Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: temperature rise

29 Electrical Energy Harvesting Using Thermo Electric Generator for Rural Communities in India

Authors: N. Nandan A. M. Nagaraj, L. Sanjeev Kumar

Abstract:

In the rapidly growing population, the requirement of electrical power is increasing day by day. In order to meet the needs, we need to generate the power using alternate method. In this paper, a presentable approach is developed by analysis and can be implemented by utilizing heat energy, which is generated in numerous ways in some of the rural areas in India. The thermoelectric generator unit will be developed by combing with control circuits and converts, which is used to light the LED lamps. The temperature difference which is available in the kitchens, especially the exhaust pipes/chimneys of wooden fire stoves, where more heat is dissipated into the atmosphere, can be utilized for electrical power generation. Hence, the temperature rise of surroundings atmosphere can be reduced.

Keywords: Thermoelectric generator, LED, converts, temperature.

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28 A Multigrid Approach for Three-Dimensional Inverse Heat Conduction Problems

Authors: Jianhua Zhou, Yuwen Zhang

Abstract:

A two-step multigrid approach is proposed to solve the inverse heat conduction problem in a 3-D object under laser irradiation. In the first step, the location of the laser center is estimated using a coarse and uniform grid system. In the second step, the front-surface temperature is recovered in good accuracy using a multiple grid system in which fine mesh is used at laser spot center to capture the drastic temperature rise in this region but coarse mesh is employed in the peripheral region to reduce the total number of sensors required. The effectiveness of the two-step approach and the multiple grid system are demonstrated by the illustrative inverse solutions. If the measurement data for the temperature and heat flux on the back surface do not contain random error, the proposed multigrid approach can yield more accurate inverse solutions. When the back-surface measurement data contain random noise, accurate inverse solutions cannot be obtained if both temperature and heat flux are measured on the back surface.

Keywords: Conduction, inverse problems, conjugated gradient method, laser.

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27 Improving the Optoacoustic Signal by Monitoring the Changes of Coupling Medium

Authors: P. Prasannakumar, L. Myoung Young, G. Seung Kye, P. Sang Hun, S. Chul Gyu

Abstract:

In this paper, we discussed the coupling medium in the optoacoustic imaging. The coupling medium is placed between the scanned object and the ultrasound transducers. Water with varying temperature was used as the coupling medium. The water temperature is gradually varied between 25 to 40 degrees. This heating process is taken with care in order to avoid the bubble formation. Rise in the photoacoustic signal is noted through an unfocused transducer with frequency of 2.25 MHz as the temperature increases. The temperature rise is monitored using a NTC thermistor and the values in degrees are calculated using an embedded evaluation kit. Also the temperature is transmitted to PC through a serial communication. All these processes are synchronized using a trigger signal from the laser source.

Keywords: Embedded, optoacoustic, ultrasound, unfocused transducer.

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26 Study of the Process of Climate Change According to Data Simulation Using LARS-WG Software during 2010-2030: Case Study of Semnan Province

Authors: Leila Rashidian

Abstract:

Temperature rise on Earth has had harmful effects on the Earth's surface and has led to change in precipitation patterns all around the world. The present research was aimed to study the process of climate change according to the data simulation in future and compare these parameters with current situation in the studied stations in Semnan province including Garmsar, Shahrood and Semnan. In this regard, LARS-WG software, HADCM3 model and A2 scenario were used for the 2010-2030 period. In this model, climatic parameters such as maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and radiation were used daily. The obtained results indicated that there will be a 4.4% increase in precipitation in Semnan province compared with the observed data, and in general, there will be a 1.9% increase in temperature. This temperature rise has significant impact on precipitation patterns. Most of precipitation will be raining (torrential rains in some cases). According to the results, from west to east, the country will experience more temperature rise and will be warmer.

Keywords: Climate change, Semnan province, LARS-WG model, climate parameters, HADCM3 model.

