response to sinusoidal and pulse-like seismic excitation. A simple semi-active control policy is used in regard to passive linear viscous damping and an optimal non-causal semi-active control strategy. The control strategy requires optimization. Euler-Lagrange equations are solved numerically during this procedure. The optimal closed-loop performance is evaluated for an idealized controllable dash-pot. A simplified single-degree-of-freedom model of an isolated bridge is used as numerical example. Two bridge cases are investigated. These cases are; bridge deck without the isolation bearing and bridge deck with the isolation bearing. To compare the performances of the passive and semi-active control cases, frequency dependent acceleration, velocity and displacement response transmissibility ratios Ta(w), Tv(w), and Td(w) are defined. To fully investigate the behavior of the structure subjected to the sinusoidal and pulse type excitations, different damping levels are considered. Numerical results showed that, under the effect of external excitation, bridge deck with semi-active control showed better structural performance than the passive bridge deck case.

Keywords: Bridge structures, passive control, seismic, semi-active control, viscous damping.

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6 Estimation of Hysteretic Damping in Steel Dual Systems with Buckling Restrained Brace and Moment Resisting Frame

Authors: Seyed Saeid Tabaee, Omid Bahar

Abstract:

Nowadays, energy dissipation devices are commonly used in structures. High rate of energy absorption during earthquakes is the benefit of using such devices, which results in damage reduction of structural elements, specifically columns. The hysteretic damping capacity of energy dissipation devices is the key point that it may adversely make analysis and design process complicated. This effect may be generally represented by Equivalent Viscous Damping (EVD). The equivalent viscous damping might be obtained from the expected hysteretic behavior regarding to the design or maximum considered displacement of a structure. In this paper, the hysteretic damping coefficient of a steel Moment Resisting Frame (MRF), which its performance is enhanced by a Buckling Restrained Brace (BRB) system has been evaluated. Having foresight of damping fraction between BRB and MRF is inevitable for seismic design procedures like Direct Displacement-Based Design (DDBD) method. This paper presents an approach to calculate the damping fraction for such systems by carrying out the dynamic nonlinear time history analysis (NTHA) under harmonic loading, which is tuned to the natural system frequency. Two MRF structures, one equipped with BRB and the other without BRB are simultaneously studied. Extensive analysis shows that proportion of each system damping fraction may be calculated by its shear story portion. In this way, contribution of each BRB in the floors and their general contribution in the structural performance may be clearly recognized, in advance.

Keywords: Buckling restrained brace, Direct displacement based design, Dual systems, Hysteretic damping, Moment resisting frames.

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5 Parametric Investigation of Aircraft Door’s Emergency Power Assist System (EPAS)

Authors: Marshal D. Kafle, Jun H. Kim, Hyun W. Been, Kyoung M. Min, Sung H. Kim

Abstract:

Fluid viscous damping systems are well suited for many air vehicles subjected to shock and vibration. These damping system work with the principle of viscous fluid throttling through the orifice to create huge pressure difference between compression and rebound chamber and obtain the required damping force. One application of such systems is its use in aircraft door system to counteract the door’s velocity and safely stop it. In exigency situations like crash or emergency landing where the door doesn’t open easily, possibly due to unusually tilting of fuselage or some obstacles or intrusion of debris obstruction to move the parts of the door, such system can be combined with other systems to provide needed force to forcefully open the door and also securely stop it simultaneously within the required time i.e. less than 8 seconds. In the present study, a hydraulic system called snubber along with other systems like actuator, gas bottle assembly which together known as emergency power assist system (EPAS) is designed, built and experimentally studied to check the magnitude of angular velocity, damping force and time required to effectively open the door. Whenever needed, the gas pressure from the bottle is released to actuate the actuator and at the same time pull the snubber’s piston to operate the emergency opening of the door. Such EPAS installed in the suspension arm of the aircraft door is studied explicitly changing parameters like orifice size, oil level, oil viscosity and bypass valve gap and its spring of the snubber at varying temperature to generate the optimum design case. Comparative analysis of the EPAS at several cases is done and conclusions are made. It is found that during emergency condition, the system opening time and angular velocity, when snubber with 0.3mm piston and shaft orifice and bypass valve gap of 0.5 mm with its original spring is used, shows significant improvement over the old ones.

Keywords: Aircraft Door Damper, Bypass Valve, Emergency Power Assist System, Hydraulic Damper, Oil viscosity.

