Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 205

Search results for: turbine blade

205 Performance Assessment of Wet-Compression Gas Turbine Cycle with Turbine Blade Cooling

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

Turbine blade cooling is considered as the most effective way of maintaining high operating temperature making use of the available materials, and turbine systems with wet compression have a potential for future power generation because of high efficiency and high specific power with a relatively low cost. In this paper performance analysis of wet-compression gas turbine cycle with turbine blade cooling is carried out. The wet compression process is analytically modeled based on non-equilibrium droplet evaporation. Special attention is paid for the effects of pressure ratio and water injection ratio on the important system variables such as ratio of coolant fluid flow, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and specific power. Parametric studies show that wet compression leads to insignificant improvement in thermal efficiency but significant enhancement of specific power in gas turbine systems with turbine blade cooling.

Keywords: Water injection, wet compression, gas turbine, turbine blade cooling.

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204 Modeling of Gas Turbine Cooled Blades

Authors: A. Pashayev, D. Askerov, R. Sadiqov, A. Samedov, C. Ardil

Abstract:

In contrast to existing methods which do not take into account multiconnectivity in a broad sense of this term, we develop mathematical models and highly effective combination (BIEM and FDM) numerical methods of calculation of stationary and quasi-stationary temperature field of a profile part of a blade with convective cooling (from the point of view of realization on PC). The theoretical substantiation of these methods is proved by appropriate theorems. For it, converging quadrature processes have been developed and the estimations of errors in the terms of A.Ziqmound continuity modules have been received. For visualization of profiles are used: the method of the least squares with automatic conjecture, device spline, smooth replenishment and neural nets. Boundary conditions of heat exchange are determined from the solution of the corresponding integral equations and empirical relationships. The reliability of designed methods is proved by calculation and experimental investigations heat and hydraulic characteristics of the gas turbine first stage nozzle blade.

Keywords: Gas turbine, cooled blade, nozzle blade, temperature field.

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203 Structural Performance Evaluation of Segmented Wind Turbine Blade through Finite Element Simulation

Authors: Chandrashekhar Bhat, Dilifa J. Noronha, Faber A. Saldanha

Abstract:

Transportation of long turbine blades from one place to another is a difficult process. Hence a feasibility study of modularization of wind turbine blade was taken from structural standpoint through finite element analysis. Initially, a non-segmented blade is modeled and its structural behavior is evaluated to serve as reference. The resonant, static bending and fatigue tests are simulated in accordance with IEC61400-23 standard for comparison purpose. The non-segmented test blade is separated at suitable location based on trade off studies and the segments are joined with an innovative double strap bonded joint configuration. The adhesive joint is modeled by adopting cohesive zone modeling approach in ANSYS. The developed blade model is analyzed for its structural response through simulation. Performances of both the blades are found to be similar, which indicates that, efficient segmentation of the long blade is possible which facilitates easy transportation of the blades and on site reassembling. The location selected for segmentation and adopted joint configuration has resulted in an efficient segmented blade model which proves the methodology adopted for segmentation was quite effective. The developed segmented blade appears to be the viable alternative considering its structural response specifically in fatigue within considered assumptions.

Keywords: Cohesive zone modeling, fatigue, segmentation, wind turbine blade.

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202 An Investigation into Turbine Blade Tip Leakage Flows at High Speeds

Authors: Z. Saleh, E. J. Avital, T. Korakianitis

Abstract:

The effect of the blade tip geometry of a high pressure gas turbine is studied experimentally and computationally for high speed leakage flows. For this purpose two simplified models are constructed, one models a flat tip of the blade and the second models a cavity tip of the blade. Experimental results are obtained from a transonic wind tunnel to show the static pressure distribution along the tip wall and provide flow visualization. RANS computations were carried to provide further insight into the mean flow behavior and to calculate the discharge coefficient which is a measure of the flow leaking over the tip. It is shown that in both geometries of tip the flow separates over the tip to form a separation bubble. The bubble is higher for the cavity tip while a complete shock wave system of oblique waves ending with a normal wave can be seen for the flat tip. The discharge coefficient for the flat tip shows less dependence on the pressure ratio over the blade tip than the cavity tip. However, the discharge coefficient for the cavity tip is lower than that of the flat tip, showing a better ability to reduce the leakage flow and thus increase the turbine efficiency.

