Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: vertical direction

18 Numerical Investigation of Soft Clayey Soil Improved by Soil-Cement Columns under Harmonic Load

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, E. Ghanbari Alamouty

Abstract:

Deep soil mixing is one of the improvement methods in geotechnical engineering which is widely used in soft soils. This article investigates the consolidation behavior of a soft clay soil which is improved by soil-cement column (SCC) by numerical modeling using Plaxis2D program. This behavior is simulated under vertical static and cyclic load which is applied on the soil surface. The static load problem is the simulation of a physical model test in an axisymmetric condition which uses a single SCC in the model center. The results of numerical modeling consist of settlement of soft soil composite, stress on soft soil and column, and excessive pore water pressure in the soil show a good correspondence with the test results. The response of soft soil composite to the cyclic load in vertical direction also compared with the static results. Also the effects of two variables namely the cement content used in a SCC and the area ratio (the ratio of the diameter of SCC to the diameter of composite soil model, a) is investigated. The results show that the stress on the column with the higher value of a, is lesser compared with the stress on other columns. Different rate of consolidation and excessive pore pressure distribution is observed in cyclic load problem. Also comparing the results of settlement of soil shows higher compressibility in the cyclic load problem.

Keywords: numerical modeling, area ratio, cyclic load, consolidation behavior, soil-cement column

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17 Displacement Fields in Footing-Sand Interactions under Cyclic Loading

Authors: S. Joseph Antony, Z. K. Jahanger

Abstract:

Soils are subjected to cyclic loading in situ in situations such as during earthquakes and in the compaction of pavements. Investigations on the local scale measurement of the displacements of the grain and failure patterns within the soil bed under the cyclic loading conditions are rather limited. In this paper, using the digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), local scale displacement fields of a dense sand medium interacting with a rigid footing are measured under the plane-strain condition for two commonly used types of cyclic loading, and the quasi-static loading condition for the purposes of comparison. From the displacement measurements of the grains, the failure envelopes of the sand media are also presented. The results show that, the ultimate cyclic bearing capacity (qultcyc) occurred corresponding to a relatively higher settlement value when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. For the sand media under the cyclic loading conditions considered here, the displacement fields in the soil media occurred more widely in the horizontal direction and less deeper along the vertical direction when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. The 'dead zone' in the sand grains beneath the footing is identified for all types of the loading conditions studied here. These grain-scale characteristics have implications on the resulting bulk bearing capacity of the sand media in footing-sand interaction problems.

Keywords: Settlement, strip footing, cyclic loading, soil-structure interactions, DPIV

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16 Nonlinear Modelling of Sloshing Waves and Solitary Waves in Shallow Basins

Authors: Mohammad R. Jalali, Mohammad M. Jalali

Abstract:

The earliest theories of sloshing waves and solitary waves based on potential theory idealisations and irrotational flow have been extended to be applicable to more realistic domains. To this end, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are widely used. Three-dimensional CFD methods such as Navier-Stokes solvers with volume of fluid treatment of the free surface and Navier-Stokes solvers with mappings of the free surface inherently impose high computational expense; therefore, considerable effort has gone into developing depth-averaged approaches. Examples of such approaches include Green–Naghdi (GN) equations. In Cartesian system, GN velocity profile depends on horizontal directions, x-direction and y-direction. The effect of vertical direction (z-direction) is also taken into consideration by applying weighting function in approximation. GN theory considers the effect of vertical acceleration and the consequent non-hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, in GN theory, the flow is rotational. The present study illustrates the application of GN equations to propagation of sloshing waves and solitary waves. For this purpose, GN equations solver is verified for the benchmark tests of Gaussian hump sloshing and solitary wave propagation in shallow basins. Analysis of the free surface sloshing of even harmonic components of an initial Gaussian hump demonstrates that the GN model gives predictions in satisfactory agreement with the linear analytical solutions. Discrepancies between the GN predictions and the linear analytical solutions arise from the effect of wave nonlinearities arising from the wave amplitude itself and wave-wave interactions. Numerically predicted solitary wave propagation indicates that the GN model produces simulations in good agreement with the analytical solution of the linearised wave theory. Comparison between the GN model numerical prediction and the result from perturbation analysis confirms that nonlinear interaction between solitary wave and a solid wall is satisfactorilly modelled. Moreover, solitary wave propagation at an angle to the x-axis and the interaction of solitary waves with each other are conducted to validate the developed model.

