Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: supersonic flow

18 Supersonic Flow around a Dihedral Airfoil: Modeling and Experimentation Investigation

Authors: A. Naamane, M. Hasnaoui

Abstract:

Numerical modeling of fluid flows, whether compressible or incompressible, laminar or turbulent presents a considerable contribution in the scientific and industrial fields. However, the development of an approximate model of a supersonic flow requires the introduction of specific and more precise techniques and methods. For this purpose, the object of this paper is modeling a supersonic flow of inviscid fluid around a dihedral airfoil. Based on the thin airfoils theory and the non-dimensional stationary Steichen equation of a two-dimensional supersonic flow in isentropic evolution, we obtained a solution for the downstream velocity potential of the oblique shock at the second order of relative thickness that characterizes a perturbation parameter. This result has been dealt with by the asymptotic analysis and characteristics method. In order to validate our model, the results are discussed in comparison with theoretical and experimental results. Indeed, firstly, the comparison of the results of our model has shown that they are quantitatively acceptable compared to the existing theoretical results. Finally, an experimental study was conducted using the AF300 supersonic wind tunnel. In this experiment, we have considered the incident upstream Mach number over a symmetrical dihedral airfoil wing. The comparison of the different Mach number downstream results of our model with those of the existing theoretical data (relative margin between 0.07% and 4%) and with experimental results (concordance for a deflection angle between 1° and 11°) support the validation of our model with accuracy.

Keywords: Asymptotic modelling, dihedral airfoil, supersonic flow, supersonic wind tunnel.

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17 Study of Unsteady Behaviour of Dynamic Shock Systems in Supersonic Engine Intakes

Authors: Siddharth Ahuja, T. M. Muruganandam

Abstract:

An analytical investigation is performed to study the unsteady response of a one-dimensional, non-linear dynamic shock system to external downstream pressure perturbations in a supersonic flow in a varying area duct. For a given pressure ratio across a wind tunnel, the normal shock's location can be computed as per one-dimensional steady gas dynamics. Similarly, for some other pressure ratio, the location of the normal shock will change accordingly, again computed using one-dimensional gas dynamics. This investigation focuses on the small-time interval between the first steady shock location and the new steady shock location (corresponding to different pressure ratios). In essence, this study aims to shed light on the motion of the shock from one steady location to another steady location. Further, this study aims to create the foundation of the Unsteady Gas Dynamics field enabling further insight in future research work. According to the new pressure ratio, a pressure pulse, generated at the exit of the tunnel which travels and perturbs the shock from its original position, setting it into motion. During such activity, other numerous physical phenomena also happen at the same time. However, three broad phenomena have been focused on, in this study - Traversal of a Wave, Fluid Element Interactions and Wave Interactions. The above mentioned three phenomena create, alter and kill numerous waves for different conditions. The waves which are created by the above-mentioned phenomena eventually interact with the shock and set it into motion. Numerous such interactions with the shock will slowly make it settle into its final position owing to the new pressure ratio across the duct, as estimated by one-dimensional gas dynamics. This analysis will be extremely helpful in the prediction of inlet 'unstart' of the flow in a supersonic engine intake and its prominence with the incoming flow Mach number, incoming flow pressure and the external perturbation pressure is also studied to help design more efficient supersonic intakes for engines like ramjets and scramjets.

Keywords: Analytical investigation, compression and expansion waves, fluid element interactions, shock trajectory, supersonic flow, unsteady gas dynamics, varying area duct, wave interactions.

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16 Effect of Atmospheric Pressure on the Flow at the Outlet of a Propellant Nozzle

Authors: R. Haoui

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to simulate the flow at the exit of Vulcan 1 engine of European launcher Ariane 5. The geometry of the propellant nozzle is already determined using the characteristics method. The pressure in the outlet section of the nozzle is less than atmospheric pressure on the ground, causing the existence of oblique and normal shock waves at the exit. During the rise of the launcher, the atmospheric pressure decreases and the shock wave disappears. The code allows the capture of shock wave at exit of nozzle. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer to ensure convergence and avoid the calculation instabilities. The Courant, Friedrichs and Lewy coefficient (CFL) and mesh size level are selected to ensure the numerical convergence. The nonlinear partial derivative equations system which governs this flow is solved by an explicit unsteady numerical scheme by the finite volume method. The accuracy of the solution depends on the size of the mesh and also the step of time used in the discretized equations. We have chosen in this study the mesh that gives us a stationary solution with good accuracy.

Keywords: Launchers, supersonic flow, finite volume, nozzles, shock wave.