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25 Laser Keratoplasty in Human Eye Considering the Fluid Aqueous Humor and Vitreous Humor Fluid Flow

Authors: Dara Singh, Keikhosrow Firouzbakhsh, Mohammad Taghi Ahmadian

Abstract:

In this paper, conventional laser Keratoplasty surgeries in the human eye are studied. For this purpose, a validated 3D finite volume model of the human eye is introduced. In this model the fluid flow has also been considered. The discretized domain of the human eye incorporates a bio-heat transfer equation coupled with a Boussinesq equation. Both continuous and pulsed lasers have been modeled and the results are compared. Moreover, two different conventional surgical positions that are upright and recumbent are compared for these laser therapies. The simulation results show that in these conventional surgeries, the temperature rises above the critical values at the laser insertion areas. However, due to the short duration and the localized nature, the potential damages are restricted to very small regions and can be ignored. The conclusion is that the present day lasers are acceptably safe to the human eye.

Keywords: Eye, heat-transfer, keratoplasty laser, surgery.

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24 Thermal and Starvation Effects on Lubricated Elliptical Contacts at High Rolling/Sliding Speeds

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Surjit Angra

Abstract:

The objective of this theoretical study is to develop simple design formulas for the prediction of minimum film thickness and maximum mean film temperature rise in lightly loaded high-speed rolling/sliding lubricated elliptical contacts incorporating starvation effect. Herein, the reported numerical analysis focuses on thermoelastohydrodynamically lubricated rolling/sliding elliptical contacts, considering the Newtonian rheology of lubricant for wide range of operating parameters, namely load characterized by Hertzian pressure (PH = 0.01 GPa to 0.10 GPa), rolling speed (>10 m/s), slip parameter (S varies up to 1.0), and ellipticity ratio (k = 1 to 5). Starvation is simulated by systematically reducing the inlet supply. This analysis reveals that influences of load, rolling speed, and level of starvation are significant on the minimum film thickness. However, the maximum mean film temperature rise is strongly influenced by slip in addition to load, rolling speed, and level of starvation. In the presence of starvation, reduction in minimum film thickness and increase in maximum mean film temperature are observed. Based on the results of this study, empirical relations are developed for the prediction of dimensionless minimum film thickness and dimensionless maximum mean film temperature rise at the contacts in terms of various operating parameters.

Keywords: Starvation, lubrication, elliptical contact, traction, minimum film thickness.

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23 Effect of Collector Aspect Ratio on the Thermal Performance of Wavy Finned Absorber Solar Air Heater

Authors: Abhishek Priyam, Prabha Chand

Abstract:

A theoretical investigation on the effect of collector aspect ratio on the thermal performance of wavy finned absorber solar air heaters has been performed. For the constant collector area, the various performance parameters have been calculated for plane and wavy finned solar air heaters. It has been found that the performance of wavy finned solar air heater improved with the increase in the collector aspect ratio. The performance of wavy finned solar air heater has been found 30 percent higher than those of plane solar air heater. The obtained results for wavy fin solar air heaters are compared with the available experimental data of most common type solar air heaters.

Keywords: Wavy fin, aspect ratio, solar air heater, thermal efficiency, collector efficiency factor, temperature rise.

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22 Effect of Sewing Speed on the Physical Properties of Firefighter Sewing Threads

Authors: Adnan Mazari, Engin Akcagun, Antonin Havelka, Funda Buyuk Mazari, Pavel Kejzlar

Abstract:

This article experimentally investigates various physical properties of special fire retardant sewing threads under different sewing speeds. The aramid threads are common for sewing the fire-fighter clothing due to high strength and high melting temperature. 3 types of aramid threads with different linear densities are used for sewing at different speed of 2000 to 4000 r/min. The needle temperature is measured at different speeds of sewing and tensile properties of threads are measured before and after the sewing process respectively. The results shows that the friction and abrasion during the sewing process causes a significant loss to the tensile properties of the threads and needle temperature rises to nearly 300oC at 4000 r/min of machine speed. The Scanning electron microscope images are taken before and after the sewing process and shows no melting spots but significant damage to the yarn. It is also found that machine speed of 2000r/min is ideal for sewing firefighter clothing for higher tensile properties and production.

