Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: throughput

39 APPLE: Providing Absolute and Proportional Throughput Guarantees in Wireless LANs

Authors: Zhijie Ma, Qinglin Zhao, Hongning Dai, Huan Zhang

Abstract:

This paper proposes an APPLE scheme that aims at providing absolute and proportional throughput guarantees, and maximizing system throughput simultaneously for wireless LANs with homogeneous and heterogenous traffic. We formulate our objectives as an optimization problem, present its exact and approximate solutions, and prove the existence and uniqueness of the approximate solution. Simulations validate that APPLE scheme is accurate, and the approximate solution can well achieve the desired objectives already.

Keywords: IEEE 802.11e, throughput guarantee, priority.

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38 Embedded Throughput Improving of Low-rate EDR Packets for Lower-latency

Authors: M. A. M. El-Bendary, A. E. Abu El-Azm, N. A. El-Fishawy, F. Shawky, F. E. El-Samie

Abstract:

With increasing utilization of the wireless devices in different fields such as medical devices and industrial fields, the paper presents a method for simplify the Bluetooth packets with throughput enhancing. The paper studies a vital issue in wireless communications, which is the throughput of data over wireless networks. In fact, the Bluetooth and ZigBee are a Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN). With taking these two systems competition consideration, the paper proposes different schemes for improve the throughput of Bluetooth network over a reliable channel. The proposition depends on the Channel Quality Driven Data Rate (CQDDR) rules, which determines the suitable packet in the transmission process according to the channel conditions. The proposed packet is studied over additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and fading channels. The Experimental results reveal the capability of extension of the PL length by 8, 16, 24 bytes for classic and EDR packets, respectively. Also, the proposed method is suitable for the low throughput Bluetooth.

Keywords: Bluetooth, throughput, adaptive packets, EDRpackets, CQDDR, low latency. Channel condition

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37 Analysis of Delay and Throughput in MANET for DSR Protocol

Authors: Kumar Manoj, Ramesh Kumar, Kumari Arti

Abstract:

A wireless Ad-hoc network consists of wireless nodes communicating without the need for a centralized administration, in which all nodes potentially contribute to the routing process.In this paper, we report the simulation results of four different scenarios for wireless ad hoc networks having thirty nodes. The performances of proposed networks are evaluated in terms of number of hops per route, delay and throughput with the help of OPNET simulator. Channel speed 1 Mbps and simulation time 600 sim-seconds were taken for all scenarios. For the above analysis DSR routing protocols has been used. The throughput obtained from the above analysis (four scenario) are compared as shown in Figure 3. The average media access delay at node_20 for two routes and at node_20 for four different scenario are compared as shown in Figures 4 and 5. It is observed that the throughput will degrade when it will follow different hops for same source to destination (i.e. it has dropped from 1.55 Mbps to 1.43 Mbps which is around 9.7%, and then dropped to 0.48Mbps which is around 35%).

Keywords: Throughput, Delay, DSR, OPNET, MANET, DSSS

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36 Optical Fiber Data Throughput in a Quantum Communication System

Authors: Arash Kosari, Ali Araghi

Abstract:

A mathematical model for an optical-fiber communication channel is developed which results in an expression that calculates the throughput and loss of the corresponding link. The data are assumed to be transmitted by using of separate photons with different polarizations. The derived model also shows the dependency of data throughput with length of the channel and depolarization factor. It is observed that absorption of photons affects the throughput in a more intensive way in comparison with that of depolarization. Apart from that, the probability of depolarization and the absorption of radiated photons are obtained.

Keywords: Absorption, data throughput, depolarization, optical fiber.

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35 A Joint Routing-Scheduling Approach for Throughput Optimization in WMNs

Authors: Hossein Nourkhiz Mahjoub, Mohsen Shiva

Abstract:

Wireless Mesh Networking is a promising proposal for broadband data transmission in a large area with low cost and acceptable QoS. These features- trade offs in WMNs is a hot research field nowadays. In this paper a mathematical optimization framework has been developed to maximize throughput according to upper bound delay constraints. IEEE 802.11 based infrastructure backhauling mode of WMNs has been considered to formulate the MINLP optimization problem. Proposed method gives the full routing and scheduling procedure in WMN in order to obtain mentioned goals.

