Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1989

Search results for: transverse resonance method

1989 Discrimination of Modes of Double- and Single-Negative Grounded Slab

Authors: R. Borghol, T. Aguili

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate theoretically the waves propagation in a lossless double-negative grounded slab (DNG). This study is performed by the Transverse Resonance Method (TRM). The proper or improper nature of real and complex modes is observed. They are highly dependent on metamaterial parameters, i.e. ɛr-negative, µr-negative, or both. Numerical results provided that only the proper complex modes (i.e., leaky modes) exist in DNG slab, and only the improper complex modes exist in single-negative grounded slab.

Keywords: Double-negative grounded slab, real and complex modes, single-negative grounded slab, transverse resonance method.

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1988 Investigation of Fire Damaged Concrete Using Nonlinear Resonance Vibration Method

Authors: Kang-Gyu Park, Sun-Jong Park, Hong Jae Yim, Hyo-Gyung Kwak

Abstract:

This paper attempts to evaluate the effect of fire damage on concrete by using nonlinear resonance vibration method, one of the nonlinear nondestructive method. Concrete exhibits not only nonlinear stress-strain relation but also hysteresis and discrete memory effect which are contained in consolidated materials. Hysteretic materials typically show the linear resonance frequency shift. Also, the shift of resonance frequency is changed according to the degree of micro damage. The degree of the shift can be obtained through nonlinear resonance vibration method. Five exposure scenarios were considered in order to make different internal micro damage. Also, the effect of post-fire-curing on fire-damaged concrete was taken into account to conform the change in internal damage. Hysteretic nonlinearity parameter was obtained by amplitudedependent resonance frequency shift after specific curing periods. In addition, splitting tensile strength was measured on each sample to characterize the variation of residual strength. Then, a correlation between the hysteretic nonlinearity parameter and residual strength was proposed from each test result.

Keywords: Fire damaged concrete, nonlinear resonance vibration method, nonlinearity parameter, post-fire-curing, splitting tensile strength.

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1987 Selective Transverse Modes in a Diode End- Pumped Nd:Yag Pulsed Laser

Authors: M. Mohamadi, M. Mostamand, M. Moosavi, M. Soltanolkotabi

Abstract:

The output beam quality of multi transverse modes of laser, are relatively poor. In order to obtain better beam quality, one may use an aperture inside the laser resonator. In this case, various transverse modes can be selected. We have selected various transverse modes both by simulation and doing experiment. By inserting a circular aperture inside the diode end-pumped Nd:YAG pulsed laser resonator, we have obtained 00 TEM , 01 TEM , 20 TEM and have studied which parameters, can change the mode shape. Then, we have determined the beam quality factor of TEM00 gaussian mode.

Keywords: Beam shape, Transverse mode , Beam quality factor

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1986 A Novel Hopfield Neural Network for Perfect Calculation of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Authors: Hazem M. El-Bakry

Abstract:

In this paper, an automatic determination algorithm for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the metabolites in the living body by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) without human intervention or complicated calculations is presented. In such method, the problem of NMR spectrum determination is transformed into the determination of the parameters of a mathematical model of the NMR signal. To calculate these parameters efficiently, a new model called modified Hopfield neural network is designed. The main achievement of this paper over the work in literature [30] is that the speed of the modified Hopfield neural network is accelerated. This is done by applying cross correlation in the frequency domain between the input values and the input weights. The modified Hopfield neural network can accomplish complex dignals perfectly with out any additinal computation steps. This is a valuable advantage as NMR signals are complex-valued. In addition, a technique called “modified sequential extension of section (MSES)" that takes into account the damping rate of the NMR signal is developed to be faster than that presented in [30]. Simulation results show that the calculation precision of the spectrum improves when MSES is used along with the neural network. Furthermore, MSES is found to reduce the local minimum problem in Hopfield neural networks. Moreover, the performance of the proposed method is evaluated and there is no effect on the performance of calculations when using the modified Hopfield neural networks.

Keywords: Hopfield Neural Networks, Cross Correlation, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Fast Fourier Transform.

