Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: subsidence

13 Simplified Empirical Method for Predicting Liquefaction Potential and Its Application to Kaohsiung Areas in Taiwan

Authors: Darn H. Hsiao, Zhu-Yun Zheng

Abstract:

Since Taiwan is located between the Eurasian and Filipino plates and earthquakes often thus occur. The coastal plains in western Taiwan are alluvial plains, and the soils of the alluvium are mostly from the Lao-Shan belt in the central mountainous area of ​​southern Taiwan. It could come mostly from sand/shale and slate. The previous investigation found that the soils in the Kaohsiung area of ​​southern Taiwan are mainly composed of slate, shale, quartz, low-plastic clay, silt, silty sand and so on. It can also be found from the past earthquakes that the soil in Kaohsiung is highly susceptible to soil subsidence due to liquefaction. Insufficient bearing capacity of building will cause soil liquefaction disasters. In this study, the boring drilling data from nine districts among the Love River Basin in the city center, and some factors affecting liquefaction include the content of fines (FC), standard penetration test N value (SPT N), the thickness of clay layer near ground-surface, and the thickness of possible liquefied soil were further discussed for liquefaction potential as well as groundwater level. The results show that the liquefaction potential is higher in the areas near the riverside, the backfill area, and the west area of ​​the study area. This paper also uses the old paleo-geological map, soil particle distribution curve, compared with LPI map calculated from the analysis results. After all the parameters finally were studied for five sub zones in the Love River Basin by maximum-minimum method, it is found that both of standard penetration test N value and the thickness of the clay layer will be most influential.

Keywords: Liquefaction, western Taiwan, liquefaction potential map, factors influence high liquefaction potential areas, LPI analysis.

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12 Using Micropiles to Improve the Anzali's Saturated Loose Silty Sand

Authors: S. A. Naeini, M. Hamidzadeh

Abstract:

Today, with the daily advancement of geotechnical engineering on soil improvement and modification of the physical properties and shear strength of soil, it is now possible to construct structures with high-volume and high service load on loose sandy soils. One of such methods is using micropiles, which are mostly used to control asymmetrical subsidence, increase bearing capacity, and prevent soil liquefaction. This study examined the improvement of Anzali's saturated loose silty sand using 192 micropiles with a length of 8 meters and diameter of 75 mm. Bandar-e Anzali is one of Iran's coastal populated cities which are located in a high-seismicity region. The effects of the insertion of micropiles on prevention of liquefaction and improvement of subsidence were examined through comparison of the results of Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Plate Load Test (PLT) before and after implementation of the micropiles. The results show that the SPT values and the ultimate bearing capacity of silty sand increased after the implementation of the micropiles. Therefore, the installation of micropiles increases the strength of silty sand improving the resistance of soil against liquefaction.

Keywords: Soil improvement, silty sand, micropiles, SPT, PLT, strength.

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11 Comparison of Different Techniques to Estimate Surface Soil Moisture

Authors: S. Farid F. Mojtahedi, Ali Khosravi, Behnaz Naeimian, S. Adel A. Hosseini

Abstract:

Land subsidence is a gradual settling or sudden sinking of the land surface from changes that take place underground. There are different causes of land subsidence; most notably, ground-water overdraft and severe weather conditions. Subsidence of the land surface due to ground water overdraft is caused by an increase in the intergranular pressure in unconsolidated aquifers, which results in a loss of buoyancy of solid particles in the zone dewatered by the falling water table and accordingly compaction of the aquifer. On the other hand, exploitation of underground water may result in significant changes in degree of saturation of soil layers above the water table, increasing the effective stress in these layers, and considerable soil settlements. This study focuses on estimation of soil moisture at surface using different methods. Specifically, different methods for the estimation of moisture content at the soil surface, as an important term to solve Richard’s equation and estimate soil moisture profile are presented, and their results are discussed through comparison with field measurements obtained from Yanco1 station in south-eastern Australia. Surface soil moisture is not easy to measure at the spatial scale of a catchment. Due to the heterogeneity of soil type, land use, and topography, surface soil moisture may change considerably in space and time.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, empirical method, remote sensing, surface soil moisture, unsaturated soil.