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15 Optical Flow Technique for Supersonic Jet Measurements

Authors: H. D. Lim, Jie Wu, T. H. New, Shengxian Shi

Abstract:

This paper outlines the development of an experimental technique in quantifying supersonic jet flows, in an attempt to avoid seeding particle problems frequently associated with particle-image velocimetry (PIV) techniques at high Mach numbers. Based on optical flow algorithms, the idea behind the technique involves using high speed cameras to capture Schlieren images of the supersonic jet shear layers, before they are subjected to an adapted optical flow algorithm based on the Horn-Schnuck method to determine the associated flow fields. The proposed method is capable of offering full-field unsteady flow information with potentially higher accuracy and resolution than existing point-measurements or PIV techniques. Preliminary study via numerical simulations of a circular de Laval jet nozzle successfully reveals flow and shock structures typically associated with supersonic jet flows, which serve as useful data for subsequent validation of the optical flow based experimental results. For experimental technique, a Z-type Schlieren setup is proposed with supersonic jet operated in cold mode, stagnation pressure of 4 bar and exit Mach of 1.5. High-speed singleframe or double-frame cameras are used to capture successive Schlieren images. As implementation of optical flow technique to supersonic flows remains rare, the current focus revolves around methodology validation through synthetic images. The results of validation test offers valuable insight into how the optical flow algorithm can be further improved to improve robustness and accuracy. Despite these challenges however, this supersonic flow measurement technique may potentially offer a simpler way to identify and quantify the fine spatial structures within the shock shear layer.

Keywords: Schlieren, optical flow, supersonic jets, shock shear layer.

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14 Thrust Vectoring Control of Supersonic Flow Through an Orifice Injector

Authors: Ibrahim Mnafeg, Azgal Abichou, Lotfi Beji

Abstract:

Traditional mechanical control systems in thrust vectoring are efficient in rocket thrust guidance but their costs and their weights are excessive. The fluidic injection in the nozzle divergent constitutes an alternative procedure to achieve the goal. In this paper, we present a 3D analytical model for fluidic injection in a supersonic nozzle integrating an orifice. The fluidic vectoring uses a sonic secondary injection in the divergent. As a result, the flow and interaction between the main and secondary jet has built in order to express the pressure fields from which the forces and thrust vectoring are deduced. Under various separation criteria, the present analytical model results are compared with the existing numerical and experimental data from the literature.

Keywords: Flow separation, Fluidic thrust vectoring, Nozzle, Secondary jet, Shock wave.

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13 Calculation Analysis of an Axial Compressor Supersonic Stage Impeller

Authors: Y. B. Galerkin, E. Y. Popova, K. V. Soldatova

Abstract:

There is an evident trend to elevate pressure ratio of a single stage of a turbo compressors - axial compressors in particular. Whilst there was an opinion recently that a pressure ratio 1,9 was a reasonable limit, later appeared information on successful modeling tested of stages with pressure ratio up to 2,8. The authors recon that lack of information on high pressure stages makes actual a study of rational choice of design parameters before high supersonic flow problems solving. The computer program of an engineering type was developed. Below is presented a sample of its application to study possible parameters of the impeller of the stage with pressure ratio 3,0. Influence of two main design parameters on expected efficiency, periphery blade speed and flow structure is demonstrated. The results had lead to choose a variant for further analysis and improvement by CFD methods.

Keywords: Supersonic stage, impeller, efficiency, flow rate coefficient, work coefficient, loss coefficient, oblique shock, direct shock.

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12 Aerodynamic Designing of Supersonic Centrifugal Compressor Stages

Authors: Y. Galerkin, A. Rekstin, K. Soldatova

Abstract:

Universal modeling method well proven for industrial compressors was applied for design of the high flow rate supersonic stage. Results were checked by ANSYS CFX and NUMECA Fine Turbo calculations. The impeller appeared to be very effective at transonic flow velocities. Stator elements efficiency is acceptable at design Mach numbers too. Their loss coefficient versus inlet flow angle performances correlates well with Universal modeling prediction. The impeller demonstrates ability of satisfactory operation at design flow rate. Supersonic flow behavior in the impeller inducer at the shroud blade to blade surface Φ des deserves additional study.

Keywords: Centrifugal compressor stage, supersonic impeller, inlet flow angle, loss coefficient, return channel, shock wave, vane diffuser.

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11 Effect of Mesh Size on the Supersonic Viscous Flow Parameters around an Axisymmetric Blunt Body

Authors: Rabah Haoui

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to analyze a viscous flow around the axisymmetric blunt body taken into account the mesh size both in the free stream and into the boundary layer. The resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations is realized by using the finite volume method to determine the flow parameters and detached shock position. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. Here, adequate time stepping parameter, CFL coefficient and mesh size level are selected to ensure numerical convergence. The effect of the mesh size is significant on the shear stress and velocity profile. The best solution is obtained with using a very fine grid. This study enabled us to confirm that the determination of boundary layer thickness can be obtained only if the size of the mesh is lower than a certain value limits given by our calculations.