Keywords: Gas turbine, blade tip leakage flow, transonic flow.

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201 Structural Analysis of a Composite Wind Turbine Blade

Authors: C. Amer, M. Sahin

Abstract:

The design of an optimised horizontal axis 5-meter-long wind turbine rotor blade in according with IEC 61400-2 standard is a research and development project in order to fulfil the requirements of high efficiency of torque from wind production and to optimise the structural components to the lightest and strongest way possible. For this purpose, a research study is presented here by focusing on the structural characteristics of a composite wind turbine blade via finite element modelling and analysis tools. In this work, first, the required data regarding the general geometrical parts are gathered. Then, the airfoil geometries are created at various sections along the span of the blade by using CATIA software to obtain the two surfaces, namely; the suction and the pressure side of the blade in which there is a hat shaped fibre reinforced plastic spar beam, so-called chassis starting at 0.5m from the root of the blade and extends up to 4 m and filled with a foam core. The root part connecting the blade to the main rotor differential metallic hub having twelve hollow threaded studs is then modelled. The materials are assigned as two different types of glass fabrics, polymeric foam core material and the steel-balsa wood combination for the root connection parts. The glass fabrics are applied using hand wet lay-up lamination with epoxy resin as METYX L600E10C-0, is the unidirectional continuous fibres and METYX XL800E10F having a tri-axial architecture with fibres in the 0,+45,-45 degree orientations in a ratio of 2:1:1. Divinycell H45 is used as the polymeric foam. The finite element modelling of the blade is performed via MSC PATRAN software with various meshes created on each structural part considering shell type for all surface geometries, and lumped mass were added to simulate extra adhesive locations. For the static analysis, the boundary conditions are assigned as fixed at the root through aforementioned bolts, where for dynamic analysis both fixed-free and free-free boundary conditions are made. By also taking the mesh independency into account, MSC NASTRAN is used as a solver for both analyses. The static analysis aims the tip deflection of the blade under its own weight and the dynamic analysis comprises normal mode dynamic analysis performed in order to obtain the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes focusing the first five in and out-of-plane bending and the torsional modes of the blade. The analyses results of this study are then used as a benchmark prior to modal testing, where the experiments over the produced wind turbine rotor blade has approved the analytical calculations.

Keywords: Dynamic analysis, Fiber Reinforced Composites, Horizontal axis wind turbine blade, Hand-wet layup, Modal Testing.

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200 Hole Configuration Effect on Turbine Blade Cooling

Authors: A.Hasanpour, M. Farhadi, H.R. Ashorynejad

Abstract:

In this paper a numerical technique is used to predict the metal temperature of a gas turbine vane. The Rising combustor exit temperatures in gas turbine engines necessitate active cooling for the downstream turbine section to avoid thermal failure. This study is performed the solution of external flow, internal convection, and conduction within the metal vane. Also the trade-off between the cooling performances in four different hole shapes and configurations is performed. At first one of the commonly used cooling hole geometry is investigated; cylindrical holes and then two other configurations are simulated. The average temperature magnitude in mid-plan section of each configuration is obtained and finally the lower temperature value is selected such as best arrangement.

Keywords: Forced Convection, Gas Turbine Blade, Hole Configuration

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199 Mathematical Modeling of Gas Turbine Blade Cooling

Authors: А. Pashayev, C. Ardil, D. Askerov, R. Sadiqov, A. Samedov

Abstract:

In contrast to existing methods which do not take into account multiconnectivity in a broad sense of this term, we develop mathematical models and highly effective combination (BIEM and FDM) numerical methods of calculation of stationary and quasistationary temperature field of a profile part of a blade with convective cooling (from the point of view of realization on PC). The theoretical substantiation of these methods is proved by appropriate theorems. For it, converging quadrature processes have been developed and the estimations of errors in the terms of A.Ziqmound continuity modules have been received. For visualization of profiles are used: the method of the least squares with automatic conjecture, device spline, smooth replenishment and neural nets. Boundary conditions of heat exchange are determined from the solution of the corresponding integral equations and empirical relationships. The reliability of designed methods is proved by calculation and experimental investigations heat and hydraulic characteristics of the gas turbine first stage nozzle blade.

Keywords: Mathematical Modeling, Gas Turbine Blade Cooling, Neural Networks, BIEM and FDM.

