Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: variety

22 A View of Flexible Housing in China

Authors: Shanshan Li

Abstract:

Beginning with the debate of concept, this essay explains the historical source and development of flexible housing in China. In the former part, the flexibility contained in traditional house is explored. While in the latter, the relevant practices in modern times are systematically analyzed as three phases–the Embryonic Period (1949 - 1980), the Systematic Practice (1981 - 2000), as well as the Integrated Trend and Prosperity (2001 - present). As a conclusion, the generalized flexibility is tentatively discussed.

Keywords: Flexibility, Long-term effectiveness, Variety, Social background.

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21 Fenugreek in the Ecological Areas of Belarus and France

Authors: Elena Fauquet-Alekhine-Pavlovskaya, Irina M. Nesterova

Abstract:

On the territory of France fenugreek is spread since long on a line from the Gironde to the Italian border. In Belarus experimental cultivation has begun since 2004. Experiments with fenugreek variety Ovari 4 were conducted about time of sowing in order to study their growth, development, and evaluation of productivity in the North-east part of Belarus and Central part of France. Reaching full ripeness of seeds the plants of fenugreek in the Central part of France requires about 94-97 days. Average seeds yield of 2011-2012 is 1259 kg/ha. Plant height is about 36,8 cm. Plants were affected by aphid and in the high moist agro-climatic conditions by powdery mildew. In North-east part of Belarus plants need 86-93 days to full ripeness. Plants of fenugreek have steam about 59 cm. The average seeds yield of 2007-2009 was about 723 kg/ha. Plants were resistant to aphid and diseases.

Keywords: Fenugreek, time of sowing, variety, yield.

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20 The Relationship of Anthocyanins with Color of Organically and Conventionally Cultivated Potatoes

Authors: I. Murniece, L. Tomsone, I. Skrabule, A. Vaivode

Abstract:

Many of the compounds present in potato are important because of their beneficial effects on health, therefore, are highly desirable in the human diet. Potato tubers contain significant amounts of anthocyanins. The aim of this research was to determine the content of anthocyanins and its relationship with the colour of organically and conventionally cultivated potato varieties. In the research eight potato samples of three potato varieties were analyzed on anthocyanins, dry matter content and color. Obtained results show that there was no significant influence on amount of anthocyanins between different cultivation environments (p>0.05) while between varieties – significant difference (p<0.05). Strong correlation between the amount of anthocyanins and color was determined.

Keywords: Potato variety, anthocyanins, organic, conventional, dry matter.

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19 The Same or Not the Same - On the Variety of Mechanisms of Path Dependence

Authors: Jürgen Beyer

Abstract:

In association with path dependence, researchers often talk of institutional “lock-in", thereby indicating that far-reaching path deviation or path departure are to be regarded as exceptional cases. This article submits the alleged general inclination for stability of path-dependent processes to a critical review. The different reasons for path dependence found in the literature indicate that different continuity-ensuring mechanisms are at work when people talk about path dependence (“increasing returns", complementarity, sequences etc.). As these mechanisms are susceptible to fundamental change in different ways and to different degrees, the path dependence concept alone is of only limited explanatory value. It is therefore indispensable to identify the underlying continuity-ensuring mechanism as well if a statement-s empirical value is to go beyond the trivial, always true “history matters".

Keywords: path dependence, increasing returns, historicalinstitutionalism, lock-in.

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18 Equalities in a Variety of Multiple Algebras

Authors: Mona Taheri

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to study the concepts of multiple Cartesian product, variety of multiple algebras and to present some examples. In the theory of multiple algebras, like other theories, deriving new things and concepts from the things and concepts available in the context is important. For example, the first were obtained from the quotient of a group modulo the equivalence relation defined by a subgroup of it. Gratzer showed that every multiple algebra can be obtained from the quotient of a universal algebra modulo a given equivalence relation. The purpose of this study is examination of multiple algebras and basic relations defined on them as well as introduction to some algebraic structures derived from multiple algebras. Among the structures obtained from multiple algebras, this article studies submultiple algebras, quotients of multiple algebras and the Cartesian product of multiple algebras.