Keywords: Kevlar, needle temperature, Nomex, sewing.

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21 Studying the Temperature Field of Hypersonic Vehicle Structure with Aero-Thermo-Elasticity Deformation

Authors: Geng Xiangren, Liu Lei, Gui Ye-Wei, Tang Wei, Wang An-ling

Abstract:

The malfunction of thermal protection system (TPS) caused by aerodynamic heating is a latent trouble to aircraft structure safety. Accurately predicting the structure temperature field is quite important for the TPS design of hypersonic vehicle. Since Thornton’s work in 1988, the coupled method of aerodynamic heating and heat transfer has developed rapidly. However, little attention has been paid to the influence of structural deformation on aerodynamic heating and structural temperature field. In the flight, especially the long-endurance flight, the structural deformation, caused by the aerodynamic heating and temperature rise, has a direct impact on the aerodynamic heating and structural temperature field. Thus, the coupled interaction cannot be neglected. In this paper, based on the method of static aero-thermo-elasticity, considering the influence of aero-thermo-elasticity deformation, the aerodynamic heating and heat transfer coupled results of hypersonic vehicle wing model were calculated. The results show that, for the low-curvature region, such as fuselage or center-section wing, structure deformation has little effect on temperature field. However, for the stagnation region with high curvature, the coupled effect is not negligible. Thus, it is quite important for the structure temperature prediction to take into account the effect of elastic deformation. This work has laid a solid foundation for improving the prediction accuracy of the temperature distribution of aircraft structures and the evaluation capacity of structural performance.

Keywords: Aero-thermo-elasticity, elastic deformation, structural temperature, multi-field coupling.

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20 Performance Analysis of a Single-Phase Thermosyphon Solar Water Heating System

Authors: S. Sadhishkumar, T. Balusamy

Abstract:

A single-phase closed thermosyphon has been fabricated and experimented to utilize solar energy for water heating. The working fluid of the closed thermosyphon is heated at the flatplate collector and the hot water goes to the water tank due to density gradient caused by temperature differences. This experimental work was done using insulated water tank and insulated connecting pipe between the tank and the flat-plate collector. From the collected data, performance parameters such as instantaneous collector efficiency and heat removal factor are calculated. In this study, the effects of glazing were also observed. The water temperature rise and the maximum instantaneous efficiency obtained from this experiment with glazing using insulated water tank and insulated connecting pipe are 17°C in a period of 5 hours and 60% respectively. Whereas the water temperature rise and the maximum instantaneous efficiency obtained from this experiment with glazing using non-insulated water tank and non-insulated connecting pipe are 14°C in a period of 5 hours and 39% respectively.

Keywords: Solar water heating systems, Single-phase thermosyphon, Flat-plate collector, Insulated tank and pipe.

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19 Influence of Optical Fluence Distribution on Photoacoustic Imaging

Authors: Mohamed K. Metwally, Sherif H. El-Gohary, Kyung Min Byun, Seung Moo Han, Soo Yeol Lee, Min Hyoung Cho, Gon Khang, Jinsung Cho, Tae-Seong Kim

Abstract:

Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a non-invasive and non-ionizing imaging modality that combines the absorption contrast of light with ultrasound resolution. Laser is used to deposit optical energy into a target (i.e., optical fluence). Consequently, the target temperature rises, and then thermal expansion occurs that leads to generating a PA signal. In general, most image reconstruction algorithms for PAI assume uniform fluence within an imaging object. However, it is known that optical fluence distribution within the object is non-uniform. This could affect the reconstruction of PA images. In this study, we have investigated the influence of optical fluence distribution on PA back-propagation imaging using finite element method. The uniform fluence was simulated as a triangular waveform within the object of interest. The non-uniform fluence distribution was estimated by solving light propagation within a tissue model via Monte Carlo method. The results show that the PA signal in the case of non-uniform fluence is wider than the uniform case by 23%. The frequency spectrum of the PA signal due to the non-uniform fluence has missed some high frequency components in comparison to the uniform case. Consequently, the reconstructed image with the non-uniform fluence exhibits a strong smoothing effect.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, Fluence Distribution, Monte Carlo Method, Photoacoustic Imaging.