Keywords: Supersonic flow, viscous flow, finite volume, blunt body.

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10 Nitrogen Effects on Ignition Delay Time in Supersonic Premixed and Diffusion Flames

Authors: A. M. Tahsini

Abstract:

Computational study of two dimensional supersonic reacting hydrogen-air flows is performed to investigate the nitrogen effects on ignition delay time for premixed and diffusion flames. Chemical reaction is treated using detail kinetics and the advection upstream splitting method is used to calculate the numerical inviscid fluxes. The results show that just in stoichiometric condition for both premixed and diffusion flames, there is monotone dependency of the ignition delay time to the nitrogen addition. In other situations, the optimal condition from ignition viewpoint should be found using numerical investigations.

Keywords: Diffusion flame, Ignition delay time, Mixing layer, Numerical simulation, Premixed flame, Supersonic flow.

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9 Design of the Propelling Nozzles for the Launchers and Satellites

Authors: R. Haoui

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to determine the supersonic nozzle profiles used in propulsion, for the launchers or embarked with the satellites. This design has as a role firstly, to give a important propulsion, i.e. with uniform and parallel flow at exit, secondly to find a short length profiles without modification of the flow in the nozzle. The first elaborate program is used to determine the profile of divergent by using the characteristics method for an axisymmetric flow. The second program is conceived by using the finite volume method to determine and test the profile found connected to a convergent.

Keywords: Characteristic method, nozzles, supersonic flow, propellers.

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8 Computational and Experimental Investigation of Supersonic Flow and their Controls

Authors: Vasana M. Don, Eldad J. Avital, Fariborz Motallebi

Abstract:

Supersonic open and closed cavity flows are investigated experimentally and computationally. Free stream Mach number of two is set. Schlieren imaging is used to visualise the flow behaviour showing stark differences between open and closed. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate open cavity of flow with aspect ratio of 4. A rear wall treatment is implemented in order to pursue a simple passive control approach. Good qualitative agreement is achieved between the experimental flow visualisation and the CFD in terms of the expansion-shock waves system. The cavity oscillations are shown to be dominated by the first and third Rossister modes combining to high fluctuations of non-linear nature above the cavity rear edge. A simple rear wall treatment in terms of a hole shows mixed effect on the flow oscillations, RMS contours, and time history density fluctuations are given and analysed.

Keywords: Supersonic, Schlieren, open-cavity, flow simulation, passive control.

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7 Ignition Time Delay in Swirling Supersonic Flow Combustion

Authors: A. M. Tahsini

Abstract:

Supersonic hydrogen-air cylindrical mixing layer is numerically analyzed to investigate the effect of inlet swirl on ignition time delay in scramjets. Combustion is treated using detail chemical kinetics. One-equation turbulence model of Spalart and Allmaras is chosen to study the problem and advection upstream splitting method is used as computational scheme. The results show that swirling both fuel and oxidizer streams may drastically decrease the ignition distance in supersonic combustion, unlike using the swirl just in fuel stream which has no helpful effect.

Keywords: Ignition delay, Supersonic combustion, Swirl, Numerical simulation, Turbulence.

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6 Incident Shock Wave Interaction with an Axisymmetric Cone Body Placed in Shock Tube

Authors: Rabah Haoui

Abstract:

This work presents a numerical simulation of the interaction of an incident shock wave propagates from the left to the right with a cone placed in a tube at shock. The Mathematical model is based on a non stationary, viscous and axisymmetric flow. The Discretization of the Navier-stokes equations is carried out by the finite volume method in the integral form along with the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. Here, adequate combination of time stepping parameter, CFL coefficient and mesh size level is selected to ensure numerical convergence. The numerical simulation considers a shock tube filled with air. The incident shock wave propagates to the right with a determined Mach number and crosses the cone by leaving behind it a stationary detached shock wave in front of the nose cone. This type of interaction is observed according to the time of flow.

Keywords: Supersonic flow, viscous flow, finite volume, cone body

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5 Non-reflection Boundary Conditions for Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Flow

Authors: A. Abdalla, A. Kaltayev

Abstract:

This article presents the boundary conditions for the problem of turbulent supersonic gas flow in a plane channel with a perpendicular injection jets. The non-reflection boundary conditions for direct modeling of compressible viscous gases are studied. A formulation using the NSCBC (Navier- Stocks characteristic boundary conditions) through boundaries is derived for the subsonic inflow and subsonic non-reflection outflow situations. Verification of the constructed algorithm of boundary conditions is carried out by solving a test problem of perpendicular sound of jets injection into a supersonic gas flow in a plane channel.