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1985 Numerical and Experimental Stress Analysis of Stiffened Cylindrical Composite Shell under Transverse end Load

Authors: J. Arashmehr, G. H. Rahimi, S.F.Rasouli

Abstract:

Grid composite structures have many applications in aerospace industry in which deal with transverse loadings abundantly. In present paper a stiffened composite cylindrical shell with clamped-free boundary condition under transverse end load experimentally and numerically was studied. Some electrical strain gauges were employed to measure the strains. Also a finite element analysis was done for validation of experimental result. The FEM software used was ANSYS11. In addition, the results between stiffened composite shell and unstiffened composite shell were compared. It was observed that intersection of two stiffeners has an important effect in decrease of stress in the shell. Fairly good agreements were observed between the numerical and the measured results. According to recent studies about grid composite structures, it should be noted that any investigation like this research has not been reported.

Keywords: Grid composite structure, Transverse loadings, Strain measurement, Finite element analysis

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1984 Structural Study of Boron - Nitride Nanotube with Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Parameters Calculation via Density Functional Theory Method (DFT)

Authors: Asadollah Boshra, Ahmad Seif, Mehran Aghaei

Abstract:

A model of (4, 4) single-walled boron-nitride nanotube as a representative of armchair boron-nitride nanotubes studied. At first the structure optimization performed and then Nuclear Magnetic Resonance parameters (NMR) by Density Functional Theory (DFT) method at 11B and 15N nuclei calculated. Resulted parameters evaluation presents electrostatic environment heterogeneity along the nanotube and especially at the ends but the nuclei in a layer feel the same electrostatic environment. All of calculations carried out using Gaussian 98 Software package.

Keywords: Boron-nitride nanotube, Density Functional Theory, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR).

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1983 An Experimental Study on Behavior of Transverse Connection Appropriate for Modular Girder Bridge

Authors: Dong-Hyun Kim, Jin-Woong Choi, Hyeong-Yeol Kim, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

This study is to evaluate the behavior of integral and segmental specimens through static and cyclic tests. Integral specimens were made with the same size to be compared with segmental specimens that were made by connected precast members. To evaluate its bending performance and serviceability, 1 integral and 3 segmental specimens were tested under static load. And 1 integral and 2 segmental specimens were tested under cyclic load, respectively. Different load ranges were considered in the cyclic tests to evaluate the safety and serviceability. The test results showed that under static loading, segmental specimens had about 94% of the integral specimen's maximum moment, averagely. Under cyclic loading, the segmental specimens showed that had enough safety in the range of higher than service load and enough serviceability. In conclusion, the maximum crack width (0.16mm) satisfied the allowable crack width (0.30mm) in the range of service load.

Keywords: Modular bridge, Transverse connection, Precast concrete, Static and cyclic test.

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1982 Improved Neutron Leakage Treatment on Nodal Expansion Method for PWR Reactors

Authors: Antonio Carlos Marques Alvim, Fernando Carvalho da Silva, Aquilino Senra Martinez

Abstract:

For a quick and accurate calculation of spatial neutron distribution in nuclear power reactors 3D nodal codes are usually used aiming at solving the neutron diffusion equation for a given reactor core geometry and material composition. These codes use a second order polynomial to represent the transverse leakage term. In this work, a nodal method based on the well known nodal expansion method (NEM), developed at COPPE, making use of this polynomial expansion was modified to treat the transverse leakage term for the external surfaces of peripheral reflector nodes. The proposed method was implemented into a computational system which, besides solving the diffusion equation, also solves the burnup equations governing the gradual changes in material compositions of the core due to fuel depletion. Results confirm the effectiveness of this modified treatment of peripheral nodes for practical purposes in PWR reactors.