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10 Estimation of Relative Subsidence of Collapsible Soils Using Electromagnetic Measurements

Authors: Henok Hailemariam, Frank Wuttke

Abstract:

Collapsible soils are weak soils that appear to be stable in their natural state, normally dry condition, but rapidly deform under saturation (wetting), thus generating large and unexpected settlements which often yield disastrous consequences for structures unwittingly built on such deposits. In this study, a prediction model for the relative subsidence of stressed collapsible soils based on dielectric permittivity measurement is presented. Unlike most existing methods for soil subsidence prediction, this model does not require moisture content as an input parameter, thus providing the opportunity to obtain accurate estimation of the relative subsidence of collapsible soils using dielectric measurement only. The prediction model is developed based on an existing relative subsidence prediction model (which is dependent on soil moisture condition) and an advanced theoretical frequency and temperature-dependent electromagnetic mixing equation (which effectively removes the moisture content dependence of the original relative subsidence prediction model). For large scale sub-surface soil exploration purposes, the spatial sub-surface soil dielectric data over wide areas and high depths of weak (collapsible) soil deposits can be obtained using non-destructive high frequency electromagnetic (HF-EM) measurement techniques such as ground penetrating radar (GPR). For laboratory or small scale in-situ measurements, techniques such as an open-ended coaxial line with widely applicable time domain reflectometry (TDR) or vector network analysers (VNAs) are usually employed to obtain the soil dielectric data. By using soil dielectric data obtained from small or large scale non-destructive HF-EM investigations, the new model can effectively predict the relative subsidence of weak soils without the need to extract samples for moisture content measurement. Some of the resulting benefits are the preservation of the undisturbed nature of the soil as well as a reduction in the investigation costs and analysis time in the identification of weak (problematic) soils. The accuracy of prediction of the presented model is assessed by conducting relative subsidence tests on a collapsible soil at various initial soil conditions and a good match between the model prediction and experimental results is obtained.

Keywords: Collapsible soil, relative subsidence, dielectric permittivity, moisture content.

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9 Exploring the Physical Environment and Building Features in Earthquake Disaster Areas

Authors: Chang Hsueh-Sheng, Chen Tzu-Ling

Abstract:

Earthquake is an unpredictable natural disaster and intensive earthquakes have caused serious impacts on social-economic system, environmental and social resilience. Conventional ways to mitigate earthquake disaster are to enhance building codes and advance structural engineering measures. However, earthquake-induced ground damage such as liquefaction, land subsidence, landslide happen on places nearby earthquake prone or poor soil condition areas. Therefore, this study uses spatial statistical analysis to explore the spatial pattern of damaged buildings. Afterwards, principle components analysis (PCA) is applied to categorize the similar features in different kinds of clustered patterns. The results show that serious landslide prone area, close to fault, vegetated ground surface and mudslide prone area are common in those highly damaged buildings. In addition, the oldest building might not be directly referred to the most vulnerable one. In fact, it seems that buildings built between 1974 and 1989 become more fragile during the earthquake. The incorporation of both spatial statistical analyses and PCA can provide more accurate information to subsidize retrofit programs to enhance earthquake resistance in particular areas.

Keywords: Earthquake disaster, spatial statistical analysis, principle components analysis, clustered patterns.

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8 Satellite Interferometric Investigations of Subsidence Events Associated with Groundwater Extraction in Sao Paulo, Brazil

Authors: B. Mendonça, D. Sandwell

Abstract:

The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP) has suffered from serious water scarcity. Consequently, the most convenient solution has been building wells to extract groundwater from local aquifers. However, it requires constant vigilance to prevent over extraction and future events that can pose serious threat to the population, such as subsidence. Radar imaging techniques (InSAR) have allowed continuous investigation of such phenomena. The analysis of data in the present study consists of 23 SAR images dated from October 2007 to March 2011, obtained by the ALOS-1 spacecraft. Data processing was made with the software GMTSAR, by using the InSAR technique to create pairs of interferograms with ground displacement during different time spans. First results show a correlation between the location of 102 wells registered in 2009 and signals of ground displacement equal or lower than -90 millimeters (mm) in the region. The longest time span interferogram obtained dates from October 2007 to March 2010. As a result, from that interferogram, it was possible to detect the average velocity of displacement in millimeters per year (mm/y), and which areas strong signals have persisted in the MRSP. Four specific areas with signals of subsidence of 28 mm/y to 40 mm/y were chosen to investigate the phenomenon: Guarulhos (Sao Paulo International Airport), the Greater Sao Paulo, Itaquera and Sao Caetano do Sul. The coverage area of the signals was between 0.6 km and 1.65 km of length. All areas are located above a sedimentary type of aquifer. Itaquera and Sao Caetano do Sul showed signals varying from 28 mm/y to 32 mm/y. On the other hand, the places most likely to be suffering from stronger subsidence are the ones in the Greater Sao Paulo and Guarulhos, right beside the International Airport of Sao Paulo. The rate of displacement observed in both regions goes from 35 mm/y to 40 mm/y. Previous investigations of the water use at the International Airport highlight the risks of excessive water extraction that was being done through 9 deep wells. Therefore, it is affirmed that subsidence events are likely to occur and to cause serious damage in the area. This study could show a situation that has not been explored with proper importance in the city, given its social and economic consequences. Since the data were only available until 2011, the question that remains is if the situation still persists. It could be reaffirmed, however, a scenario of risk at the International Airport of Sao Paulo that needs further investigation.

Keywords: Ground subsidence, interferometric satellite aperture radar (InSAR), metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, water extraction.

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7 'Pink' Waxapple Response to Salinity: Growth and Nutrient Uptake

Authors: Shang-Han Tsai, Yong-Hong Lin, Chung-Ruey Yen

Abstract:

Waxapple (Syzygium samarngense Merr.et Perry) is an important tropical fruit in Taiwan. The famous producing area is located on the coast in Pingtung County. Land subsidence and climate change will tend to soil alkalization more seriously. This study was to evaluate the effects of NaCl in waxapple seedlings. NaCl salinity reduced waxapple shoot growth; it may due to reducing relative water content in leaf and new shoot. Leaf Cl and Na concentration were increased but K, Ca, and Mg content had no significant difference after irrigated with NaCl for six weeks. In roots, Na and Cl content increase significantly with 90 mM NaCl treatment, but K, Ca, and Mg content was reduced. 30-90mM Nacl treatment do not effect K/Na, Ca/Na and Mg/Na ratio, but decrease significantly in 90mM treatment in roots. The leaf and root electrolyte leakage were significantly affected by 90 mM NaCl treatment. Suggesting 90mM was optimum concentration for sieve out other tolerance waxapples verities.

Keywords: Growth, NaCl stress, Nutrient, Waxapple.

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6 Analysis of a TBM Tunneling Effect on Surface Subsidence: A Case Study from Tehran, Iran

Authors: A. R. Salimi, M. Esmaeili, B. Salehi

Abstract:

The development and extension of large cities induced a need for shallow tunnel in soft ground of building areas. Estimation of ground settlement caused by the tunnel excavation is important engineering point. In this paper, prediction of surface subsidence caused by tunneling in one section of seventh line of Tehran subway is considered. On the basis of studied geotechnical conditions of the region, tunnel with the length of 26.9km has been excavated applying a mechanized method using an EPB-TBM with a diameter of 9.14m. In this regard, settlement is estimated utilizing both analytical and numerical finite element method. The numerical method shows that the value of settlement in this section is 5cm. Besides, the analytical consequences (Bobet and Loganathan-Polous) are 5.29 and 12.36cm, respectively. According to results of this study, due tosaturation of this section, there are good agreement between Bobet and numerical methods. Therefore, tunneling processes in this section needs a special consolidation measurement and support system before the passage of tunnel boring machine.

Keywords: TBM, Subsidence, Numerical Method, Analytical Method.

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5 Numerical Modeling and Computer Simulation of Ground Movement above Underground Mine

Authors: A. Nuric, S. Nuric, L. Kricak, I. Lapandic, R. Husagic

Abstract:

This paper describes topic of computer simulation with regard to the ground movement above an underground mine. Simulation made with software package ADINA for nonlinear elastic-plastic analysis with finite elements method. The one of representative profiles from Mine 'Stara Jama' in Zenica has been investigated. A collection and selection of both geo-mechanical data and geometric parameters of the mine was necessary for performing these simulations. Results of estimation have been compared with measured values (vertical displacement of surface), and then simulation performed with assumed dynamic and dimensions of excavation, over a period of time. Results are presented with bitmaps and charts.

Keywords: Computer, finite element method, mine, nonlinear analysis, numerical modeling, simulation, subsidence.