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198 A Comparison between Hybrid and Experimental Extended Polars for the Numerical Prediction of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Performance using Blade Element-Momentum Algorithm

Authors: Gabriele Bedon, Marco Raciti Castelli, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

A dynamic stall-corrected Blade Element-Momentum algorithm based on a hybrid polar is validated through the comparison with Sandia experimental measurements on a 5-m diameter wind turbine of Troposkien shape. Different dynamic stall models are evaluated. The numerical predictions obtained using the extended aerodynamic coefficients provided by both Sheldal and Klimas and Raciti Castelli et al. are compared to experimental data, determining the potential of the hybrid database for the numerical prediction of vertical-axis wind turbine performances.

Keywords: Darrieus wind turbine, Blade Element-Momentum Theory, extended airfoil database, hybrid database, Sandia 5-m wind turbine.

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197 Evaluation of the Effect of Rotor Solidity on the Performance of a H-Darrieus Turbine Adopting a Blade Element-Momentum Algorithm

Authors: G. Bedon, M. Raciti Castelli, E. Benini

Abstract:

The present study aims to evaluating the effect of rotor solidity - in terms of chord length for a given rotor diameter - on the performances of a small vertical axis Darrieus wind turbine. The proposed work focuses on both power production and rotor power coefficient, considering also the structural constraints deriving from the centrifugal forces due to rotor angular velocity. Also the smoothness of the resulting power curves have been investigated, in order to evaluate the controllability of the corresponding rotor architectures.

Keywords: Vertical axis wind turbine, Darrieus, solidity, Blade Element-Momentum

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196 The High Temperature Damage of DV – 2 Turbine Blade Made from Ni – Base Superalloy

Authors: Juraj Belan, Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová, Alan Vaško, Milan Uhríčik

Abstract:

High pressure turbine (HPT) blades of DV – 2 jet engines are made from Ni – based superalloy. This alloy was originally manufactured in the Soviet Union and referred as ŽS6K. For improving alloy’s high temperature resistance are blades coated with Al – Si diffusion layer. A regular operation temperature of HPT blades vary from 705°C to 750°C depending on jet engine regime. An overcrossing working temperature range causes degradation of the protective coating as well as base material which microstructure is formed by the gamma matrix and strengthening phase gamma prime (forming small particles in the microstructure). Diffusion processes inside the material during exposition of the material to high temperatures causes mainly coarsening of the gamma prime particles, thus decreasing its strengthening effect. Degradation of the Al – Si coating caused its thickness growth. All the microstructure changes and coating layer thickness growth results in decreasing of the turbine blade operation lifetime.

Keywords: Alitize coating layer, gamma prime phase, high temperature degradation, Ni – base superalloy ŽS6K, turbine blade.

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195 Computational Study and Wear Prediction of Steam Turbine Blade with Titanium-Nitride Coating Deposited by Physical Vapor Deposition Method

Authors: Karuna Tuchinda, Sasithon Bland

Abstract:

This work investigates the wear of a steam turbine blade coated with titanium nitride (TiN), and compares to the wear of uncoated blades. The coating is deposited on by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. The working conditions of the blade were simulated and surface temperature and pressure values as well as flow velocity and flow direction were obtained. This data was used in the finite element wear model developed here in order to predict the wear of the blade. The wear mechanisms considered are erosive wear due to particle impingement and fluid jet, and fatigue wear due to repeated impingement of particles and fluid jet. Results show that the life of the TiN-coated blade is approximately 1.76 times longer than the life of the uncoated one.

Keywords: Physical vapour deposition, steam turbine blade, titanium-based coating, wear prediction.

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194 Effect of Blade Number on a Straight-Bladed Vertical-Axis Darreius Wind Turbine

Authors: Marco Raciti Castelli, Stefano De Betta, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

This paper presents a mean for reducing the torque variation during the revolution of a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) by increasing the blade number. For this purpose, twodimensional CDF analysis have been performed on a straight-bladed Darreius-type rotor. After describing the computational model, a complete campaign of simulations based on full RANS unsteady calculations is proposed for a three, four and five-bladed rotor architecture characterized by a NACA 0025 airfoil. For each proposed rotor configuration, flow field characteristics are investigated at several values of tip speed ratio, allowing a quantification of the influence of blade number on flow geometric features and dynamic quantities, such as rotor torque and power. Finally, torque and power curves are compared for the analyzed architectures, achieving a quantification of the effect of blade number on overall rotor performance.