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18 Second-Order Slip Flow and Heat Transfer in a Long Isoflux Microchannel

Authors: Huei Chu Weng

Abstract:

This paper presents a study on the effect of second-order slip on forced convection through a long isoflux heated or cooled planar microchannel. The fully developed solutions of flow and thermal fields are analytically obtained on the basis of the second-order Maxwell-Burnett slip and local heat flux boundary conditions. Results reveal that when the average flow velocity increases or the wall heat flux amount decreases, the role of thermal creep becomes more insignificant, while the effect of second-order slip becomes larger. The second-order term in the Deissler slip boundary condition is found to contribute a positive velocity slip and then to lead to a lower pressure drop as well as a lower temperature rise for the heated-wall case or to a higher temperature rise for the cooled-wall case. These findings are contrary to predictions made by the Karniadakis slip model.

Keywords: Microfluidics, forced convection, thermal creep, second-order boundary conditions.

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17 Effect of DG Installation in Distribution System for Voltage Monitoring Scheme

Authors: S. R. A. Rahim, I. Musirin, M. M. Othman, M. H. Hussain

Abstract:

Loss minimization is a long progressing issue mainly in distribution system. Nevertheless its effect led to temperature rise due to significant voltage drop through the distribution line. Thus, compensation scheme should be proper scheduled in the attempt to alleviate the voltage drop phenomenon. Distributed generation has been profoundly known for voltage profile improvement; provided that over-compensation or under-compensation phenomena are avoided. This paper addresses the issue of voltage improvement through different type DG installation. In ensuring optimal sizing and location of the DGs, pre-developed EMEFA technique was made use for this purpose. Incremental loading condition subjected to the system is the concern such that it is beneficial to the power system operator.

Keywords: Distributed generation, EMEFA, power loss, voltage profile.

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16 Effect of Scale on Slab Heat Transfer in a Walking Beam Type Reheating Furnace

Authors: Man Young Kim

Abstract:

In this work, the effects of scale on thermal behavior of the slab in a walking-beam type reheating furnace is studied by considering scale formation and growth in a furnace environment. Also, mathematical heat transfer model to predict the thermal radiation in a complex shaped reheating furnace with slab and skid buttons is developed with combined nongray WSGGM and blocked-off solution procedure. The model can attack the heat flux distribution within the furnace and the temperature distribution in the slab throughout the reheating furnace process by considering the heat exchange between the slab and its surroundings, including the radiant heat transfer among the slabs, the skids, the hot combustion gases and the furnace wall as well as the gas convective heat transfer in the furnace. With the introduction of the mathematical formulations validation of the present numerical model is conducted by calculating two example problems of blocked-off and nongray gas radiative heat transfer. After discussing the formation and growth of the scale on the slab surface, slab heating characteristics with scale is investigated in terms of temperature rise with time. 

Keywords: Reheating Furnace, Scale, Steel Slab, Radiative Heat Transfer, WSGGM.

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15 Combining Molecular Statics with Heat Transfer Finite Difference Method for Analysis of Nanoscale Orthogonal Cutting of Single-Crystal Silicon Temperature Field

Authors: Zone-Ching Lin, Meng-Hua Lin, Ying-Chih Hsu

Abstract:

This paper uses quasi-steady molecular statics model and diamond tool to carry out simulation temperature rise of nanoscale orthogonal cutting single-crystal silicon. It further qualitatively analyzes temperature field of silicon workpiece without considering heat transfer and considering heat transfer. This paper supposes that the temperature rise of workpiece is mainly caused by two heat sources: plastic deformation heat and friction heat. Then, this paper develops a theoretical model about production of the plastic deformation heat and friction heat during nanoscale orthogonal cutting. After the increased temperature produced by these two heat sources are added up, the acquired total temperature rise at each atom of the workpiece is substituted in heat transfer finite difference equation to carry out heat transfer and calculates the temperature field in each step and makes related analysis.