Keywords: Mixed-Integer Non Linear Programming (MINLP), routing and scheduling, throughput, wireless mesh networks (WMNs)

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34 Throughput Analysis over Power Line Communication Channel in an Electric Noisy Scenario

Authors: Edward P. Guillen, Julián J. López, Cesar Y. Barahona

Abstract:

Powerline Communications –PLC– as an alternative method for broadband networking, has the advantage of transmitting over channels already used for electrical distribution or even transmission. But these channels have been not designed with usual wired channels requirements for broadband applications such as stable impedance or known attenuation, and the network have to reject noises caused by electrical appliances that share the same channel. Noise control standards are difficult to complain or simply do not exist on Latin-American environments. This paper analyzes PLC throughput for home connectivity by probing noisy channel scenarios in a PLC network and the statistical results are shown.

Keywords: Power Line Communications, OFDM, Noise Analysis, Throughput Analysis, PLC, Home Network.

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33 Compact Binary Tree Representation of Logic Function with Enhanced Throughput

Authors: Padmanabhan Balasubramanian, C. Ardil

Abstract:

An effective approach for realizing the binary tree structure, representing a combinational logic functionality with enhanced throughput, is discussed in this paper. The optimization in maximum operating frequency was achieved through delay minimization, which in turn was possible by means of reducing the depth of the binary network. The proposed synthesis methodology has been validated by experimentation with FPGA as the target technology. Though our proposal is technology independent, yet the heuristic enables better optimization in throughput even after technology mapping for such Boolean functionality; whose reduced CNF form is associated with a lesser literal cost than its reduced DNF form at the Boolean equation level. For cases otherwise, our method converges to similar results as that of [12]. The practical results obtained for a variety of case studies demonstrate an improvement in the maximum throughput rate for Spartan IIE (XC2S50E-7FT256) and Spartan 3 (XC3S50-4PQ144) FPGA logic families by 10.49% and 13.68% respectively. With respect to the LUTs and IOBUFs required for physical implementation of the requisite non-regenerative logic functionality, the proposed method enabled savings to the tune of 44.35% and 44.67% respectively, over the existing efficient method available in literature [12].

Keywords: Binary logic tree, FPGA based design, Boolean function, Throughput rate, CNF, DNF.

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32 Production Throughput Modeling under Five Uncertain Variables Using Bayesian Inference

Authors: Amir Azizi, Amir Yazid B. Ali, Loh Wei Ping

Abstract:

Throughput is an important measure of performance of production system. Analyzing and modeling of production throughput is complex in today-s dynamic production systems due to uncertainties of production system. The main reasons are that uncertainties are materialized when the production line faces changes in setup time, machinery break down, lead time of manufacturing, and scraps. Besides, demand changes are fluctuating from time to time for each product type. These uncertainties affect the production performance. This paper proposes Bayesian inference for throughput modeling under five production uncertainties. Bayesian model utilized prior distributions related to previous information about the uncertainties where likelihood distributions are associated to the observed data. Gibbs sampling algorithm as the robust procedure of Monte Carlo Markov chain was employed for sampling unknown parameters and estimating the posterior mean of uncertainties. The Bayesian model was validated with respect to convergence and efficiency of its outputs. The results presented that the proposed Bayesian models were capable to predict the production throughput with accuracy of 98.3%.

Keywords: Bayesian inference, Uncertainty modeling, Monte Carlo Markov chain, Gibbs sampling, Production throughput

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31 Throughput Optimization on Wireless Networks by Increasing the Maximum Transmission Unit

Authors: Edward Guillén, Stephanne Rodríguez, Jhordany Rodríguez

Abstract:

Throughput enhancement can be achieved with two main approaches. The first one is by the increase of transmission rate and the second one is reducing the control traffic. This paper focuses on how the throughput can be enhanced by increasing Maximum Transmission Unit -MTU. Transmission of larger packets can cause a throughput improvement by reducing IP overhead. Analysis results are obtained by a mathematical model and simulation tools with a main focus on wireless channels.