Keywords: CFD, VAWT, NACA 0021, blade number

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193 Computational Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis of HP Stage Turbine Blade Cooling: Effect of Turbulator Geometry in Helicoidal Cooling Duct

Authors: Chandrakant R Kini, Satish Shenoy B, Yagnesh Sharma N.

Abstract:

In a bid to improve turbine entry temperature for maximizing the thermal efficiency of the HP stage gas turbine blade, an attempt is made in this paper to compare the performance of helicoidal ducted blade cooling with turbulator of different geometric proportion. It is found from analysis that there is significant improvement in cooling characteristics for turbine blade with turbulator geometry having larger e/D ratio. Also it is found from analysis, performance is vastly improved for greater thickness of turbulator geometry.

Keywords: Conjugate heat transfer, turbine blade cooling, helicoidal cooling duct, turbulator.

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192 CFD Analysis on Aerodynamic Design Optimization of Wind Turbine Rotor Blades

Authors: R.S. Amano, R.J. Malloy

Abstract:

Wind energy has been shown to be one of the most viable sources of renewable energy. With current technology, the low cost of wind energy is competitive with more conventional sources of energy such as coal. Most blades available for commercial grade wind turbines incorporate a straight span-wise profile and airfoil shaped cross sections. These blades are found to be very efficient at lower wind speeds in comparison to the potential energy that can be extracted. However as the oncoming wind speed increases the efficiency of the blades decreases as they approach a stall point. This paper explores the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the blades at higher wind speeds while maintaining efficiency at the lower wind speeds. The design intends to maintain efficiency at lower wind speeds by selecting the appropriate orientation and size of the airfoil cross sections based on a low oncoming wind speed and given constant rotation rate. The blades will be made more efficient at higher wind speeds by implementing a swept blade profile. Performance was investigated using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

Keywords: CFD, wind turbine blade, renewable energy.

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191 Three-Dimensional Modeling of a Twisted-Blade Darrieus Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Three-Dimensional Modeling of a Twisted-Blade Darrieus Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine

Abstract:

A complete CAD procedure to model a twisted-bladed vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) is presented with the aim of determining some practical guidelines to be used for the generation of an easily-meshable CAD geometry to be adopted as the basis of both CFD and FEM numerical simulations.

Keywords: Vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT), twisted blade, CAD, 3D modeling.

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190 Heat Transfer Characteristics on Blade Tip with Unsteady Wake

Authors: Minho Bang, Seok Min Choi, Jun Su Park, Hokyu Moon, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

Present study investigates the effect of unsteady wakes on heat transfer in blade tip. Heat/mass transfer was measured in blade tip region depending on a variety of strouhal number by naphthalene sublimation technique. Naphthalene sublimation technique measures heat transfer using a heat/mass transfer analogy. Experiments are performed in linear cascade which is composed of five turbine blades and rotating rods. Strouhal number of inlet flow are changed ranging from 0 to 0.22. Reynolds number is 100,000 based on 11.4 m/s of outlet flow and axial chord length. Three different squealer tip geometries such as base squealer tip, vertical rib squealer tip, and camber line squealer tip are used to study how unsteady wakes affect heat transfer on a blade tip. Depending on squealer tip geometry, different flow patterns occur on a blade tip. Also, unsteady wakes cause reduced tip leakage flow and turbulent flow. As a result, as strouhal number increases, heat/mass transfer coefficients decrease due to the reduced leakage flow. As strouhal number increases, heat/ mass transfer coefficients on a blade tip increase in vertical rib squealer tip.

Keywords: Gas turbine, blade tip, heat transfer, unsteady wakes.

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189 Effect of Plunging Oscillation on an Offshore Wind Turbine Blade Section

Authors: F. Rasi Marzabadi

Abstract:

A series of experiments were carried out to study unsteady behavior of the flow field as well as the boundary layer of an airfoil oscillating in plunging motion in a subsonic wind tunnel. The measurements involved surface pressure distribution complimented with surface-mounted hot-films. The effect of leadingedge roughness that simulates surface irregularities on the wind turbine blades was also studied on variations of aerodynamic loads and boundary layer behavior.

Keywords: Boundary layer transition, plunging, reduced frequency, wind turbine.