Keywords: Quasi-steady molecular statics, Nanoscale orthogonal cutting, Finite difference, Temperature.

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14 Thermal Analysis of a Sliding Electric Contact System Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Adrian T. Pleșca

Abstract:

In this paper a three dimensional thermal model of a sliding contact system is proposed for both steady-state or transient conditions. The influence of contact force, electric current and ambient temperature on the temperature distribution, has been investigated. A thermal analysis of the different type of the graphite material of fixed electric contact and its influence on contact system temperature rise, has been performed. To validate the three dimensional thermal model, some experimental tests have been done. There is a good correlation between experimental and simulation results.

Keywords: Sliding electric contact, temperature distribution, thermal analysis.

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13 Thermal Analysis of the Fuse with Unequal Fuse Links Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Adrian T.Pleşca

Abstract:

In this paper a three dimensional thermal model of high breaking capacity fuse with unequal fuse links is proposed for both steady-state or transient conditions. The influence of ambient temperature and electric current on the temperature distribution inside the fuse, has been investigated. A thermal analysis of the unbalanced distribution of the electric current through the fuse elements and their influence on fuse link temperature rise, has been performed. To validate the three dimensional thermal model, some experimental tests have been done. There is a good correlation between experimental and simulation results.

Keywords: Electric fuse, fuse links, temperature distribution, thermal analysis.

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12 The Analysis of the Impact of Urbanization on Urban Meteorology from Urban Growth Management Perspective

Authors: Hansung Wan, Hyungkwan Cho, Kiho Sung, Hongkyu Kim

Abstract:

The amount of urban artificial heat which affects the urban temperature rise in urban meteorology was investigated in order to clarify the relationships between urbanization and urban meteorology in this study. The results of calculation to identify how urban temperate was increased through the establishment of a model for measuring the amount of urban artificial heat and theoretical testing revealed that the amount of urban artificial heat increased urban temperature by plus or minus 0.23 ˚ C in 2007 compared with 1996, statistical methods (correlation and regression analysis) to clarify the relationships between urbanization and urban weather were as follows. New design techniques and urban growth management are necessary from urban growth management point of view suggested from this research at city design phase to decrease urban temperature rise and urban torrential rain which can produce urban disaster in terms of urban meteorology by urbanization.

Keywords: The amount of urban artificial heat, Urban growth management, Urbanization, Urban meteorology

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11 Thermo-mechanical Deformation Behavior of Functionally Graded Rectangular Plates Subjected to Various Boundary Conditions and Loadings

Authors: Mohammad Talha, B. N. Singh

Abstract:

This paper deals with the thermo-mechanical deformation behavior of shear deformable functionally graded ceramicmetal (FGM) plates. Theoretical formulations are based on higher order shear deformation theory with a considerable amendment in the transverse displacement using finite element method (FEM). The mechanical properties of the plate are assumed to be temperaturedependent and graded in the thickness direction according to a powerlaw distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. The temperature field is supposed to be a uniform distribution over the plate surface (XY plane) and varied in the thickness direction only. The fundamental equations for the FGM plates are obtained using variational approach by considering traction free boundary conditions on the top and bottom faces of the plate. A C0 continuous isoparametric Lagrangian finite element with thirteen degrees of freedom per node have been employed to accomplish the results. Convergence and comparison studies have been performed to demonstrate the efficiency of the present model. The numerical results are obtained for different thickness ratios, aspect ratios, volume fraction index and temperature rise with different loading and boundary conditions. Numerical results for the FGM plates are provided in dimensionless tabular and graphical forms. The results proclaim that the temperature field and the gradient in the material properties have significant role on the thermo-mechanical deformation behavior of the FGM plates.

Keywords: Functionally graded material, higher order shear deformation theory, finite element method, independent field variables.