Keywords: hypergroup, multiple algebras

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17 Towards External Varieties to Internal Varieties − Modular Perspective

Authors: AHM Shamsuzzoha, Tauno Kekäle, Petri Helo

Abstract:

Product customization is an essential requirement for manufacturing firms to achieve higher customers- satisfaction and fulfill business target. In order to achieve these objectives, firms need to handle both external varieties such as customer preference, government regulations, cultural considerations etc and internal varieties such as functional requirements of product, production efficiency, quality etc. Both of the varieties need to be accumulated and integrated together for the purpose of producing customized product. These varieties are presented and discussed in this paper along with the perspectives of modular product design and development process. Other development strategies such as modularity, component commonality, product family design and product platform are presented with a view to achieve product variety quickly and economically. A case example both for the concept of modular design and platform based product development process is also presented with the help of design structure matrix (DSM) tool. This paper is concluded with several managerial implications and future research direction.

Keywords: Customization modular design, platform development, product variety.

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16 Effects of Plant Densities on Seed Yield and Some Agricultural Characteristics of Jofs Pea Variety

Authors: Ayhan Aydoğdu, Ercan Ceyhan, Ali Kahraman, Nursel Çöl

Abstract:

This research was conducted to determine effects of plant densities on seed yield and some agricultural characteristics of pea variety- Jofs in Konya ecological conditions during 2012 vegetation period. The trial was set up according to “Randomized Blocks Design” with three replications. The material “Jofs” pea variety was subjected to 3-row spaces (30, 40 and 50 cm) and 3-row distances (5, 10 and 15 cm). According to the results, difference was shown statistically for the effects of row spaces and row distances on seed yield. The highest seed yield was 2582.1 kg ha-1 on 30 cm of row spaces while 2562.2 kg ha-1 on 15 cm of distances. Consequently, the optimum planting density was determined as 30 x 15 cm for Jofs pea variety growing in Konya.

Keywords: Pea, row space, row distance, seed yield.

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15 A Variety of Meteorological and Geographical Characteristics Effects on Watershed Responses to a Storm Event

Authors: Wen Hui Kuan, Chia Ling Chang, Pei Shan Lui

Abstract:

The Chichiawan stream in the Wulin catchment in Taiwan is the natural habitat of Formosan landlocked salmon. Human and agriculture activities gradually worsen water quality and impact the fish habitat negatively. To protect and manage Formosan landlocked salmon habitat, it is important to understand a variety land-uses affect on the watershed responses to storms. This study discusses watershed responses to the dry-day before a storm event and a variety of land-uses in the Wulin catchment. Under the land-use planning in the Wulin catchment, the peak flows during typhoon events do not have noticeable difference. However, the nutrient exports can be highly reduced under the strategies of restraining agriculture activities. Due to the higher affinity of P for soil than that of N, the exports of TN from overall Wuling catchment were much greater than Ortho-P. Agriculture mainly centralized in subbasin A, which is the important source of nutrients in nonpoint source discharge. The subbasin A supplied about 26% of the TN and 32% of the Ortho-P discharge in 2004, despite the fact it only covers 19% area of the Wuling catchment. The subbasin analysis displayed that the agricultural subbasin A exports higher nutrients per unit area than other forest subbasins. Additionally, the agricultural subbasin A contributed a higher percentage to total Ortho-P exports compares to TN. The results of subbasin analysis might imply the transport of Ortho-P was similar to the particulate matter which was mainly influenced by the runoff and affected by the desorption from soil particles while the TN (dominated as nitrate-N) was mainly influenced by base-flow.

Keywords: Chiachiawan stream, Formosan landlocked salmon, modeling, typhoon, watershed response.

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14 The Content of Acrylamide in Deep-fat Fried, Shallow Fried and Roasted Potatoes

Authors: Irisa Murniece, Daina Karklina, Ruta Galoburda

Abstract:

Potato is one of the main components of warm meals in Latvia. Consumption of fried potatoes in Latvia is the highest comparing to Nordic and other Baltic countries. Therefore acrylamide (AA) intake coming from fried potatoes in population might be high as well. The aim of the research was to determine AA content in traditionally cooked potatoes bred and cultivated in Latvia. Five common Latvian potato varieties were selected: Lenora, Brasla, Imanta, Zile and Madara. A two-year research was conducted during two periods: just after harvesting and after six months of storage. The following cooking methods were used: shallow frying (150 ± 5 °C); deep-fat frying (180 ± 5 °C) and roasting (210 ± 5 °C). Time and temperature was recorded during frying. AA was extracted from potatoes by solid phase extraction and AA content was determined by LC-MS/MS. AA content significantly differs (p<0.05) in potatoes per variety, per each frying method and per time.