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188 Atmospheric Full Scale Testing of a Morphing Trailing Edge Flap System for Wind Turbine Blades

Authors: Thanasis K. Barlas, Helge A. Madsen

Abstract:

A novel Active Flap System (AFS) has been developed at DTU Wind Energy, as a result of a 3-year R&D project following almost 10 years of innovative research in this field. The full scale AFS comprises an active deformable trailing edge has been tested at the unique rotating test facility at the Risø Campus of DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. The design and instrumentation of the wing section and the AFS are described. The general description and objectives of the rotating test rig at the Risø campus of DTU are presented, along with an overview of sensors on the setup and the test cases. The post-processing of data is discussed and results of steady, flap step and azimuth control flap cases are presented.

Keywords: morphing, adaptive, flap, smart blade, wind turbine.

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187 Numerical Investigation of the Optimal Spatial Domain Discretization for the 2-D Analysis of a Darrieus Vertical-Axis Water Turbine

Authors: M. Raciti Castelli, S. De Betta, E. Benini

Abstract:

The optimal grid spacing and turbulence model for the 2D numerical analysis of a vertical-axis water turbine (VAWaterT) operating in a 2 m/s freestream current has been investigated. The results of five different spatial domain discretizations and two turbulence models (k-ω SST and k-ε RNG) have been compared, in order to gain the optimal y+ parameter distribution along the blade walls during a full rotor revolution. The resulting optimal mesh has appeared to be quite similar to that obtained for the numerical analysis of a vertical-axis wind turbine.

Keywords: CFD, vertical axis water turbine, NACA 0025, blade y+.

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186 Proposal of a Means for Reducing the Torque Variation on a Vertical-Axis Water Turbine by Increasing the Blade Number

Authors: M. Raciti Castelli, S. De Betta, E. Benini

Abstract:

This paper presents a means for reducing the torque variation during the revolution of a vertical-axis water turbine (VAWaterT) by increasing the blade number. For this purpose, twodimensional CFD analyses have been performed on a straight-bladed Darrieus-type rotor. After describing the computational model and the relative validation procedure, a complete campaign of simulations, based on full RANS unsteady calculations, is proposed for a three, four and five-bladed rotor architectures, characterized by a NACA 0025 airfoil. For each proposed rotor configuration, flow field characteristics are investigated at several values of tip speed ratio, allowing a quantification of the influence of blade number on flow geometric features and dynamic quantities, such as rotor torque and power. Finally, torque and power curves are compared for the three analyzed architectures, achieving a quantification of the effect of blade number on overall rotor performance.

Keywords: Vertical-Axis Water Turbine, rotor solidity, CFD, NACA 0025

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185 Cooling Turbine Blades using Exciting Boundary Layer

Authors: Ali Ghobadi, Seyed Mohammad Javadi, Behnam Rahimi

Abstract:

The present study is concerned with the effect of exciting boundary layer on cooling process in a gas-turbine blades. The cooling process is numerically investigated. Observations show cooling the first row of moving or stable blades leads to increase their life-time. Results show that minimum temperature in cooling line with exciting boundary layer is lower than without exciting. Using block in cooling line of turbines' blade causes flow pattern and stability in boundary layer changed that causes increase in heat transfer coefficient. Results show at the location of block, temperature of turbines' blade is significantly decreased. The k-ε turbulence model is used.

Keywords: Cooling, Exciting Boundary Layer, Heat Transfer, Turbine Blade.

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184 Effect of Blade Shape on the Performance of Wells Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion

Authors: Katsuya Takasaki, Manabu Takao, Toshiaki Setoguchi

Abstract:

The effect of a 3-dimensional (3D) blade on the turbine characteristics of Wells turbine for wave energy conversion has been investigated experimentally by model testing under steady flow conditions in this study, in order to improve the peak efficiency and stall characteristics. The aim of use of 3D blade is to prevent flow separation on the suction surface near the tip. The chord length is constant with radius and the blade profile changes gradually from the mean radius to tip. The proposed blade profiles in the study are NACA0015 from the hub to mean radius and NACA0025 at the tip. The performances of Wells turbine with 3D blades has been compared with those of the original Wells turbine, i.e., the turbine with 2-dimensional (2D) blades. As a result, it was concluded that although the peak efficiency of Wells turbine can be improved by the use of the proposed 3D blade, its blade does not overcome the weakness of stalling.

Keywords: Fluid machinery, ocean engineering, stall, wave energy conversion, Wells turbine.