Keywords: 802.11, Maximum Transfer Unit, throughput enhancement, wireless networks.

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30 Studies on Determination of the Optimum Distance Between the Tmotes for Optimum Data Transfer in a Network with WLL Capability

Authors: N C Santhosh Kumar, N K Kishore

Abstract:

Using mini modules of Tmotes, it is possible to automate a small personal area network. This idea can be extended to large networks too by implementing multi-hop routing. Linking the various Tmotes using Programming languages like Nesc, Java and having transmitter and receiver sections, a network can be monitored. It is foreseen that, depending on the application, a long range at a low data transfer rate or average throughput may be an acceptable trade-off. To reduce the overall costs involved, an optimum number of Tmotes to be used under various conditions (Indoor/Outdoor) is to be deduced. By analyzing the data rates or throughputs at various locations of Tmotes, it is possible to deduce an optimal number of Tmotes for a specific network. This paper deals with the determination of optimum distances to reduce the cost and increase the reliability of the entire sensor network with Wireless Local Loop (WLL) capability.

Keywords: Average throughput, data rate, multi-hop routing, optimum data transfer, throughput, Tmotes, wireless local loop.

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29 Design Techniques and Implementation of Low Power High-Throughput Discrete Wavelet Transform Tilters for JPEG 2000 Standard

Authors: Grigorios D. Dimitroulakos, N. D. Zervas, N. Sklavos, Costas E. Goutis

Abstract:

In this paper, the implementation of low power, high throughput convolutional filters for the one dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform and its inverse are presented. The analysis filters have already been used for the implementation of a high performance DWT encoder [15] with minimum memory requirements for the JPEG 2000 standard. This paper presents the design techniques and the implementation of the convolutional filters included in the JPEG2000 standard for the forward and inverse DWT for achieving low-power operation, high performance and reduced memory accesses. Moreover, they have the ability of performing progressive computations so as to minimize the buffering between the decomposition and reconstruction phases. The experimental results illustrate the filters- low power high throughput characteristics as well as their memory efficient operation.

Keywords: Discrete Wavelet Transform; JPEG2000 standard; VLSI design; Low Power-Throughput-optimized filters

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28 Effects of Corruption and Logistics Performance Inefficiencies on Container Throughput: The Latin America Case

Authors: Fernando Seabra, Giulia P. Flores, Karolina C. Gomes

Abstract:

Trade liberalizations measures, as import tariff cuts, are not a sufficient trigger for trade growth. Given that price margins are narrow, traders and cargo operators tend to opt out of markets where the process of goods clearance is slow and costly. Excess paperwork and slow customs dispatch not only lead to institutional breakdowns and corruption but also to increasing transaction cost and trade constraints. The objective of this paper is, therefore, two-fold: First, to evaluate the relationship between institutional and infrastructural performance indexes and trade growth in container throughput; and, second, to investigate the causes for differences in container demurrage and detention fees in Latin American countries (using other emerging countries as benchmarking). The analysis is focused on manufactured goods, typically transported by containers. Institutional and infrastructure bottlenecks and, therefore, the country logistics efficiency – measured by the Logistics Performance Index (LPI, World Bank-WB) – are compared with other indexes, such as the Doing Business index (WB) and the Corruption Perception Index (Transparency International). The main results based on the comparison between Latin American countries and the others emerging countries point out in that the growth in containers trade is directly related to LPI performance. It has also been found that the main hypothesis is valid as aspects that more specifically identify trade facilitation and corruption are significant drivers of logistics performance. The exam of port efficiency (demurrage and detention fees) has demonstrated that not necessarily higher level of efficiency is related to lower charges; however, reductions in fees have been more significant within non-Latin American emerging countries.