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4 Comparison of Double Unit Tunnel Form Building before and after Repair and Retrofit under in-Plane Cyclic Loading

Authors: S. A. Anuar, N. H. Hamid, M. H. Hashim, S. M. D. Salleh

Abstract:

This paper present the experimental work of double unit tunnel form building (TFB) subjected to in-plane lateral cyclic loading. A one third scale of 3-storey double unit of TFB is tested until its strength degradation. Then, the TFB is repaired and retrofitted using additional shear wall, steel angle and CFRP sheet. The crack patterns, lateral strength, stiffness, ductility and equivalent viscous damping (EVD) were analyzed and compared before and after repair and retrofit. The result indicates that the lateral strength increases by 22% in pushing and 27% in pulling direction. Moreover, the stiffness and ductility obtained before and after retrofit increase tremendously by 87.87% and 39.66%, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy absorption measured by equivalent viscous damping obtained after retrofit increase by 12.34% in pulling direction. It can be concluded that the proposed retrofit method is capable to increase the lateral strength capacity, stiffness and energy absorption of double unit TFB.

Keywords: Crack pattern, stiffness, ductility, equivalent viscous damping.

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3 Retrofitting of Beam-Column Joint Using CFRP and Steel Plate

Authors: N. H. Hamid, N. D. Hadi, K. D. Ghani

Abstract:

This paper presents the retrofitting of beam-column joint using CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) and steel plate. This specimen was tested until failure up to 1.0% drift. This joint suffered severe damages and diagonal cracks at upper crack at upper column before retrofitted. CFRP were wrapped at corbel, bottom and top of the column. Steel plates with bonding were attached to the two beams and the jointing system. This retrofitted specimen is tested again under lateral cyclic loading up 1.75% drift. Visual observations show that the cracks started at joint when 0.5% drift applied at top of column. Damage of retrofitted beam-column joint occurred inside the CFRP and it cannot be seen from outside. Analysis of elastic stiffness, lateral strength, ductility, hysteresis loops and equivalent viscous damping shows that these values are higher than before retrofitting. Therefore, it is recommended to use this type of retrofitting method for beam-column joint with corbel which suffers severe damage after the earthquake.

Keywords: Beam-Column joint, ductility, stiffness, retrofitting.

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2 An Identification Method of Geological Boundary Using Elastic Waves

Authors: Masamitsu Chikaraishi, Mutsuto Kawahara

Abstract:

This paper focuses on a technique for identifying the geological boundary of the ground strata in front of a tunnel excavation site using the first order adjoint method based on the optimal control theory. The geological boundary is defined as the boundary which is different layers of elastic modulus. At tunnel excavations, it is important to presume the ground situation ahead of the cutting face beforehand. Excavating into weak strata or fault fracture zones may cause extension of the construction work and human suffering. A theory for determining the geological boundary of the ground in a numerical manner is investigated, employing excavating blasts and its vibration waves as the observation references. According to the optimal control theory, the performance function described by the square sum of the residuals between computed and observed velocities is minimized. The boundary layer is determined by minimizing the performance function. The elastic analysis governed by the Navier equation is carried out, assuming the ground as an elastic body with linear viscous damping. To identify the boundary, the gradient of the performance function with respect to the geological boundary can be calculated using the adjoint equation. The weighed gradient method is effectively applied to the minimization algorithm. To solve the governing and adjoint equations, the Galerkin finite element method and the average acceleration method are employed for the spatial and temporal discretizations, respectively. Based on the method presented in this paper, the different boundary of three strata can be identified. For the numerical studies, the Suemune tunnel excavation site is employed. At first, the blasting force is identified in order to perform the accuracy improvement of analysis. We identify the geological boundary after the estimation of blasting force. With this identification procedure, the numerical analysis results which almost correspond with the observation data were provided.

Keywords: Parameter identification, finite element method, average acceleration method, first order adjoint equation method, weighted gradient method, geological boundary, navier equation, optimal control theory.

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1 Comprehensive Study on the Linear Hydrodynamic Analysis of a Truss Spar in Random Waves

Authors: Roozbeh Mansouri, Hassan Hadidi

Abstract:

Truss spars are used for oil exploitation in deep and ultra-deep water if storage crude oil is not needed. The linear hydrodynamic analysis of truss spar in random sea wave load is necessary for determining the behaviour of truss spar. This understanding is not only important for design of the mooring lines, but also for optimising the truss spar design. In this paper linear hydrodynamic analysis of truss spar is carried out in frequency domain. The hydrodynamic forces are calculated using the modified Morison equation and diffraction theory. Added mass and drag coefficients of truss section computed by transmission matrix and normal acceleration and velocity component acting on each element and for hull section computed by strip theory. The stiffness properties of the truss spar can be separated into two components; hydrostatic stiffness and mooring line stiffness. Then, platform response amplitudes obtained by solved the equation of motion. This equation is non-linear due to viscous damping term therefore linearised by iteration method [1]. Finally computed RAOs and significant response amplitude and results are compared with experimental data.

Keywords: Truss Spar, Hydrodynamic analysis, Wave spectrum, Frequency Domain

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