Keywords: Transverse leakage, nodal expansion method, power density, PWR reactors

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1981 An Ultra-Low Output Impedance Power Amplifier for Tx Array in 7-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Ashraf Abuelhaija, Klaus Solbach

Abstract:

In Ultra high-field MRI scanners (3T and higher), parallel RF transmission techniques using multiple RF chains with multiple transmit elements are a promising approach to overcome the high-field MRI challenges in terms of inhomogeneity in the RF magnetic field and SAR. However, mutual coupling between the transmit array elements disturbs the desirable independent control of the RF waveforms for each element. This contribution demonstrates a 18 dB improvement of decoupling (isolation) performance due to the very low output impedance of our 1 kW power amplifier.

Keywords: EM coupling, Inter-element isolation, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Parallel Transmit.

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1980 Subjective Versus Objective Assessment for Magnetic Resonance Images

Authors: Heshalini Rajagopal, Li Sze Chow, Raveendran Paramesran

Abstract:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most important medical imaging modality. Subjective assessment of the image quality is regarded as the gold standard to evaluate MR images. In this study, a database of 210 MR images which contains ten reference images and 200 distorted images is presented. The reference images were distorted with four types of distortions: Rician Noise, Gaussian White Noise, Gaussian Blur and DCT compression. The 210 images were assessed by ten subjects. The subjective scores were presented in Difference Mean Opinion Score (DMOS). The DMOS values were compared with four FR-IQA metrics. We have used Pearson Linear Coefficient (PLCC) and Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient (SROCC) to validate the DMOS values. The high correlation values of PLCC and SROCC shows that the DMOS values are close to the objective FR-IQA metrics.

Keywords: Medical Resonance (MR) images, Difference Mean Opinion Score (DMOS), Full Reference Image Quality Assessment (FR-IQA).

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1979 Implication of the Exchange-Correlation on Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: A. Abdikian

Abstract:

Using the linearized quantum hydrodynamic model (QHD) and by considering the role of quantum parameter (Bohm’s potential) and electron exchange-correlation potential in conjunction with Maxwell’s equations, electromagnetic wave propagation in a single-walled carbon nanotubes was studied. The electronic excitations are described. By solving the mentioned equations with appropriate boundary conditions and by assuming the low-frequency electromagnetic waves, two general expressions of dispersion relations are derived for the transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) modes, respectively. The dispersion relations are analyzed numerically and it was found that the dependency of dispersion curves with the exchange-correlation effects (which have been ignored in previous works) in the low frequency would be limited. Moreover, it has been realized that asymptotic behaviors of the TE and TM modes are similar in single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The results show that by adding the function of electron exchange-correlation potential lead to the phenomena and make to extend the validity range of QHD model. The results can be important in the study of collective phenomena in nanostructures.

Keywords: Transverse magnetic, transverse electric, quantum hydrodynamic model, electron exchange-correlation potential, single-wall carbon nanotubes.

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1978 Effect of Transverse Reinforcement on the Behavior of Tension Lap splice in High-Strength Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Ahmed H. Abdel-Kareem, Hala. Abousafa, Omia S. El-Hadidi

Abstract:

The results of an experimental program conducted on seventeen simply supported concrete beams to study the effect of transverse reinforcement on the behavior of lap splice of steel reinforcement in tension zones in high strength concrete beams, are presented. The parameters included in the experimental program were the concrete compressive strength, the lap splice length, the amount of transverse reinforcement provided within the splice region, and the shape of transverse reinforcement around spliced bars. The experimental results showed that the displacement ductility increased and the mode of failure changed from splitting bond failure to flexural failure when the amount of transverse reinforcement in splice region increased, and the compressive strength increased up to 100 MPa. The presence of transverse reinforcement around spliced bars had pronounced effect on increasing the ultimate load, the ultimate deflection, and the displacement ductility. The prediction of maximum steel stresses for spliced bars using ACI 318-05 building code was compared with the experimental results. The comparison showed that the effect of transverse reinforcement around spliced bars has to be considered into the design equations for lap splice length in high strength concrete beams.

Keywords: Ductility, high strength concrete, tension lap splice, transverse reinforcement, steel stresses.