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10 Thermal Buckling of Rectangular FGM Plate with Variation Thickness

Authors: Mostafa Raki, Mahdi Hamzehei

Abstract:

Equilibrium and stability equations of a thin rectangular plate with length a, width b, and thickness h(x)=C1x+C2, made of functionally graded materials under thermal loads are derived based on the first order shear deformation theory. It is assumed that the material properties vary as a power form of thickness coordinate variable z. The derived equilibrium and buckling equations are then solved analytically for a plate with simply supported boundary conditions. One type of thermal loading, uniform temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered, and the buckling temperatures are derived. The influences of the plate aspect ratio, the relative thickness, the gradient index and the transverse shear on buckling temperature difference are all discussed.

Keywords: Stability of plate, thermal buckling, rectangularplate, functionally graded material, first order shear deformationtheory.

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9 Preliminary Results of In-Vitro Skin Tissue Soldering using Gold Nanoshells and ICG Combination

Authors: M. S. Nourbakhsh, M. E. Khosroshahi

Abstract:

Laser soldering is based on applying some soldering material (albumin) onto the approximated edges of the cut and heating the solder (and the underlying tissues) by a laser beam. Endogenous and exogenous materials such as indocyanine green (ICG) are often added to solders to enhance light absorption. Gold nanoshells are new materials which have an optical response dictated by the plasmon resonance. The wavelength at which the resonance occurs depends on the core and shell sizes, allowing nanoshells to be tailored for particular applications. The purposes of this study was use combination of ICG and different concentration of gold nanoshells for skin tissue soldering and also to examine the effect of laser soldering parameters on the properties of repaired skin. Two mixtures of albumin solder and different combinations of ICG and gold nanoshells were prepared. A full thickness incision of 2×20 mm2 was made on the surface and after addition of mixtures it was irradiated by an 810nm diode laser at different power densities. The changes of tensile strength σt due to temperature rise, number of scan (Ns), and scan velocity (Vs) were investigated. The results showed at constant laser power density (I), σt of repaired incisions increases by increasing the concentration of gold nanoshells in solder, Ns and decreasing Vs. It is therefore important to consider the tradeoff between the scan velocity and the surface temperature for achieving an optimum operating condition. In our case this corresponds to σt =1800 gr/cm2 at I~ 47 Wcm-2, T ~ 85ºC, Ns =10 and Vs=0.3mms-1.

Keywords: Tissue soldering, gold nanoshells, indocyanine green, combination, tensile strength.

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8 Thermo-Mechanical Characterization of Skin Laser Soldering using Au Coated SiO2 Nanoshells

Authors: M.S.Nourbakhsh, M.E.khosroshahi

Abstract:

Gold coated silica core nanoparticles have an optical response dictated by the plasmon resonance. The wavelength at which the resonance occurs depends on the core and shell sizes, allowing nanoshells to be tailored for particular applications. The purposes of this study was to synthesize and use different concentration of gold nanoshells as exogenous material for skin tissue soldering and also to examine the effect of laser soldering parameters on the properties of repaired skin. Two mixtures of albumin solder and different concentration of gold nanoshells were prepared. A full thickness incision of 2×20 mm2 was made on the surface and after addition of mixtures it was irradiated by an 810nm diode laser at different power densities. The changes of tensile strength σt due to temperature rise, number of scan (Ns), and scan velocity (Vs) were investigated. The results showed at constant laser power density (I), σt of repaired incisions increases by increasing the concentration of gold nanoshells, Ns and decreasing Vs. It is therefore important to consider the trade off between the scan velocity and the surface temperature for achieving an optimum operating condition. In our case this corresponds to σt =1610 gr/cm2 at I~ 60 Wcm-2, T ~ 65ºC, Ns =10 and Vs=0.2mms-1.