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4 Effect of Ground Subsidence on Load Sharing and Settlement of Raft and Piled Raft Foundations

Authors: T.V. Tran, S. Teramoto, M. Kimura, T. Boonyatee, Le Ba Vinh

Abstract:

In this paper, two centrifugal model tests (case 1: raft foundation, case 2: 2x2 piled raft foundation) were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of ground subsidence on load sharing among piles and raft and settlement of raft and piled raft foundations. For each case, two conditions consisting of undrained (without groundwater pumping) and drained (with groundwater pumping) conditions were considered. Vertical loads were applied to the models after the foundations were completely consolidated by selfweight at 50g. The results show that load sharing by the piles in piled raft foundation (piled load share) for drained condition decreases faster than that for undrained condition. Settlement of both raft and piled raft foundations for drained condition increases more quickly than that for undrained condition. In addition, the settlement of raft foundation increases more largely than the settlement of piled raft foundation for drained condition.

Keywords: Ground subsidence, Piled raft, Load sharing, Centrifugal model test.

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3 Analysis of Road Repairs in Undermined Areas

Authors: Tomáš Seidler, Marek Mihola, Denisa Cihlarova

Abstract:

The article presents analysis results of maps of expected subsidence in undermined areas for road repair management. The analysis was done in the area of Karvina district in the Czech Republic, including undermined areas with ongoing deep mining activities or finished deep mining in years 2003 - 2009. The article discusses the possibilities of local road maintenance authorities to determine areas that will need most repairs in the future with limited data available. Using the expected subsidence maps new map of surface curvature was calculated. Combined with road maps and historical data about repairs the result came for five main categories of undermined areas, proving very simple tool for management.

Keywords: GIS, Map of Subsidence, Road, Undermined Area

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2 Land Subsidence and Fissuring Due to Ground Water Withdrawal in Yazd-Ardakan Basin, Central Iran

Authors: Eslamizadeh, Azat., Samanirad, Shahram

Abstract:

The Yazd-Ardakan basin in Central Iran has two separated aquifers. The shallow unconfined aquifer is supplies 40 Qanats. The deep saturated confined aquifer is the main water storage. Due to over-withdrawal, water table has been decreasing during last 25 years. Recent study shows that the shortage of the aquifer is about 16 meters and land subsidence is 0.5 - 1.2 meters. Long deep cracks are found just above the aquifer and devour the irrigation water and floods. Although the most cracks direction is NW-SE and could be compared to the main direction of YA basin, there is no direct evidence for relation between land subsidence and the huge cracks. Large-scale water pumping has been decreased the water pressure in aquifer. The pressure decline disturbed the balance and increased the pressure of overlying sediments. So porosity decreased and compaction started. Then, sediments compaction developed and made land subsidence and some huge cracks slowly.

Keywords: Land subsidence, Iran, Yazd, aquifer

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1 An Assessment of Groundwater Crisis in Iran Case Study: Fars Province

Authors: Mohammad Hossein Hojjati , Fardin Boustani

Abstract:

Groundwater is one of the most important water resources in Fars province. Based on this study, 95 percent of the total annual water consumption in Fars is used for agriculture, whereas the percentages for domestic and industrial uses are 4 and 1 percent, respectively. Population growth, urban and industrial growth, and agricultural development in Fars have created a condition of water stress. In this province, farmers and other users are pumping groundwater faster than its natural replenishment rate, causing a continuous drop in groundwater tables and depletion of this resource. In this research variation of groundwater level , their effects and ways to help control groundwater levels in some plains of Fars were evaluated .Excessive exploitation of groundwater in Darab, Jahrom, Estahban, Arsanjan, Khir and Niriz plains of Fars caused the groundwater levels fall too fast or to unacceptable levels. The average drawdown of the water table in Arsanjan, Khir. Estahban and Niriz plain plains were 12,8, 9 and 6 meters during 16,11,11 and 13 years ago respectively. This not only reduces available water resources and well yields but also can saline water intrusion, reductions in river flow and in wetland areas , drying springs, and ground subsidence, considerable increase in pumping costs and a significant decline in crop yields as a result of the increasing salinity. Finally based on situation and condition of the aquifer some suggestions are recommended.

Keywords: Fars province , ground water overdraft , water table

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