Keywords: Solitary Waves, nonlinearity, Green–Naghdi equations, Even harmonic components of sloshing waves

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15 Modelling of a Biomechanical Vertebral System for Seat Ejection in Aircrafts Using Lumped Mass Approach

Authors: R. Unnikrishnan, K. Shankar

Abstract:

In the case of high-speed fighter aircrafts, seat ejection is designed mainly for the safety of the pilot in case of an emergency. Strong windblast due to the high velocity of flight is one main difficulty in clearing the tail of the aircraft. Excessive G-forces generated, immobilizes the pilot from escape. In most of the cases, seats are ejected out of the aircrafts by explosives or by rocket motors attached to the bottom of the seat. Ejection forces are primarily in the vertical direction with the objective of attaining the maximum possible velocity in a specified period of time. The safe ejection parameters are studied to estimate the critical time of ejection for various geometries and velocities of flight. An equivalent analytical 2-dimensional biomechanical model of the human spine has been modelled consisting of vertebrae and intervertebral discs with a lumped mass approach. The 24 vertebrae, which consists of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions, in addition to the head mass and the pelvis has been designed as 26 rigid structures and the intervertebral discs are assumed as 25 flexible joint structures. The rigid structures are modelled as mass elements and the flexible joints as spring and damper elements. Here, the motions are restricted only in the mid-sagittal plane to form a 26 degree of freedom system. The equations of motions are derived for translational movement of the spinal column. An ejection force with a linearly increasing acceleration profile is applied as vertical base excitation on to the pelvis. The dynamic vibrational response of each vertebra in time-domain is estimated.

Keywords: biomechanical model, lumped mass, seat ejection, vibrational response

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14 Seismic Performance Evaluation of Bridge Structures Using 3D Finite Element Methods in South Korea

Authors: Woo Young Jung, Bu Seog Ju

Abstract:

This study described the seismic performance evaluation of bridge structures, located near Daegu metropolitan city in Korea. The structural design code or regulatory guidelines is focusing on the protection of brittle failure or collapse in bridges’ lifetime during an earthquake. This paper illustrated the procedure in terms of the safety evaluation of bridges using simple linear elastic 3D Finite Element (FE) model in ABAQUS platform. The design response spectra based on KBC 2009 were then developed, in order to understand the seismic behavior of bridge structures. Besides, the multiple directional earthquakes were applied and it revealed that the most dominated earthquake direction was transverse direction of the bridge. Also, the bridge structure under the compressive stress was more fragile than the tensile stress and the vertical direction of seismic ground motions was not significantly affected to the structural system.

Keywords: Earthquake, Bridge, spectrum, finite element

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13 Development of a System for Measuring the Three-Axis Pedal Force in Cycling and Its Applications

Authors: Joo-Hack Lee, Jin-Seung Choi, Dong-Won Kang, Jeong-Woo Seo, Ju-Young Kim, Dae-Hyeok Kim, Seung-Tae Yang, Gye-Rae Tack

Abstract:

For cycling, the analysis of the pedal force is one of the important factors in the study of exercise ability assessment and overuse injuries. In past studies, a two-axis measurement sensor was used at the sagittal plane to measure the force only in the anterior, posterior, and vertical directions and to analyze the loss of force and the injury on the frontal plane due to the forces in the right and left directions. In this study, which is a basic study on diverse analyses of the pedal force that consider the forces on the sagittal plane and the frontal plane, a three-axis pedal force measurement sensor was developed to measure the anterior-posterior (Fx), medio-lateral (Fz), and vertical (Fy) forces. The sensor was fabricated with a size and shape similar to those of the general flat pedal, and had a 550g weight that allowed smooth pedaling. Its measurement range was ±1000 N for Fx and Fz and ±2000 N for Fy, and its non-linearity, hysteresis, and repeatability were approximately 0.5%. The data were sampled at 1000 Hz using a signal collector. To use the developed sensor, the pedaling efficiency (index of efficiency, IE) and the range of left and right (medio-lateral, ML) forces were measured with two seat heights (low and high). The results of the measurement showed that the IE was higher and the force range in the ML direction was lower with the high position than with the low position. The developed measurement sensor and its application results will be useful in understanding and explaining the complicated pedaling technique, and will enable diverse kinematic analyses of the pedal force on the sagittal plane and the frontal plane.