Keywords: potato, frying, roasting, variety, acrylamide, Latvia.

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13 Evaluation of Rheological Properties of Apple Mass Based Desserts

Authors: Sigita Boca, Ruta Galoburda, Inta Krasnova, Dalija Seglina, Aivars Aboltins, Imants Skrupskis

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of texturizers on the rheological properties of the apple mass and desserts made from various raw materials. The apple varieties - ‘Antonovka’, ‘Baltais Dzidrais’, and ‘Zarja Alatau’ harvested in Latvia, were used for the experiment. The apples were processed in a blender unpeeled for obtaining a homogenous mass. The apple mass was analyzed fresh and after storage at –18ºC. Both fresh and thawed apple mass samples with added gelatin, xantan gum, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose were whisked obtaining dessert. Pectin, pH and soluble dry matter of the product were determined. Apparent viscosity was measured using a rotational viscometer DV–III Ultra. Pectin content in frozen apple mass decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared to the fresh sample. The viscosity of apple desserts immediately after their preparation depends on the physico-chemical properties of apples and the texturizers used in the production.

Keywords: Apple variety, apparent viscosity, hydrocolloids, pectin, texturizers.

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12 Chemical Composition of Variety 'Nante' Hybrid Carrots Cultivated in Latvia

Authors: Tatjana Rakcejeva, Ingrida Augspole, Lija Dukalska, Fredijs Dimins

Abstract:

carrot is one of the important root vegetable crops, and it is highly nutritious as it contains appreciable amount of vitamins, minerals and β-carotene. The major objective of current research was to evaluate the chemical composition of carrot variety 'Nante' hybrids in general and to select the best samples for fresh-cut salad production. The research was accomplished on fresh in Latvia cultivated carrots harvested in Zemgale region in the first part of October, 2011 and immediately used for experiments. Late-bearing variety 'Nante' hybrid carrots were used for analysis: 'Nante/Berlikum', 'Nante/Maestro', 'Nante/Forto', 'Nante/Bolero' and 'Nante/Champion'. The quality parameters as moisture, soluble solid, firmness, b-carotene, carotenoid, color, polyphenols, total phenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity were analyzed using standard methods. For fresh-cut salad production as more applicable could be recommended hybrids 'Nante/Forto' and 'Nante/Berlikum' - mainly because it-s higher nutritive value, as higher total phenolic compounds, polyphenols and pronounced antioxidant capacity.

Keywords: carrots, chemical composition, evaluation

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11 An Implicit Representation of Spherical Product for Increasing the Shape Variety of Super-quadrics in Implicit Surface Modeling

Authors: Pi-Chung Hsu

Abstract:

Super-quadrics can represent a set of implicit surfaces, which can be used furthermore as primitive surfaces to construct a complex object via Boolean set operations in implicit surface modeling. In fact, super-quadrics were developed to create a parametric surface by performing spherical product on two parametric curves and some of the resulting parametric surfaces were also represented as implicit surfaces. However, because not every parametric curve can be redefined implicitly, this causes only implicit super-elliptic and super-hyperbolic curves are applied to perform spherical product and so only implicit super-ellipsoids and hyperboloids are developed in super-quadrics. To create implicit surfaces with more diverse shapes than super-quadrics, this paper proposes an implicit representation of spherical product, which performs spherical product on two implicit curves like super-quadrics do. By means of the implicit representation, many new implicit curves such as polygonal, star-shaped and rose-shaped curves can be used to develop new implicit surfaces with a greater variety of shapes than super-quadrics, such as polyhedrons, hyper-ellipsoids, superhyperboloids and hyper-toroids containing star-shaped and roseshaped major and minor circles. Besides, the newly developed implicit surfaces can also be used to define new primitive implicit surfaces for constructing a more complex implicit surface in implicit surface modeling.

Keywords: Implicit surfaces, Soft objects, Super-quadrics.