Keywords: Container throughput, logistics performance, corruption, Latin America.

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27 A Novel Security Framework for the Web System

Authors: J. P. Dubois, P. G. Jreije

Abstract:

In this paper, a framework is presented trying to make the most secure web system out of the available generic and web security technology which can be used as a guideline for organizations building their web sites. The framework is designed to provide necessary security services, to address the known security threats, and to provide some cover to other security problems especially unknown threats. The requirements for the design are discussed which guided us to the design of secure web system. The designed security framework is then simulated and various quality of service (QoS) metrics are calculated to measure the performance of this system.

Keywords: Web Security, Internet Voting, Firewall, QoS, Latency, Utilization, Throughput.

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26 An Adaptive ARQ – HARQ Method with Two RS Codes

Authors: Michal Martinovič, Jaroslav Polec, Kvetoslava Kotuliaková

Abstract:

In this paper we proposed multistage adaptive ARQ/HARQ/HARQ scheme. This method combines pure ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQuest) mode in low channel bit error rate and hybrid ARQ method using two different Reed-Solomon codes in middle and high error rate conditions. It follows, that our scheme has three stages. The main goal is to increase number of states in adaptive HARQ methods and be able to achieve maximum throughput for every channel bit error rate. We will prove the proposal by calculation and then with simulations in land mobile satellite channel environment. Optimization of scheme system parameters is described in order to maximize the throughput in the whole defined Signal-to- Noise Ratio (SNR) range in selected channel environment.

Keywords: Signal-to-noise ratio, throughput, forward error correction (FEC), pure and hybrid automatic repeat request (ARQ).

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25 Overload Control in a SIP Signaling Network

Authors: Masataka Ohta

Abstract:

The Internet telephony employs a new type of Internet communication on which a mutual communication is realized by establishing sessions. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is used to establish sessions between end-users. For unreliable transmission (UDP), SIP message should be retransmitted when it is lost. The retransmissions increase a load of the SIP signaling network, and sometimes lead to performance degradation when a network is overloaded. The paper proposes an overload control for a SIP signaling network to protect from a performance degradation. Introducing two thresholds in a queue of a SIP proxy server, the SIP proxy server detects a congestion. Once congestion is detected, a SIP signaling network restricts to make new calls. The proposed overload control is evaluated using the network simulator (ns-2). With simulation results, the paper shows the proposed overload control works well.

Keywords: SIP signalling congestion overload control retransmission throughput simulation.

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24 Weighted k-Nearest-Neighbor Techniques for High Throughput Screening Data

Authors: Kozak K, M. Kozak, K. Stapor

Abstract:

The k-nearest neighbors (knn) is a simple but effective method of classification. In this paper we present an extended version of this technique for chemical compounds used in High Throughput Screening, where the distances of the nearest neighbors can be taken into account. Our algorithm uses kernel weight functions as guidance for the process of defining activity in screening data. Proposed kernel weight function aims to combine properties of graphical structure and molecule descriptors of screening compounds. We apply the modified knn method on several experimental data from biological screens. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: biological screening, kernel methods, KNN, QSAR

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23 A Survey on Opportunistic Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: R. Poonkuzhali, M. Y. Sanavullah, A. Sabari, T. Dhivyaa

Abstract:

Opportunistic Routing (OR) increases the transmission reliability and network throughput. Traditional routing protocols preselects one or more predetermined nodes before transmission starts and uses a predetermined neighbor to forward a packet in each hop. The opportunistic routing overcomes the drawback of unreliable wireless transmission by broadcasting one transmission can be overheard by manifold neighbors. The first cooperation-optimal protocol for Multirate OR (COMO) used to achieve social efficiency and prevent the selfish behavior of the nodes. The novel link-correlation-aware OR improves the performance by exploiting the miscellaneous low correlated forward links. Context aware Adaptive OR (CAOR) uses active suppression mechanism to reduce packet duplication. The Context-aware OR (COR) can provide efficient routing in mobile networks. By using Cooperative Opportunistic Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (CORMAN), the problem of opportunistic data transfer can be tackled. While comparing to all the protocols, COMO is the best as it achieves social efficiency and prevents the selfish behavior of the nodes.