Keywords: Tissue soldering, Diode laser, Gold Nanoshells, Tensile strength

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7 Demulsification of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Microwave Heating Technology

Authors: Abdurahman H. Nour, Rosli M. Yunus, Azhary. H. Nour

Abstract:

The mechanism of microwave heating is essentially that of dielectric heating. After exposing the emulsion to the microwave Electromagnetic (EM) field, molecular rotation and ionic conduction due to the penetration of (EM) into the emulsion are responsible for the internal heating. To determine the capability of microwave technology in demulsification of crude oil emulsions, microwave demulsification method was applied in a 50-50 % and 20- 80 % water-in-oil emulsions with microwave exposure time varied from 20-180 sec. Transient temperature profiles of water-in-oil emulsions inside a cylindrical container were measured. The temperature rise at a given location was almost horizontal (linear). The average rates of temperature increase of 50-50 % and 20-80 % water-in-oil emulsions are 0.351 and 0.437 oC/sec, respectively. The rate of temperature increase of emulsions decreased at higher temperature due to decreasing dielectric loss of water. These results indicate that microwave demulsification of water-in-oil emulsions does not require chemical additions. Microwave has the potential to be used as an alternative way in the demulsification process.

Keywords: Demulsification, temperature profile, emulsion.Microwave heating, dielectric, volume rate.

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6 Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior in Dissimilar Metal Weldment of Stainless Steel and Carbon Steel

Authors: K. Krishnaprasad, Raghu V. Prakash

Abstract:

Constant amplitude fatigue crack growth (FCG) tests were performed on dissimilar metal welded plates of Type 316L Stainless Steel (SS) and IS 2062 Grade A Carbon steel (CS). The plates were welded by TIG welding using SS E309 as electrode. FCG tests were carried on the Side Edge Notch Tension (SENT) specimens of 5 mm thickness, with crack initiator (notch) at base metal region (BM), weld metal region (WM) and heat affected zones (HAZ). The tests were performed at a test frequency of 10 Hz and at load ratios (R) of 0.1 & 0.6. FCG rate was found to increase with stress ratio for weld metals and base metals, where as in case of HAZ, FCG rates were almost equal at high ΔK. FCG rate of HAZ of stainless steel was found to be lowest at low and high ΔK. At intermediate ΔK, WM showed the lowest FCG rate. CS showed higher crack growth rate at all ΔK. However, the scatter band of data was found to be narrow. Fracture toughness (Kc) was found to vary in different locations of weldments. Kc was found lowest for the weldment and highest for HAZ of stainless steel. A novel method of characterizing the FCG behavior using an Infrared thermography (IRT) camera was attempted. By monitoring the temperature rise at the fast moving crack tip region, the amount of plastic deformation was estimated.

Keywords: Dissimilar metal weld, Fatigue Crack Growth, fracture toughness, Infrared thermography.

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5 Ageing and Partial Discharge Patterns in Oil-Impregnated Paper and Pressboard Insulation at High Temperature

Authors: R. H. Khawaja, T. R. Blackburn, M. Rehan Arif

Abstract:

The power transformer is the most expensive, indispensable and arguably the most important equipment item in a power system Insulation failure in transformers can cause long term interruption to supply and loss of revenue and the condition assessment of the insulation is thus an important maintenance procedure. Oil-impregnated transformer insulation consists of mainly organic materials including mineral oil and cellulose-base paper and pressboard. The operating life of cellulose-based insulation, as with most organic insulation, depends heavily on its operating temperature rise above ambient. This paper reports results of a laboratory-based experimental investigation of partial discharge (PD) activity at high temperature in oil-impregnated insulation. The experiments reported here are part an on-going programme aimed at investigating the way in which insulation deterioration can be monitored and quantified by use of partial discharge diagnostics. Partial discharge patterns were recorded and analysed during increasing and decreasing phases of the temperature. The effect of ageing of the insulation on the PD patterns in oil and oil-impregnated insulation are also considered.

Keywords: Ageing, high temperature, PD, oil-impregnated insulation.