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10 Determination of Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Pofaki Variety of Pea

Authors: M. Azadbakht, E. Ghajarjazi, E. Amiri, F. Abdigaol

Abstract:

In this research the effect of moisture at three levels (47, 57, and 67 w.b.%) on the physical properties of the Pofaki pea variety including, dimensions, geometric mean diameter, volume, sphericity index and the surface area was determined. The influence of different moisture levels (47, 57 and 67 w.b.%), in two loading orientation (longitudinal and transverse) and three loading speed (4,6 and 8 mm min-1) on the mechanical properties of pea such as maximum deformation, rupture force, rupture energy, toughness and the power to break the pea was investigated. It was observed in the physical properties that moisture changes were affective at 1% on, dimensions, geometric mean diameter, volume, sphericity index and the surface area. It was observed in the mechanical properties that moisture changes were effective at 1% on, maximum deformation, rupture force, rupture energy, toughness and the power to break. Loading speed was effective on maximum deformation, rupture force, rupture energy at 1% and it was effective on toughness at 5%. Loading orientation was effective on maximum deformation, rupture force, rupture energy, toughness at 1% and it was effective on power at 5%. The mutual effect of speed and orientation were effective on rupture energy at 1% and were effective on toughness at 5% probability. The mutual effect of moisture and speed were effective on rupture force and rupture energy at 1% and were effective on toughness 5% probability. The mutual effect of orientation and moisture on rupture energy and toughness were effective at 1%.

Keywords: Mechanical properties, Pea, Physical properties.

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9 Risk Assessment of Acrylamide Intake from Roasted Potatoes in Latvia

Authors: Irisa Murniece, Daina Karklina, Ruta Galoburda

Abstract:

From food consumption surveys has been found that potato consumption comparing to other European countries is one of the highest. Hence acrylamide (AA) intake coming from fried potatoes in population might be high as well. The aim of the research was to determine acrylamide content and estimate intake of acrylamide from roasted potatoes bred and cultivated in Latvia. Five common Latvian potato varieties were selected: Lenora, Brasla, Imanta, Zile, and Madara. A two-year research was conducted during two periods: just after harvesting and after six months of storage. Time and temperature (210 ± 5°C) was recorded during frying. AA was extracted from potatoes by solid phase extraction and AA content was determined by LC-MS/MS. estimated intake of acrylamide ranges from 0.012 to 0.496μgkg-1 BW per day.

Keywords: potato, roasting, variety, acrylamide, Latvia, risk assessment.

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8 Tomato Ripeness Influence on Fruit Quality

Authors: A. Radzevičius, P. Viškelis, R. Karklelienė, J. Viškelis, Č. Bobinas, E. Dambrauskienė andS. Sakalauskienė

Abstract:

Tomato nutrition value, color, flavor of their fruits and products depends mainly on lycopene, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, sugars and their ratio. The two most important carotenoids in fruits of tomato are lycopene, which determined fruits red color, and β- carotene, which accounts for approximately 7% of the tomato carotenoids. Therefore, tomato products and their quality can be well characterized by the content of these elements.Maturity at harvest is very important to composition and quality of tomatoes. This is especially a problem with tomatoes picked green since it is difficult to differentiate between mature and immature-green fruits. Typical and advanced mature-green tomatoes will usually attain a much better flavor than those picked at the immature or partially mature stages.To better understand the synthesis of biochemical compounds, their concentration should be compared not only at the last stage of maturity, but also during all fruit ripening period in different varieties.

Keywords: quality, ripeness, tomato, variety

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7 Development of a Robust Supply Chain for Dynamic Operating Environment

Authors: Shilan Li, Ivan Arokiam, Peter Jarvis, Wendy Garner, Gazelleh Moradi, Stuart Wakefield

Abstract:

Development of a Robust Supply Chain for Dynamic Operating Environment as we move further into the twenty first century, organisations are under increasing pressure to deliver a high product variation at a reasonable cost without compromise in quality. In a number of cases this will take the form of a customised or high variety low volume manufacturing system that requires prudent management of resources, among a number of functions, to achieve competitive advantage. Purchasing and Supply Chain management is one of such function and due to the substantial interaction with external elements needs to be strategically managed. This requires a number of primary and supporting tools that will enable the appropriate decisions to be made rapidly. This capability is especially vital in a dynamic environment as it provides a pivotal role in increasing the profit margin of the product. The management of this function can be challenging by itself and even more for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) due to the limited resources and expertise available at their disposal. This paper discusses the development of tools and concepts towards effectively managing the purchasing and supply chain function. The developed tools and concepts will provide a cost effective way of managing this function within SMEs. The paper further shows the use of these tools within Contechs, a manufacturer of luxury boat interiors, and the associated benefits achieved as a result of this implementation. Finally a generic framework towards use in such environments is presented.