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1977 Impact of Harmonic Resonance and V-THD in Sohar Industrial Port–C Substation

Authors: R. S. Al Abri, M. H. Albadi, M. H. Al Abri, U. K. Al Rasbi, M. H. Al Hasni, S. M. Al Shidi

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis study on the impacts of the changes of the capacitor banks, the loss of a transformer, and the installation of distributed generation on the voltage total harmonic distortion and harmonic resonance. The study is applied in a real system in Oman, Sohar Industrial Port–C Substation Network. Frequency scan method and Fourier series analysis method are used with the help of EDSA software. Moreover, the results are compared with limits specified by national Oman distribution code.

Keywords: Power quality, capacitor bank, voltage total harmonics distortion, harmonic resonance, frequency scan.

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1976 Effect of Cyclotron Resonance Frequencies in Particles Due to AC and DC Electromagnetic Fields

Authors: Malka N. Halgamuge, Chathurika D. Abeyratne, Priyan Mendis

Abstract:

A fundamental model consisting of charged particles moving in free space exposed to alternating and direct current (ACDC) electromagnetic fields is analyzed. Effects of charged particles initial position and initial velocity to cyclotron resonance frequency are observed. Strong effects are observed revealing that effects of electric and magnetic fields on a charged particle in free space varies with the initial conditions. This indicates the frequency where maximum displacement occur can be changed. At this frequency the amplitude of oscillation of the particle displacement becomes unbounded.

Keywords: Cyclotron resonance, electromagnetic fields, particle displacement

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1975 Automatic Segmentation of Thigh Magnetic Resonance Images

Authors: Lorena Urricelqui, Armando Malanda, Arantxa Villanueva

Abstract:

Purpose: To develop a method for automatic segmentation of adipose and muscular tissue in thighs from magnetic resonance images. Materials and methods: Thirty obese women were scanned on a Siemens Impact Expert 1T resonance machine. 1500 images were finally used in the tests. The developed segmentation method is a recursive and multilevel process that makes use of several concepts such as shaped histograms, adaptative thresholding and connectivity. The segmentation process was implemented in Matlab and operates without the need of any user interaction. The whole set of images were segmented with the developed method. An expert radiologist segmented the same set of images following a manual procedure with the aid of the SliceOmatic software (Tomovision). These constituted our 'goal standard'. Results: The number of coincidental pixels of the automatic and manual segmentation procedures was measured. The average results were above 90 % of success in most of the images. Conclusions: The proposed approach allows effective automatic segmentation of MRIs from thighs, comparable to expert manual performance.

Keywords: Segmentation, thigh, magnetic resonance image, fat, muscle.

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1974 Analysis of Stress Concentration and Deflectionin Isotropic and Orthotropic Rectangular Plates with Central Circular Hole under Transverse Static Loading

Authors: Nitin Kumar Jain

Abstract:

The distributions of stresses and deflection in rectangular isotropic and orthotropic plates with central circular hole under transverse static loading have been studied using finite element method. The aim of author is to analyze the effect of D/A ratio (where D is hole diameter and A is plate width) upon stress concentration factor (SCF) and deflection in isotropic and orthotropic plates under transverse static loading. The D/A ratio is varied from 0.01 to 0.9. The analysis is done for plates of isotropic and two different orthotropic materials. The results are obtained for three different boundary conditions. The variations of SCF and deflection with respect to D/A ratio are presented in graphical form and discussed. The finite element formulation is carried out in the analysis section of the ANSYS package.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, SCF, Deflection, Plate, Boundary conditions

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1973 The Effect of the Initial Stresses on the Reflection and Transmission of Plane Quasi-Vertical Transverse Waves in Piezoelectric Materials

Authors: Abo-El-Nour N. Abd-Alla, Fatimah A. Alsheikh

Abstract:

This study deals with the phenomena of reflection and transmission (refraction) of qSV-waves, for an incident of quasi transverse vertically waves, at a plane interface of two semi-infinite piezoelectric elastic media under the influence of the initial stresses. The relations governing the reflection and transmission coefficients of these reflected waves for various suitable boundary conditions are derived. We have shown analytically that reflection and transmission coefficients of (qP) and (qSV) waves depend upon the angle of incidence, the parameters of electric potential, the material constants of the medium as will as the initial stresses presented in the media. The numerical calculations of the reflection and transmission amplitude ratios for different values of initial stresses have been carried out by computer for different materials as examples and the results are given in the form of graphs. Finally, some of particular cases are considered.