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183 Fatigue Life Consumption for Turbine Blades-Vanes Accelerated by Erosion-Contour Modification

Authors: Julio C. Gómez-Mancilla, Luis M. Palacios-Pineda, Yunuén López-Grijalba

Abstract:

A new mechanism responsible for structural life consumption due to resonant fatigue in turbine blades, or vanes, is presented and explained. A rotating blade or vane in a gas turbine can change its contour due to erosion and/or material build up, in any of these instances, the surface pressure distribution occurring on the suction and pressure sides of blades-vanes can suffer substantial modification of their pressure and temperatures envelopes and flow characteristics. Meanwhile, the relative rotation between the blade and duct vane while the pressurized gas flows and the consequent wake crossings, will induce a fluctuating thrust force or lift that will excite the blade. An actual totally used up set of vane-blade components in a HP turbine power stage in a gas turbine is analyzed. The blade suffered some material erosion mostly at the trailing edge provoking a peculiar surface pressure envelope which evolved as the relative position between the vane and the blade passed in front of each other. Interestingly preliminary modal analysis for this eroded blade indicates several natural frequencies within the aeromechanic power spectrum, moreover, the highest frequency component is 94% of one natural frequency indicating near resonant condition. Independently of other simultaneously occurring fatigue cycles (such as thermal, centrifugal stresses).

Keywords: Aeromechanic induced vibration, potential flowinteraction, turbine unsteady flow, rotor/stator interaction, turbinevane-blade aerodynamic interaction, airfoil clocking

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182 Numerical Analysis of the Performance of a Shrouded Vertical-Axis Water Turbine based on the NACA 0025 Blade Profile

Authors: M. Raciti Castelli, S. De Betta, E. Benini

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical analysis of the performance of a five-bladed Darrieus vertical-axis water turbine, based on the NACA 0025 blade profile, for both bare and shrouded configurations. A complete campaign of 2-D simulations, performed for several values of tip speed ratio and based on RANS unsteady calculations, has been performed to obtain the rotor torque and power curves. Also the effect of a NACA-shaped central hydrofoil has been investigated, with the aim of evaluating the impact of a solid blockage on the performance of the shrouded rotor configuration. The beneficial effect of the shroud on rotor overall performances has clearly been evidenced, while the adoption of the central hydrofoil has proved to be detrimental, being the resulting flow slow down (due to the presence of the obstacle) much higher with respect to the flow acceleration (due to the solid blockage effect).

Keywords: CFD, vertical axis water turbine, shroud, NACA 0025

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181 Examining the Effects of Production Method on Aluminium A356 Alloy and A356-10%SiCp Composite for Hydro Turbine Bucket Application

Authors: Williams S. Ebhota, Freddie L. Inambao

Abstract:

This study investigates the use of centrifugal casting method to fabricate functionally graded aluminium A356 Alloy and A356-10%SiCp composite for hydro turbine bucket application. The study includes the design and fabrication of a permanent mould. The mould was put into use and the buckets of A356 Alloy and A356-10%SiCp composite were cast, cut and machined into specimens. Some specimens were given T6 heat treatment and the specimens were prepared for different examinations accordingly. The SiCp particles were found to be more at inner periphery of the bucket. The maximum hardness of As-Cast A356 and A356-10%SiCp composite was recorded at the inner periphery to be 60 BRN and 95BRN, respectively. And these values were appreciated to 98BRN and 122BRN for A356 alloy and A356-10%SiCp composite, respectively. It was observed that the ultimate tensile stress and yield tensile stress prediction curves show the same trend.

Keywords: A356 alloy, A356-10%SiCp composite, centrifugal casting, pelton bucket, turbine blade.

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180 Investigations of Flow Field with Different Turbulence Models on NREL Phase VI Blade

Authors: T. Y. Liu, C. H Lin., Y. M Ferng

Abstract:

Wind energy is one of the clean renewable energy. However, the low frequency (20-200HZ) noise generated from the wind turbine blades, which bothers the residents, becomes the major problem to be developed. It is useful for predicting the aerodynamic noise by flow field and pressure distribution analysis on the wind turbine blades. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to use different turbulence models to analyze the flow field and pressure distributions of the wing blades.

Three-dimensional Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the flow field was used to calculate the flow phenomena for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Phase VI horizontal axis wind turbine rotor. Two different flow cases with different wind speeds were investigated: 7m/s with 72rpm and 15m/s with 72rpm.