Keywords: Lean, Supply Chain, High variety Low volume, Small and Medium Enterprises.

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6 Soybean Based Farming System Assessment in Pasuruan East Java Indonesia

Authors: Mohammad Saeri, Noor Rizkiyah, Kambang Vetrani Asie, Titin Apung Atikah

Abstract:

The study aims to assess efficient specific-location soybean farming technology assembly by assisting the farmers in applying the suggested technology. Superimposed trial was conducted to know NPK fertilizer effect toward soybean growth and yield and soybean improved variety test for the dissemination of improved variety. The assessment was conducted at the farmers group of Sumber Rejeki, Kepulungan Village, Gempol Sub-district, Pasuruan Regency as the soybean central at Pasuruan area. The number of farmers involved in the study was 38 people with 25 ha soybean area. This study was held from July to October 2012.  The recommended technology package agreed at the socialization time and used in this research were: using Argomulyo variety seeds of 40 kg/ha, planting by drilling, planting by distance of 40x10 cm, deciding the seeds amount of 2-3 seeds per hole, and giving fertilization based on recommendation of East Java AIAT of 50 kg Urea, 100 kg SP-36 and 50 kg KCl.  Farmers around the research location were used as control group. Assessment on soybean farming system was considered effective because it could increase the production up to 38%. The farming analysis showed that the result collaborator farmers gained were positively higher than non-collaborator farmers with RC ratio of 2.03 and 1.54, respectively. Argomulyo variety has the prospect to be developed due to the high yield of about 2 tons/ha and the larger seeds. The NPK fertilization test at the soybean plants showed that the fertilization had minor effect on the yield.

Keywords: Farming system, soybean, variety, location specific farming.

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5 The Effects of Yield and Yield Components of Some Quality Increase Applications on Razakı Grape Variety

Authors: Şehri Çınar, Aydın Akın

Abstract:

This study was conducted Razakı grape variety (Vitis vinifera L.) and its vine which was aged 19 was grown on 5 BB rootstock in a vegetation period of 2014 in Afyon province in Turkey. In this research, it was investigated whether the applications of Control (C), 1/3 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/3 CTR), Shoot Tip Reduction (STR), 1/3 CTR + STR, Boric Acid (BA), 1/3 CTR + BA, STR + BA, 1/3 CTR + STR + BA on yield and yield components of Razakı grape variety. The results were obtained as the highest fresh grape yield (7.74 kg/vine) with C application; as the highest cluster weight (244.62 g) with STR application; as the highest 100 berry weight (504.08 g) with C application; as the highest maturity index (36.89) with BA application; as the highest must yield (695.00 ml) with BA and (695.00 ml) with 1/3 CTR + STR + BA applications; as the highest intensity of L* color (46.93) with STR and (46.10) with 1/3 CTR + STR + BA applications; as the highest intensity of a* color (-5.37) with 1/3 CTR + STR and (-5.01) with STR, as the highest intensity of b* color (12.59) with STR application. The shoot tip reduction to increase cluster weight and boric acid application to increase maturity index of Razakı grape variety can be recommended.

Keywords: Razakı, 1/3 cluster tip reduction, shoot tip reduction, boric acid, yield and yield components.

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4 Identification of Phenolic Contents in Malaysian Variety of Pummelo (Citrus Grandis L. Osbeck) Fruit Juice Using HPLC-DAD

Authors: N. N. A. K. Shah, R. A. Rahman, R. Shamsuddin, N. M. Adzahan

Abstract:

Pummelo is known to be the largest of all citrus fruits, with expected ratio of 2:1 (w/v) of producing juice, is an attractive opportunity for Malaysia to expand pummelo-s influence and marketability over the international market of juices. The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in two Malaysian varieties of pummelo fruit juice: Ledang (PO55) and Tambun (PO52). Identifications of polyphenols composition were done using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD). The phenolic compounds that were found in both varieties were hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonones. This study proved that Tambun variety has the highest antioxidant and phenolic compounds in comparison to Ledang variety. However, considerations have to be made to suit consumer-s taste bud and the amount of enzyme needed to clarify the juice for its marketability.