Keywords: Quasi plane vertical transverse waves, reflection and transmission coefficients, initial stresses, PZT-5H Ceramic, Aluminum Nitride (AlN), Piezoelectricity

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1972 Monitoring the Effect of Doxorubicin Liposomal in VX2 Tumor Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Ren-Jy Ben, Jo-Chi Jao, Chiu-Ya Liao, Ya-Ru Tsai, Lain-Chyr Hwang, Po-Chou Chen

Abstract:

Cancer is still one of the serious diseases threatening the lives of human beings. How to have an early diagnosis and effective treatment for tumors is a very important issue. The animal carcinoma model can provide a simulation tool for the studies of pathogenesis, biological characteristics, and therapeutic effects. Recently, drug delivery systems have been rapidly developed to effectively improve the therapeutic effects. Liposome plays an increasingly important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy for delivering a pharmaceutic or contrast agent to the targeted sites. Liposome can be absorbed and excreted by the human body, and is well known that no harm to the human body. This study aimed to compare the therapeutic effects between encapsulated (doxorubicin liposomal, Lipodox) and un-encapsulated (doxorubicin, Dox) anti-tumor drugs using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits implanted with VX2 carcinoma at left thighs were classified into three groups: control group (untreated), Dox-treated group, and LipoDox-treated group, 8 rabbits for each group. MRI scans were performed three days after tumor implantation. A 1.5T GE Signa HDxt whole body MRI scanner with a high resolution knee coil was used in this study. After a 3-plane localizer scan was performed, three-dimensional (3D) fast spin echo (FSE) T2-weighted Images (T2WI) was used for tumor volumetric quantification. Afterwards, two-dimensional (2D) spoiled gradient recalled echo (SPGR) dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI was used for tumor perfusion evaluation. DCE-MRI was designed to acquire four baseline images, followed by contrast agent Gd-DOTA injection through the ear vein of rabbit. A series of 32 images were acquired to observe the signals change over time in the tumor and muscle. The MRI scanning was scheduled on a weekly basis for a period of four weeks to observe the tumor progression longitudinally. The Dox and LipoDox treatments were prescribed 3 times in the first week immediately after the first MRI scan; i.e. 3 days after VX2 tumor implantation. ImageJ was used to quantitate tumor volume and time course signal enhancement on DCE images. The changes of tumor size showed that the growth of VX2 tumors was effectively inhibited for both LipoDox-treated and Dox-treated groups. Furthermore, the tumor volume of LipoDox-treated group was significantly lower than that of Dox-treated group, which implies that LipoDox has better therapeutic effect than Dox. The signal intensity of LipoDox-treated group is significantly lower than that of the other two groups, which implies that targeted therapeutic drug remained in the tumor tissue. This study provides a radiation-free and non-invasive MRI method for therapeutic monitoring of targeted liposome on an animal tumor model.

Keywords: Doxorubicin, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, lipodox, magnetic resonance imaging, VX2 tumor model.

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1971 Stochastic Resonance in Nonlinear Signal Detection

Authors: Youguo Wang, Lenan Wu

Abstract:

Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the signal transmission or signal processing through certain nonlinear systems can be improved by adding noise. This paper discusses SR in nonlinear signal detection by a simple test statistic, which can be computed from multiple noisy data in a binary decision problem based on a maximum a posteriori probability criterion. The performance of detection is assessed by the probability of detection error Per . When the input signal is subthreshold signal, we establish that benefit from noise can be gained for different noises and confirm further that the subthreshold SR exists in nonlinear signal detection. The efficacy of SR is significantly improved and the minimum of Per can dramatically approach to zero as the sample number increases. These results show the robustness of SR in signal detection and extend the applicability of SR in signal processing.

Keywords: Probability of detection error, signal detection, stochastic resonance.