Keywords: CAOR, COMO, COR, CORMAN, MANET, Opportunistic Routing, Reliability, Throughput.

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22 Performance Analysis of a WiMax/Wi-Fi System Whilst Streaming a Video Conference Application

Authors: Patrice Obinna Umenne, Marcel O. Odhiambo

Abstract:

WiMAX and Wi-Fi are considered as the promising broadband access solutions for wireless MAN’s and LANs, respectively. In the recent works WiMAX is considered suitable as a backhaul service to connect multiple dispersed Wi-Fi ‘hotspots’. Hence a new integrated WiMAX/Wi-Fi architecture has been proposed in literatures. In this paper the performance of an integrated WiMAX/Wi-Fi network has been investigated by streaming a video conference application. The difference in performance between the two protocols is compared with respect to video conferencing. The Heterogeneous network was simulated in the OPNET simulator.

Keywords: Throughput, delay, delay variance, packet loss, Quality of Service (QoS).

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21 Analysis of Equal cost Adaptive Routing Algorithms using Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Protocols

Authors: ER. Yashpaul Singh, A. Swarup

Abstract:

This research paper evaluates and compares the performance of equal cost adaptive multi-path routing algorithms taking the transport protocols TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) using network simulator ns2 and concludes which one is better.

Keywords: Multi-path routing algorithm, Datagram, Virtual Circuit, Throughput, Network services.

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20 Design and Microfabrication of a High Throughput Thermal Cycling Platform with Various Annealing Temperatures

Authors: Sin J. Chen, Jyh J. Chen

Abstract:

This study describes a micro device integrated with multi-chamber for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with different annealing temperatures. The device consists of the reaction polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chip, a cover glass chip, and is equipped with cartridge heaters, fans, and thermocouples for temperature control. In this prototype, commercial software is utilized to determine the geometric and operational parameters those are responsible for creating the denaturation, annealing, and extension temperatures within the chip. Two cartridge heaters are placed at two sides of the chip and maintained at two different temperatures to achieve a thermal gradient on the chip during the annealing step. The temperatures on the chip surface are measured via an infrared imager. Some thermocouples inserted into the reaction chambers are used to obtain the transient temperature profiles of the reaction chambers during several thermal cycles. The experimental temperatures compared to the simulated results show a similar trend. This work should be interesting to persons involved in the high-temperature based reactions and genomics or cell analysis.

Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction, thermal cycles, temperature gradient, micro-fabrication.

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19 A Comparative Study of Novel Opportunistic Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: R. Poonkuzhali, M. Y. Sanavullah, M. R. Gurupriya

Abstract:

Opportunistic routing is used, where the network has the features like dynamic topology changes and intermittent network connectivity. In Delay tolerant network or Disruption tolerant network opportunistic forwarding technique is widely used. The key idea of opportunistic routing is selecting forwarding nodes to forward data packets and coordination among these nodes to avoid duplicate transmissions. This paper gives the analysis of pros and cons of various opportunistic routing techniques used in MANET.

Keywords: Expected Transmission Count (ETX), Opportunistic routing, Proactive Source Routing (PSR), throughput.

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18 Fairness and Quality of Service Issues and Analysis of IEEE 802.11e Wireless LAN

Authors: Ammar Abbas, Ibrahim M. Hussain, Osama M. Hussain

Abstract:

The IEEE 802.11e which is an enhanced version of the 802.11 WLAN standards incorporates the Quality of Service (QoS) which makes it a better choice for multimedia and real time applications. In this paper we study various aspects concerned with 802.11e standard. Further, the analysis results for this standard are compared with the legacy 802.11 standard. Simulation results show that IEEE 802.11e out performs legacy IEEE 802.11 in terms of quality of service due to its flow differentiated channel allocation and better queue management architecture. We also propose a method to improve the unfair allocation of bandwidth for downlink and uplink channels by varying the medium access priority level.