Keywords: Cycling, pedal force, index of effectiveness

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12 Particle Concentration Distribution under Idling Conditions in a Residential Underground Garage

Authors: Yu Zhao, Shinsuke Kato, Jianing Zhao

Abstract:

Particles exhausted from cars have adverse impacts on human health. The study developed a three-dimensional particle dispersion numerical model including particle coagulation to simulate the particle concentration distribution under idling conditions in a residential underground garage. The simulation results demonstrate that particle disperses much faster in the vertical direction than that in horizontal direction. The enhancement of particle dispersion in the vertical direction due to the increase of cars with engine running is much stronger than that in the car exhaust direction. Particle dispersion from each pair of adjacent cars has little influence on each other in the study. Average particle concentration after 120 seconds exhaust is 1.8-4.5 times higher than the initial total particles at ambient environment. Particle pollution in the residential underground garage is severe.

Keywords: Dispersion, idling conditions, particle concentration, residential underground garage

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11 Performance Analysis of BPJLT with Different Gate and Spacer Materials

Authors: Porag Jyoti Ligira, Gargi Khanna

Abstract:

The paper presents a simulation study of the electrical characteristic of Bulk Planar Junctionless Transistor (BPJLT) using spacer. The BPJLT is a transistor without any PN junctions in the vertical direction. It is a gate controlled variable resistor. The characteristics of BPJLT are analyzed by varying the oxide material under the gate. It can be shown from the simulation that an ideal subthreshold slope of ~60 mV/decade can be achieved by using highk dielectric. The effects of variation of spacer length and material on the electrical characteristic of BPJLT are also investigated in the paper. The ION / IOFF ratio improvement is of the order of 107 and the OFF current reduction of 10-4 is obtained by using gate dielectric of HfO2 instead of SiO2.

Keywords: spacer, BPJLT, high-k, double gate

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10 High Gain Mobile Base Station Antenna Using Curved Woodpile EBG Technique

Authors: P. Kamphikul, P. Krachodnok, R. Wongsan

Abstract:

This paper presents the gain improvement of a sector antenna for mobile phone base station by using the new technique to enhance its gain for microstrip antenna (MSA) array without construction enlargement. The curved woodpile Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) has been utilized to improve the gain instead. The advantages of this proposed antenna are reducing the length of MSAs array but providing the higher gain and easy fabrication and installation. Moreover, it provides a fan-shaped radiation pattern, wide in the horizontal direction and relatively narrow in the vertical direction, which appropriate for mobile phone base station. The paper also presents the design procedures of a 1x8 MSAs array associated with U-shaped reflector for decreasing their back and side lobes. The fabricated curved woodpile EBG exhibits bandgap characteristics at 2.1 GHz and is utilized for realizing a resonant cavity of MSAs array. This idea has been verified by both the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software and experimental results. As the results, the fabricated proposed antenna achieves a high gain of 20.3 dB and the half-power beam widths in the E- and H-plane of 36.8 and 8.7 degrees, respectively. Good qualitative agreement between measured and simulated results of the proposed antenna was obtained.

Keywords: base station, electromagnetic band gap, gain improvement, microstrip antenna array

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9 Free Vibration Analysis of Gabled Frame Considering Elastic Supports and Semi-Rigid Connections

Authors: A. Shooshtari, A. R. Masoodi, S. Heyrani Moghaddam

Abstract:

Free vibration analysis of a gabled frame with elastic support and semi-rigid connections is performed by using a program in OpenSees software. Natural frequencies and mode shape details of frame are obtained for two states, which are semi-rigid connections and elastic supports, separately. The members of this structure are analyzed as a prismatic nonlinear beam-column element in software. The mass of structure is considered as two equal lumped masses at the head of two columns in horizontal and vertical directions. Note that the degree of freedom, allocated to all nodes, is equal to three. Furthermore, the mode shapes of frame are achieved. Conclusively, the effects of connections and supports flexibility on the natural frequencies and mode shapes of structure are investigated.  

Keywords: natural frequency, mode shape, gabled frame, semi-rigid connection, elastic support, OpenSees software

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8 Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flows Induced by a Permeable Continuous Surface Stretched with Prescribed Skin Friction

Authors: Mohamed Ali

Abstract:

The boundary layer flow and heat transfer on a stretched surface moving with prescribed skin friction is studied for permeable surface. The surface temperature is assumed to vary inversely with the vertical direction x for n = -1. The skin friction at the surface scales as (x-1/2) at m = 0. The constants m and n are the indices of the power law velocity and temperature exponent respectively. Similarity solutions are obtained for the boundary layer equations subject to power law temperature and velocity variation. The effect of various governing parameters, such as the buoyancy parameter λ and the suction/injection parameter fw for air (Pr = 0.72) are studied. The choice of n and m ensures that the used similarity solutions are x independent. The results show that, assisting flow (λ > 0) enhancing the heat transfer coefficient along the surface for any constant value of fw. Furthermore, injection increases the heat transfer coefficient but suction reduces it at constant λ.