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1970 Spectral Investigation for Boundary Layer Flow over a Permeable Wall in the Presence of Transverse Magnetic Field

Authors: Saeed Sarabadan, Mehran Nikarya, Kouroah Parand

Abstract:

The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Falkner-Skan equations appear in study of laminar boundary layers flow over a wedge in presence of a transverse magnetic field. The partial differential equations of boundary layer problems in presence of a transverse magnetic field are reduced to MHD Falkner-Skan equation by similarity solution methods. This is a nonlinear ordinary differential equation. In this paper, we solve this equation via spectral collocation method based on Bessel functions of the first kind. In this approach, we reduce the solution of the nonlinear MHD Falkner-Skan equation to a solution of a nonlinear algebraic equations system. Then, the resulting system is solved by Newton method. We discuss obtained solution by studying the behavior of boundary layer flow in terms of skin friction, velocity, various amounts of magnetic field and angle of wedge. Finally, the results are compared with other methods mentioned in literature. We can conclude that the presented method has better accuracy than others.

Keywords: MHD Falkner-Skan, nonlinear ODE, spectral collocation method, Bessel functions, skin friction, velocity.

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1969 Optimal Design of Selective Excitation Pulses in Magnetic Resonance Imaging using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Mohammed A. Alolfe, Abou-Bakr M. Youssef, Yasser M. Kadah

Abstract:

The proper design of RF pulses in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a direct impact on the quality of acquired images, and is needed for many applications. Several techniques have been proposed to obtain the RF pulse envelope given the desired slice profile. Unfortunately, these techniques do not take into account the limitations of practical implementation such as limited amplitude resolution. Moreover, implementing constraints for special RF pulses on most techniques is not possible. In this work, we propose to develop an approach for designing optimal RF pulses under theoretically any constraints. The new technique will pose the RF pulse design problem as a combinatorial optimization problem and uses efficient techniques from this area such as genetic algorithms (GA) to solve this problem. In particular, an objective function will be proposed as the norm of the difference between the desired profile and the one obtained from solving the Bloch equations for the current RF pulse design values. The proposed approach will be verified using analytical solution based RF simulations and compared to previous methods such as Shinnar-Le Roux (SLR) method, and analysis, selected, and tested the options and parameters that control the Genetic Algorithm (GA) can significantly affect its performance to get the best improved results and compared to previous works in this field. The results show a significant improvement over conventional design techniques, select the best options and parameters for GA to get most improvement over the previous works, and suggest the practicality of using of the new technique for most important applications as slice selection for large flip angles, in the area of unconventional spatial encoding, and another clinical use.

Keywords: Selective excitation, magnetic resonance imaging, combinatorial optimization, pulse design.

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1968 Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography in Rats with Gadobenate Dimeglumine at 3T

Authors: Jo-Chi Jao, Yen-Ku Chen, Twei-Shiun Jaw, Po-Chou Chen

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the magnetic resonance (MR) signal enhancement ratio (ER) of contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) in normal rats with gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) using a clinical 3T scanner and an extremity coil. The relaxivities of Gd-BOPTA with saline only and with 4.5% human serum albumin (HSA) were also measured. Compared with Gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), Gd-BOPTA had higher relaxivities. The maximum ER of aorta (ERa), kidney, liver and muscle with Gd-BOPTA were higher than those with Gd-DTPA. The maximum ERa appeared at 1.2 min and decayed to half at 10 min after Gd-BOPTA injection. This information is helpful for the design of CE-MRA study of rats.

Keywords: Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography, Gd-BOPTA, Gd-DTPA, Rat.

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1967 Simulation of the Finite Difference Time Domain in Two Dimension

Authors: Akram G., Jasmy Y.

Abstract:

The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is one of the most widely used computational methods in electromagnetic. This paper describes the design of two-dimensional (2D) FDTD simulation software for transverse magnetic (TM) polarization using Berenger's split-field perfectly matched layer (PML) formulation. The software is developed using Matlab programming language. Numerical examples validate the software.

Keywords: Finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, perfectly matched layer (PML), split-filed formulation, transverse magnetic (TM) polarization.