Keywords: Wireless, IEEE 802.11e, EDCA, Throughput, QoS, MAC.

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17 VoIP Networks Performance Analysis with Encryption Systems

Authors: Edward Paul Guillen, Diego Alejandro Chacon

Abstract:

The VoIP networks as alternative method to traditional PSTN system has been implemented in a wide variety of structures with multiple protocols, codecs, software and hardware–based distributions. The use of cryptographic techniques let the users to have a secure communication, but the calculate throughput as well as the QoS parameters are affected according to the used algorithm. This paper analyzes the VoIP throughput and the QoS parameters with different commercial encryption methods. The measurement–based approach uses lab scenarios to simulate LAN and WAN environments. Security mechanisms such as TLS, SIAX2, SRTP, IPSEC and ZRTP are analyzed with μ-LAW and GSM codecs.

Keywords: VoIP, Secure VoIP, Throughput Analysis, VoIP QoS evaluation

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16 The Operating Behaviour of Unbalanced Unpaced Merging Assembly Lines

Authors: S. Shaaban, T. McNamara, S. Hudson

Abstract:

This paper reports on the performance of deliberately unbalanced, reliable, non-automated and assembly lines that merge, whose workstations differ in terms of their mean operation times. Simulations are carried out on 5- and 8-station lines with 1, 2 and 4 buffer capacity units, % degrees of line imbalance of 2, 5 and 12, and 24 different patterns of means imbalance. Data on two performance measures, namely throughput and average buffer level were gathered, statistically analysed and compared to a merging balanced line counterpart. It was found that the best configurations are a balanced line arrangement and a monotone decreasing order for each of the parallel merging lines, with the first generally resulting in a lower throughput and the second leading to a lower average buffer level than those of a balanced line.

Keywords: Average buffer level, merging lines, simulation, throughput, unbalanced.

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15 Performance Modeling for Web based J2EE and .NET Applications

Authors: Shankar Kambhampaty, Venkata Srinivas Modali

Abstract:

When architecting an application, key nonfunctional requirements such as performance, scalability, availability and security, which influence the architecture of the system, are some times not adequately addressed. Performance of the application may not be looked at until there is a concern. There are several problems with this reactive approach. If the system does not meet its performance objectives, the application is unlikely to be accepted by the stakeholders. This paper suggests an approach for performance modeling for web based J2EE and .Net applications to address performance issues early in the development life cycle. It also includes a Performance Modeling Case Study, with Proof-of-Concept (PoC) and implementation details for .NET and J2EE platforms.

Keywords: Performance Measures, Performance Modeling, Performance Testing, Resource Utilization, Response Time, Throughput.

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14 Restricted Pedestrian Flow Performance Measures during Egress from a Complex Facility

Authors: Luthful A. Kawsar, Noraida A. Ghani, Anton A. Kamil, Adli Mustafa

Abstract:

In this paper, we use an M/G/C/C state dependent queuing model within a complex network topology to determine the different performance measures for pedestrian traffic flow. The occupants in this network topology need to go through some source corridors, from which they can choose their suitable exiting corridors. The performance measures were calculated using arrival rates that maximize the throughputs of source corridors. In order to increase the throughput of the network, the result indicates that the flow direction of pedestrian through the corridors has to be restricted and the arrival rates to the source corridor need to be controlled.

Keywords: Arrival rate, Multiple arrival sources, Probability of blocking, State dependent queuing networks, Throughput.