Keywords: Boundary layers, suction or injection, similarity solutions, Stretching surface, Prescribed skin friction, buoyancy effects

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7 The Effects of Adding External Mass and Localised Fatigue upon Static and Dynamic Balance

Authors: K. Abuzayan, H. Alabed, S. Ali

Abstract:

The influence of physical (external added weight) and neurophysiological (fatigue) factors on static and dynamic balance in sport related activities was typified statically by the Romberg test (one foot flat, eyes open) and dynamically by jumping and hopping in both horizontal and vertical directions. Twenty healthy males were participated in this study. In Static condition, added weight increased body-s inertia and therefore decreased body sway in AP direction though not significantly. Dynamically, added weight significantly increased body sway in both ML and AP directions, indicating instability, and the use of the counter rotating segments mechanism to maintain balance was demonstrated. Fatigue on the other hand significantly increased body sway during static balance as a neurophysiological adaptation primarily to the inverted pendulum mechanism. Dynamically, fatigue significantly increased body sway in both ML and AP directions again indicating instability but with a greater use of counter rotating segments mechanism. Differential adaptations for each of the two balance mechanisms (inverted pendulum and counter rotating segments) were found between one foot flat and two feet flat dynamic conditions, as participants relied more heavily on the first in the one foot flat conditions and relied more on the second in the two feet flat conditions.

Keywords: static balance, dynamic balance, Adding external mass, Localised fatigue

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6 RF Permeability Test in SOC Structure for Establishing USN(Ubiquitous Sensor Network)

Authors: Byung – wan Jo, Jung – hoon Park, Jang - wook Kim

Abstract:

Recently, as information industry and mobile communication technology are developing, this study is conducted on the new concept of intelligent structures and maintenance techniques that applied wireless sensor network, USN (Ubiquitous Sensor Network), to social infrastructures such as civil and architectural structures on the basis of the concept of Ubiquitous Computing that invisibly provides human life with computing, along with mutually cooperating, compromising and connecting networks each other by having computers within all objects around us. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the capability of wireless communication of sensor node embedded in reinforced concrete structure with a basic experiment on an electric wave permeability of sensor node by fabricating molding with variables of concrete thickness and steel bars that are mostly used in constructing structures to determine the feasibility of application to constructing structures with USN. At this time, with putting the pitches of steel bars, the thickness of concrete placed, and the intensity of RF signal of a transmitter-receiver as variables and when wireless communication module was installed inside, the possible communication distance of plain concrete and the possible communication distance by the pitches of steel bars was measured in the horizontal and vertical direction respectively. Besides, for the precise measurement of diminution of an electric wave, the magnitude of an electric wave in the range of used frequencies was measured by using Spectrum Analyzer. The phenomenon of diminution of an electric wave was numerically analyzed and the effect of the length of wavelength of frequencies was analyzed by the properties of a frequency band area. As a result of studying the feasibility of an application to constructing structures with wireless sensor, in case of plain concrete, it shows 45cm for the depth of permeability and in case of reinforced concrete with the pitches of 5cm, it shows 37cm and 45cm for the pitches of 15cm.

Keywords: Wireless, Sensor, Concrete, Ubiquitous, Permeability

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5 Natural Convection in a Porous Medium Cavity with an Applied Vertical Magnetic Field using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: H.A. Ashorynejad, M. Farhadi, K.Sedighi, A.Hasanpour

Abstract:

We report the results of an lattice Boltzmann simulation of magnetohydrodynamic damping of sidewall convection in a rectangular enclosure filled with a porous medium. In particular we investigate the suppression of convection when a steady magnetic field is applied in the vertical direction. The left and right vertical walls of the cavity are kept at constant but different temperatures while both the top and bottom horizontal walls are insulated. The effects of the controlling parameters involved in the heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics are studied in detail. The heat and mass transfer mechanisms and the flow characteristics inside the enclosure depended strongly on the strength of the magnetic field and Darcy number. The average Nusselt number decreases with rising values of the Hartmann number while this increases with increasing values of the Darcy number.