Keywords: Antioxidant, HPLC, phenolic contents and pummelo fruit juice

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3 Optimization of Deglet-Nour Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Phenol Extraction Conditions

Authors: Lekbir Adel, Alloui-Lombarkia Ourida, Mekentichi Sihem, Noui Yassine, Baississe Salima

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity from Deglet-Nour variety. The extraction of active components from natural sources depends on different factors. The knowledge of the effects of different extraction parameters is useful for the optimization of the process, as well for the ability to predict the extraction yield. The effects of extraction variables, namely types of solvent (methanol, ethanol and acetone) and extraction time (1h, 6h, 12h and 24h) on phenolics extraction yield were evaluated. It has been shown that the time of extraction and types of solvent have a statistically significant influence on the extraction of phenolic compounds from Deglet-Nour variety. The optimised conditions yielded values of 80.19 ± 6.37 mg GAE/100 g FW for TPC, 2.34 ± 0.27 mg QE/100 g FW for TFC and 90.20 ± 1.29% for antioxidant activity were methanol solvent and 6 hours of time. According to the results obtained in this study, Deglet-Nour variety can be considered as a natural source of phenolic compounds with good antioxidant capacity.

Keywords: Deglet-Nour variety, Date palm Fruit, Phenolic compounds, Total flavonoids, Antioxidant activity, Extraction, Optimization.

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2 Seasonal Variations and Different Irrigation Programs on Nutrient Concentrations of 'Starkrimson Delicious' Apple Variety

Authors: Zeliha Küçükyumuk, Cenk Küçükyumuk, İbrahim Erdal, Figen Eraslan

Abstract:

This study was aimed to determine seasonal variations of leaf nutrient concentrations to define nutrient needs related to growing period and to compare irrigation programs in terms of nutrient uptake. In this study,'Starkrimson Delicious' variety grafted onto seedling rootstock was used during 2009-2010 growing seasons. The study was conducted at E─ƒirdir Fruit Growing Research Station. Leaf samples were taken in five different sample seasons (May, June, July, August and September). Four different pan coefficients (0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25) were applied during drip irrigation treatments in 7 days irrigation interval. Leaf K, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations were determined. The results showed that among the seasonal changes, the highest concentrations of K, Mg, P and Mn in leaves were recorded in May, followed by a decrease in the other months, while in contrast Ca and Fe showed the lowest concentration in May. Results of the study demonstrate that among irrigation programs K and Cu concentration in plants was significantly influenced. Cu concentrations decreased with seasonal variations and different irrigation programs. Thus, nutrient needs of 'Starkrimson Delicious'apple trees at different growth stages should be taken into consideration before making effective fertilization program.

Keywords: Apple orchard, irrigation programs, seasonal variations, nutrient concentrations.

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1 The Effects of Different Level Cluster Tip Reduction and Foliar Boric Acid Applications on Yield and Yield Components of Italia Grape Cultivar

Authors: A. Akin

Abstract:

This study was carried out on Italia grape variety (Vitis vinifera L.) in Konya province, Turkey in 2016. The cultivar is five years old and grown on 1103 Paulsen rootstock. It was determined the effects of applications of the Control (C), 1/3 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/3 CTR), 1/6 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/6 CTR), 1/9 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/9 CTR), 1/3 CTR+Boric Acid (BA), 1/6 CTR+BA, 1/9 CTR+BA, on yield and yield components of the Italia grape variety. The results were obtained as the highest fresh grape yield (4.74 g) with 1/9 CTR+BA application; the highest cluster weight (220.08 g) with 1/3 CTR application; the highest 100 berry weight (565.85 g) with 1/9 CTR+BA application; as the highest maturity index (49.28) with 1/9 CTR+BA application; as the highest must yield (685.33 ml/kg) with 1/3 CTR+BA and (685.33 ml/kg) with 1/9 CTR+BA applications. To increase the fresh grape yield, 100 berry weight and maturity index in the Italia grape variety, the 1/9 CTR+BA application can be recommended.

Keywords: Italia grape variety, boric acid, cluster tip reduction, yield, yield components.

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