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13 Chikungunya Protease Domain–High Throughput Virtual Screening

Authors: Surender Singh Jadav, Venkatesan Jayaprakash, Arijit Basu, Barij Nayan Sinha

Abstract:

Chikungunya virus (CHICKV) is an arboviruses belonging to family Tagoviridae and is transmitted to human through by mosquito (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) bite. A large outbreak of chikungunya has been reported in India between 2006 and 2007, along with several other countries from South-East Asia and for the first time in Europe. It was for the first time that the CHICKV outbreak has been reported with mortality from Reunion Island and increased mortality from Asian countries. CHICKV affects all age groups, and currently there are no specific drugs or vaccine to cure the disease. The need of antiviral agents for the treatment of CHICKV infection and the success of virtual screening against many therapeutically valuable targets led us to carry out the structure based drug design against Chikungunya nSP2 protease (PDB: 3TRK). Highthroughput virtual screening of publicly available databases, ZINC12 and BindingDB, has been carried out using the Openeye tools and Schrodinger LLC software packages. Openeye Filter program has been used to filter the database and the filtered outputs were docked using HTVS protocol implemented in GLIDE package of Schrodinger LLC. The top HITS were further used for enriching the similar molecules from the database through vROCS; a shape based screening protocol implemented in Openeye. The approach adopted has provided different scaffolds as HITS against CHICKV protease. Three scaffolds: Indole, Pyrazole and Sulphone derivatives were selected based on the docking score and synthetic feasibility. Derivatives of Pyrazole were synthesized and submitted for antiviral screening against CHICKV.

Keywords: Chikungunya, nsP2 protease, ADME filter, HTVS, Docking, Active site.

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12 Comparative Performance Analysis of Fiber Delay Line Based Buffer Architectures for Contention Resolution in Optical WDM Networks

Authors: Manoj Kumar Dutta

Abstract:

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology is the most promising technology for the proper utilization of huge raw bandwidth provided by an optical fiber. One of the key problems in implementing the all-optical WDM network is the packet contention. This problem can be solved by several different techniques. In time domain approach the packet contention can be reduced by incorporating Fiber Delay Lines (FDLs) as optical buffer in the switch architecture. Different types of buffering architectures are reported in literatures. In the present paper a comparative performance analysis of three most popular FDL architectures are presented in order to obtain the best contention resolution performance. The analysis is further extended to consider the effect of different fiber non-linearities on the network performance.

Keywords: WDM network, contention resolution, optical buffering, non-linearity, throughput.

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11 The Performance of an 802.11g/Wi-Fi Network Whilst Streaming Voice Content

Authors: P. O. Umenne, Odhiambo Marcel O.

Abstract:

A simple network model is developed in OPNET to study the performance of the Wi-Fi protocol. The model is simulated in OPNET and performance factors such as load, throughput and delay are analysed from the model. Four applications such as oracle, http, ftp and voice are applied over the Wireless LAN network to determine the throughput. The voice application utilises a considerable amount of bandwidth of up to 5Mbps, as a result the 802.11g standard of the Wi-Fi protocol was chosen which can support a data rate of up to 54Mbps. Results indicate that when the load in the Wi-Fi network is increased the queuing delay on the point-to-point links in the Wi-Fi network significantly reduces until it is comparable to that of WiMAX. In conclusion, the queuing delay of the Wi-Fi protocol for the network model simulated was about 0.00001secs comparable to WiMAX network values.

Keywords: WLAN-Wireless Local Area Network, MIMO-Multiple Input Multiple Output, Queuing delay, Throughput, AP-Access Point, IP-Internet protocol, TOS-Type of Service.

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10 Simulations of Routing Protocols of Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Kristoffer Clyde Magsino, H. Srikanth Kamath

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network is widely used in electronics. Wireless sensor networks are now used in many applications including military, environmental, healthcare applications, home automation and traffic control. We will study one area of wireless sensor networks, which is the routing protocol. Routing protocols are needed to send data between sensor nodes and the base station. In this paper, we will discuss two routing protocols, such as datacentric and hierarchical routing protocol. We will show the output of the protocols using the NS-2 simulator. This paper will compare the simulation output of the two routing protocol using Nam. We will simulate using Xgraph to find the throughput and delay of the protocol.

Keywords: data-centric routing protocol, hierarchical routingprotocol, Nam, NS-2, Routing Protocol, sensor nodes, SPIN, throughput, Xgraph

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