Keywords: natural convection, porous medium, magnetohydrodynamic, lattice Boltzmann method

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4 Free Convection in a MHD Porous Cavity with using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: H.A. Ashorynejad, M. Farhadi, K.Sedighi, A.Hasanpour

Abstract:

We report the results of an lattice Boltzmann simulation of magnetohydrodynamic damping of sidewall convection in a rectangular enclosure filled with a porous medium. In particular we investigate the suppression of convection when a steady magnetic field is applied in the vertical direction. The left and right vertical walls of the cavity are kept at constant but different temperatures while both the top and bottom horizontal walls are insulated. The effects of the controlling parameters involved in the heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics are studied in detail. The heat and mass transfer mechanisms and the flow characteristics inside the enclosure depended strongly on the strength of the magnetic field and Darcy number. The average Nusselt number decreases with rising values of the Hartmann number while this increases with increasing values of the Darcy number.

Keywords: natural convection, porous medium, magnetohydrodynamic, lattice Boltzmann method

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3 Effects of Sea Water Level Fluctuations on Seismic Response of Jacket Type Offshore Platforms

Authors: M. Rad, M. Dolatshahi Pirooz, M. Esmayili

Abstract:

To understand the seismic behavior of the offshore structures, the dynamic interaction of the water-structure-soil should be assessed. In this regard the role of the water dynamic properties in magnifying or reducing of the effects of earthquake induced motions on offshore structures haven't been investigated in precise manner in available literature. In this paper the sea water level fluctuations effects on the seismic behavior of a sample of offshore structures has been investigated by emphasizing on the water-structure interaction phenomenon. For this purpose a two dimensional finite element model of offshore structures as well as surrounded water has been developed using ANSYS software. The effect of soil interaction with embedded pile foundation has been imposed by using a series of nonlinear springs in horizontal and vertical directions in soil-piles contact points. In the model, the earthquake induced motions have been applied on springs and consequently the motions propagated upward to the structure and surrounded water. As a result of numerical study, the horizontal deformations of the offshore deck as well as internal force and buckling coefficient in structural elements have been recorded and controlled with and without water presence. In part of study a parametric study has been accomplished on sea water level fluctuations and effect of this parameter has been studied on the aforementioned numerical results.

Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction, Seismic Loading, jacket, Sea Water Level

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2 High Performance VLSI Architecture of 2D Discrete Wavelet Transform with Scalable Lattice Structure

Authors: Juyoung Kim, Taegeun Park

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a fully-utilized, block-based 2D DWT (discrete wavelet transform) architecture, which consists of four 1D DWT filters with two-channel QMF lattice structure. The proposed architecture requires about 2MN-3N registers to save the intermediate results for higher level decomposition, where M and N stand for the filter length and the row width of the image respectively. Furthermore, the proposed 2D DWT processes in horizontal and vertical directions simultaneously without an idle period, so that it computes the DWT for an N×N image in a period of N2(1-2-2J)/3. Compared to the existing approaches, the proposed architecture shows 100% of hardware utilization and high throughput rates. To mitigate the long critical path delay due to the cascaded lattices, we can apply the pipeline technique with four stages, while retaining 100% of hardware utilization. The proposed architecture can be applied in real-time video signal processing.

Keywords: discrete wavelet transform, VLSI architecture, QMF lattice filter, pipelining

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1 Effect of One-Handed Pushing and Puling Strength at Different Handle Heights in Vertical Direction

Authors: Tarik H. Badi, Amer A. Boushaala

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to measure the maximal isometric strength and to investigate the effects of different handleheights and elbow angles with respect to Mid. sagittal plane on the pushing and pulling strength in vertical direction. Eight male subjects performed a series of static strength measurement for each subject. The highest isometric strength was found in pulling at shoulder height (S.H.) (Mean = 60.29 lb., SD = 16.78 lb.) and the lowest isometric strength was found also in pulling at elbow height (E.H.) (Mean = 33.06 lb., SD = 6.56 lb.). Although the isometric strengths were higher at S.H than at E.H. for both activities, the maximal isometric strengths were compared statistically. ANOVA was performed. The results of the experiment revealed that there was a significant different between handle heights. However, there were no significant different between angles and activities, also no correlation between grip strength and activities.

Keywords: Pushing and pulling, one arm, vertical direction, isometric strength

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