Four kinds of RANS-based turbulence models, Standard k-ε, Realizable k-ε, SST k-ω, and v2f, were used to predict and analyze the results in the present work. The results show that the predictions on pressure distributions with SST k-ω and v2f turbulence models have good agreements with experimental data.

Keywords: Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine, turbulence model, noise.

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179 Depressing Turbine-Generator Supersynchronous Torsional Torques by Using Virtual Inertia

Authors: Jong-Ian Tsai, Chi-Chuan Chen, Tung-Sheng Zhan, Rong-Ching Wu

Abstract:

Single-pole switching scheme is widely used in the Extra High Voltage system. However, the substantial negativesequence current injected to the turbine-generators imposes the electromagnetic (E/M) torque of double system- frequency components during the dead time (between single-pole clearing and line reclosing). This would induce supersynchronous resonance (SPSR) torque amplifications on low pressure turbine generator blades and even lead to fatigue damage. This paper proposes the design of a mechanical filter (MF) with natural frequency close to double-system frequency. From the simulation results, it is found that such a filter not only successfully damps the resonant effect, but also has the characteristics of feasibility and compact.

Keywords: Single-pole, Supersynchronous, Blade, Unbalance, filter

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178 Dynamic Modeling of Underplateform Damper used in Turbomachinery

Authors: Vikas Rastogi, Vipan Kumar, Loveleen Kumar Bhagi

Abstract:

The present work deals with the structural analysis of turbine blades and modeling of turbine blades. A common failure mode for turbine machines is high cycle of fatigue of compressor and turbine blades due to high dynamic stresses caused by blade vibration and resonance within the operation range of the machinery. In this work, proper damping system will be analyzed to reduce the vibrating blade. The main focus of the work is the modeling of under platform damper to evaluate the dynamic analysis of turbine-blade vibrations. The system is analyzed using Bond graph technique. Bond graph is one of the most convenient ways to represent a system from the physical aspect in foreground. It has advantage of putting together multi-energy domains of a system in a single representation in a unified manner. The bond graph model of dry friction damper is simulated on SYMBOLS-shakti® software. In this work, the blades are modeled as Timoshenko beam. Blade Vibrations under different working conditions are being analyzed numerically.

Keywords: Turbine blade vibrations, Friction dampers, Timoshenko Beam, Bond graph modeling.

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177 Numerical Investigation of Flow Past Cylinderin Cross Flow

Authors: M. H. Alhajeri, Jasem Alrajhi, Mohsen Alardhi, Saleh Alhajeri

Abstract:

A numerical prediction of flow in a tube bank is reported. The flow regimes considered cover a wide range of Reynolds numbers, which range from 380 to 99000 and which are equivalent to a range of inlet velocities from very low (0.072 m/s) to very high (60 m/s). In this study, calculations were made using the standard k-e model with standard wall function. The drag coefficient, skin friction drag, pressure drag, and pressure distribution around a tube were investigated. As the velocity increased, the drag coefficient decreased until the velocity exceeded 45 m/s, after which it increased. Furthermore, the pressure drag and skin friction drag depend on the velocity.

Keywords: Numerical, Fluid, Flow, Turbine, Cooling, Blade.

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176 Improving the Performance of Gas Turbine Power Plant by Modified Axial Turbine

Authors: Hakim T. Kadhim, Faris A. Jabbar, Aldo Rona, Audrius Bagdanaviciu

Abstract:

Computer-based optimization techniques can be employed to improve the efficiency of energy conversions processes, including reducing the aerodynamic loss in a thermal power plant turbomachine. In this paper, towards mitigating secondary flow losses, a design optimization workflow is implemented for the casing geometry of a 1.5 stage axial flow turbine that improves the turbine isentropic efficiency. The improved turbine is used in an open thermodynamic gas cycle with regeneration and cogeneration. Performance estimates are obtained by the commercial software Cycle – Tempo. Design and off design conditions are considered as well as variations in inlet air temperature. Reductions in both the natural gas specific fuel consumption and in CO2 emissions are predicted by using the gas turbine cycle fitted with the new casing design. These gains are attractive towards enhancing the competitiveness and reducing the environmental impact of thermal power plant.

Keywords: Axial flow turbine, computational fluid dynamics, gas turbine power plant, optimization.

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