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1966 Research on Axial End Flux Leakage and Detent Force of Transverse Flux PM Linear Machine

Authors: W. R. Li, J. K. Xia, R. Q. Peng, Z. Y. Guo, L. Jiang

Abstract:

According to 3D magnetic circuit of the transverse flux PM linear machine, distribution law is presented, and analytical expression of axial end flux leakage is derived using numerical method. Maxwell stress tensor is used to solve detent force of mover. A 3D finite element model of the transverse flux PM machine is built to analyze the flux distribution and detent force. Experimental results of the prototype verified the validity of axial end flux leakage and detent force theoretical derivation, the research on axial end flux leakage and detent force provides a valuable reference to other types of linear machine.

Keywords: Transverse flux PM linear machine, flux distribution, axial end flux leakage, detent force.

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1965 Impulse Noise Reduction in Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Fuzzy Filters

Authors: Benjamin Y. M. Kwan, Hon Keung Kwan

Abstract:

Noise contamination in a magnetic resonance (MR) image could occur during acquisition, storage, and transmission in which effective filtering is required to avoid repeating the MR procedure. In this paper, an iterative asymmetrical triangle fuzzy filter with moving average center (ATMAVi filter) is used to reduce different levels of salt and pepper noise in a brain MR image. Besides visual inspection on filtered images, the mean squared error (MSE) is used as an objective measurement. When compared with the median filter, simulation results indicate that the ATMAVi filter is effective especially for filtering a higher level noise (such as noise density = 0.45) using a smaller window size (such as 3x3) when operated iteratively or using a larger window size (such as 5x5) when operated non-iteratively.

Keywords: Brain images, Fuzzy filters, Magnetic resonance imaging, Salt and pepper noise reduction.

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1964 Second Sub-Harmonic Resonance in Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Marine Pipeline Close to the Seabed

Authors: Yiming Jin, Yuanhao Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, using the method of multiple scales, the second sub-harmonic resonance in vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of a marine pipeline close to the seabed is investigated based on a developed wake oscillator model. The amplitude-frequency equations are also derived. It is found that the oscillation will increase all the time when both discriminants of the amplitude-frequency equations are positive while the oscillation will decay when the discriminants are negative.

Keywords: Vortex-induced vibrations, marine pipeline, seabed, sub-harmonic resonance.

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1963 Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Size Prepared by Photoreduction Method on Optical Absorption Spectra of TiO2/Ag/N719 Dye Composite Films

Authors: C. Photiphitak, P. Rakkwamsuk, P. Muthitamongkol, C. Sae-Kung, C. Thanachayanont

Abstract:

TiO2/Ag composite films were prepared by incorporating Ag in the pores of mesoporous TiO2 films using a photoreduction method. The Ag nanoparticle sizes were in a range of 3.66-38.56 nm. The TiO2/Ag composite films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscropy (TEM). The TiO2 films and TiO2/Ag composite films were immersed in a 0.3 mM N719 dye solution and characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The TiO2/Ag/N719 composite film showed that an optimal size of Ag nanoparticles was 19.12 nm and, hence, gave the maximum optical absorption spectra. The improved absorption was due to surface plasmon resonance induced by the Ag nanoparticles to enhance the absorption coefficient of the dye.

Keywords: Silver nanoparticle, TiO2/Ag composite films, Optical properties, surface plasmon resonance

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1962 Detailed Sensitive Detection of Impurities in Waste Engine Oils Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Rotating Disk Electrode Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Surface Plasmon Resonance

Authors: Cherry Dhiman, Ayushi Paliwal, Mohd. Shahid Khan, M. N. Reddy, Vinay Gupta, Monika Tomar

Abstract:

The laser based high resolution spectroscopic experimental techniques such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Rotating Disk Electrode Optical Emission spectroscopy (RDE-OES) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) have been used for the study of composition and degradation analysis of used engine oils. Engine oils are mainly composed of aliphatic and aromatics compounds and its soot contains hazardous components in the form of fine, coarse and ultrafine particles consisting of wear metal elements. Such coarse particulates matter (PM) and toxic elements are extremely dangerous for human health that can cause respiratory and genetic disorder in humans. The combustible soot from thermal power plants, industry, aircrafts, ships and vehicles can lead to the environmental and climate destabilization. It contributes towards global pollution for land, water, air and global warming for environment. The detection of such toxicants in the form of elemental analysis is a very serious issue for the waste material management of various organic, inorganic hydrocarbons and radioactive waste elements. In view of such important points, the current study on used engine oils was performed. The fundamental characterization of engine oils was conducted by measuring water content and kinematic viscosity test that proves the crude analysis of the degradation of used engine oils samples. The microscopic quantitative and qualitative analysis was presented by RDE-OES technique which confirms the presence of elemental impurities of Pb, Al, Cu, Si, Fe, Cr, Na and Ba lines for used waste engine oil samples in few ppm. The presence of such elemental impurities was confirmed by LIBS spectral analysis at various transition levels of atomic line. The recorded transition line of Pb confirms the maximum degradation which was found in used engine oil sample no. 3 and 4. Apart from the basic tests, the calculations for dielectric constants and refractive index of the engine oils were performed via SPR analysis.

Keywords: Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, rotating disk electrode optical emission spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance, ICCD spectrometer, Nd:YAG laser, engine oil.

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1961 Fundamental Natural Frequency of Chromite Composite Floor System

Authors: Farhad Abbas Gandomkar, Mona Danesh

Abstract:

This paper aims to determine Fundamental Natural Frequency (FNF) of a structural composite floor system known as Chromite. To achieve this purpose, FNFs of studied panels are determined by development of Finite Element Models (FEMs) in ABAQUS program. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) code in Steel Design Guide Series 11 presents a fundamental formula to calculate FNF of a steel framed floor system. This formula has been used to verify results of the FEMs. The variability in the FNF of the studied system under various parameters such as dimensions of floor, boundary conditions, rigidity of main and secondary beams around the floor, thickness of concrete slab, height of composite joists, distance between composite joists, thickness of top and bottom flanges of the open web steel joists, and adding tie beam perpendicular on the composite joists, is determined. The results show that changing in dimensions of the system, its boundary conditions, rigidity of main beam, and also adding tie beam, significant changes the FNF of the system up to 452.9%, 50.8%, - 52.2%, %52.6%, respectively. In addition, increasing thickness of concrete slab increases the FNF of the system up to 10.8%. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that variation in rigidity of secondary beam, height of composite joist, and distance between composite joists, and thickness of top and bottom flanges of open web steel joists insignificant changes the FNF of the studied system up to -0.02%, -3%, -6.1%, and 0.96%, respectively. Finally, the results of this study help designer predict occurrence of resonance, comfortableness, and design criteria of the studied system.

Keywords: Fundamental natural frequency, chromite composite floor system, finite element method, low and high frequency floors, comfortableness, resonance.

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1960 Shear-Layer Instabilities of a Pulsed Stack-Issued Transverse Jet

Authors: Ching M. Hsu, Rong F. Huang, Michael E. Loretero

Abstract:

Shear-layer instabilities of a pulsed stack-issued transverse jet were studied experimentally in a wind tunnel. Jet pulsations were induced by means of acoustic excitation. Streak pictures of the smoke-flow patterns illuminated by the laser-light sheet in the median plane were recorded with a high-speed digital camera. Instantaneous velocities of the shear-layer instabilities in the flow were digitized by a hot-wire anemometer. By analyzing the streak pictures of the smoke-flow visualization, three characteristic flow modes, synchronized flapping jet, transition, and synchronized shear-layer vortices, are identified in the shear layer of the pulsed stack-issued transverse jet at various excitation Strouhal numbers. The shear-layer instabilities of the pulsed stack-issued transverse jet are synchronized by acoustic excitation except for transition mode. In transition flow mode, the shear-layer vortices would exhibit a frequency that would be twice as great as the acoustic excitation frequency.

Keywords: Acoustic excitation, jet in crossflow, shear-layer instability.

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