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4 Breakdown of LDPE Film under Heavy Water Absorption

Authors: Eka PW, T. Okazaki, Y. Murakami, N., Hozumi, M. Nagao

Abstract:

The breakdown strength characteristic of Low Density Polyethylene films (LDPE) under DC voltage application and the effect of water absorption have been studied. Mainly, our experiment was investigated under two conditions; dry and heavy water absorption. Under DC ramp voltage, the result found that the breakdown strength under heavy water absorption has a lower value than dry condition. In order to clarify the effect, the temperature rise of film was observed using non contact thermograph until the occurrence of the electrical breakdown and the conduction current of the sample was also measured in correlation with the thermograph measurement. From the observations, it was shown that under the heavy water absorption, the hot spot in the samples appeared at lower voltage. At the same voltage the temperature of the hot spot and conduction current was higher than that under the dry condition. The measurement result has a good correlation between the existence of a critical field for conduction current and thermograph observation. In case of the heavy water absorption, the occurrence of the threshold field was earlier than the dry condition as result lead to higher of conduction current and the temperature rise appears after threshold field was significantly increased in increasing of field. The higher temperature rise was caused by the higher current conduction as the result the insulation leads to breakdown to the lower field application.

Keywords: Low density polyethylene, heavy water absorption, conduction current, temperature rise.

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3 Sonochemically Prepared SnO2 Quantum Dots as a Selective and Low Temperature CO Sensor

Authors: S. Mosadegh Sedghi, Y. Mortazavi, A. Khodadadi, O. Alizadeh Sahraei, M. Vesali Naseh

Abstract:

In this study, a low temperature sensor highly selective to CO in presence of methane is fabricated by using 4 nm SnO2 quantum dots (QDs) prepared by sonication assisted precipitation. SnCl4 aqueous solution was precipitated by ammonia under sonication, which continued for 2 h. A part of the sample was then dried and calcined at 400°C for 1.5 h and characterized by XRD and BET. The average particle size and the specific surface area of the SnO2 QDs as well as their sensing properties were compared with the SnO2 nano-particles which were prepared by conventional sol-gel method. The BET surface area of sonochemically as-prepared product and the one calcined at 400°C after 1.5 hr are 257 m2/gr and 212 m2/gr respectively while the specific surface area for SnO2 nanoparticles prepared by conventional sol-gel method is about 80m2/gr. XRD spectra revealed pure crystalline phase of SnO2 is formed for both as-prepared and calcined samples of SnO2 QDs. However, for the sample prepared by sol-gel method and calcined at 400°C SnO crystals are detected along with those of SnO2. Quantum dots of SnO2 show exceedingly high sensitivity to CO with different concentrations of 100, 300 and 1000 ppm in whole range of temperature (25- 350°C). At 50°C a sensitivity of 27 was obtained for 1000 ppm CO, which increases to a maximum of 147 when the temperature rises to 225°C and then drops off while the maximum sensitivity for the SnO2 sample prepared by the sol-gel method was obtained at 300°C with the amount of 47.2. At the same time no sensitivity to methane is observed in whole range of temperatures for SnO2 QDs. The response and recovery times of the sensor sharply decreases with temperature, while the high selectivity to CO does not deteriorate.

Keywords: Sonochemical, SnO2 QDs, SnO2 gas sensor

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2 Induction Motor Design with Limited Harmonic Currents Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: C. Thanga Raj, S. P. Srivastava, Pramod Agarwal

Abstract:

This paper presents an optimal design of poly-phase induction motor using Quadratic Interpolation based Particle Swarm Optimization (QI-PSO). The optimization algorithm considers the efficiency, starting torque and temperature rise as objective function (which are considered separately) and ten performance related items including harmonic current as constraints. The QI-PSO algorithm was implemented on a test motor and the results are compared with the Simulated Annealing (SA) technique, Standard Particle Swarm Optimization (SPSO), and normal design. Some benchmark problems are used for validating QI-PSO. From the test results QI-PSO gave better results and more suitable to motor-s design optimization. Cµ code is used for implementing entire algorithms.

Keywords: Design, harmonics, induction motor, particle swarm optimization

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1 Thermal Modeling of Dry-Transformers and Estimating Temperature Rise

Authors: M. Ghareh, L. Sepahi

Abstract:

Temperature rise in a transformer depends on variety of parameters such as ambient temperature, output current and type of the core. Considering these parameters, temperature rise estimation is still complicated procedure. In this paper, we present a new model based on simple electrical equivalent circuit. This method avoids the complication associated to accurate estimation and is in very good agreement with practice.

Keywords: Thermal modeling, temperature rise, equivalent thermal circuit.

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