Keywords: WENO scheme, non-reflection boundary conditions, NSCBC, supersonic flow.

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4 Effect of Mesh Size on the Viscous Flow Parameters of an Axisymmetric Nozzle

Authors: Rabah Haoui

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to analyze a viscous flow in the axisymmetric nozzle taken into account the mesh size both in the free stream and into the boundary layer. The resolution of the Navier- Stokes equations is realized by using the finite volume method to determine the supersonic flow parameters at the exit of convergingdiverging nozzle. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. Here, adequate time stepping parameter, along with CFL coefficient and mesh size level is selected to ensure numerical convergence. The effect of the boundary layer thickness is significant at the exit of the nozzle. The best solution is obtained with using a very fine grid, especially near the wall, where we have a strong variation of velocity, temperature and shear stress. This study enabled us to confirm that the determination of boundary layer thickness can be obtained only if the size of the mesh is lower than a certain value limits given by our calculations.

Keywords: Supersonic flow, viscous flow, finite volume, nozzle

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3 Verification of K-ω SST Turbulence Model for Supersonic Internal Flows

Authors: J. Kolář, V. Dvořák

Abstract:

In this work, we try to find the best setting of Computational Fluid Dynamic solver available for the problems in the field of supersonic internal flows. We used the supersonic air-toair ejector to represent the typical problem in focus. There are multiple oblique shock waves, shear layers, boundary layers and normal shock interacting in the supersonic ejector making this device typical in field of supersonic inner flows. Modeling of shocks in general is demanding on the physical model of fluid, because ordinary conservation equation does not conform to real conditions in the near-shock region as found in many works. From these reasons, we decided to take special care about solver setting in this article by means of experimental approach of color Schlieren pictures and pneumatic measurement. Fast pressure transducers were used to measure unsteady static pressure in regimes with normal shock in mixing chamber. Physical behavior of ejector in several regimes is discussed. Best choice of eddy-viscosity setting is discussed on the theoretical base. The final verification of the k-ω SST is done on the base of comparison between experiment and numerical results.

Keywords: CFD simulations, color Schlieren, k-ω SST, supersonic flows, shock waves.

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2 Physico-chemical State of the Air at the Stagnation Point during the Atmospheric Reentry of a Spacecraft

Authors: Rabah Haoui

Abstract:

Hypersonic flows around spatial vehicles during their reentry phase in planetary atmospheres are characterized by intense aerothermal phenomena. The aim of this work is to analyze high temperature flows around an axisymmetric blunt body taking into account chemical and vibrational non-equilibrium for air mixture species. For this purpose, a finite volume methodology is employed to determine the supersonic flow parameters around the axisymmetric blunt body, especially at the stagnation point and along the wall of spacecraft for several altitudes. This allows the capture shock wave before a blunt body placed in supersonic free stream. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. Here, adequate time stepping parameter, along with CFL coefficient and mesh size level are selected to ensure numerical convergence, sought with an order of 10-8

Keywords: Chemical kinetic, dissociation, finite volumes, frozen, hypersonic flow, non-equilibrium, Reactive flow, supersonicflow , vibration.

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1 A CFD Study of Sensitive Parameters Effect on the Combustion in a High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel Thermal Spray Gun

Authors: S. Hossainpour, A. R. Binesh

Abstract:

High-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying uses a combustion process to heat the gas flow and coating material. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to predict gas dynamic behavior in a HVOF thermal spray gun in which premixed oxygen and propane are burnt in a combustion chamber linked to a parallel-sided nozzle. The CFD analysis is applied to investigate axisymmetric, steady-state, turbulent, compressible, chemically reacting, subsonic and supersonic flow inside and outside the gun. The gas velocity, temperature, pressure and Mach number distributions are presented for various locations inside and outside the gun. The calculated results show that the most sensitive parameters affecting the process are fuel-to-oxygen gas ratio and total gas flow rate. Gas dynamic behavior along the centerline of the gun depends on both total gas flow rate and fuel-to-oxygen gas ratio. The numerical simulations show that the axial gas velocity and Mach number distribution depend on both flow rate and ratio; the highest velocity is achieved at the higher flow rate and most fuel-rich ratio. In addition, the results reported in this paper illustrate that the numerical simulation can be one of the most powerful and beneficial tools for the HVOF system design, optimization and performance analysis.

Keywords: HVOF, CFD, gas dynamics, thermal spray, combustion.

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